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Willow (film)

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Willow
Willow movie.jpg
Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Directed byRon Howard
Produced byNigel Wooll
Screenplay byBob Dolman
Story byGeorge Lucas
Starring
Music byJames Horner
CinematographyAdrian Biddle
Edited byDaniel P. Hanley
Mike Hill
Richard Hiscott
Production
companies
Distributed byMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer[N 1]
Release date
  • May 20, 1988 (1988-05-20)
Running time
126 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States[2]
LanguageEnglish
Budget$35 million[3]
Box office$137.6 million

Willow is a 1988 American dark fantasy drama film directed by Ron Howard. It was produced by George Lucas and written by Bob Dolman from a story by Lucas. It stars Warwick Davis, Val Kilmer, Joanne Whalley, Jean Marsh, and Billy Barty. Davis plays Willow, a reluctant farmer who plays a critical role in protecting a baby from a tyrannical queen who vows to destroy her and take over the world.

Lucas conceived the idea for the film in 1972, approaching Howard to direct during the post-production phase of Cocoon in 1985. Bob Dolman was brought in to write the screenplay, coming up with seven drafts before finishing in late 1986. It was then set up at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and principal photography began in April 1987, finishing the following October. The majority of filming took place in Dinorwic quarry in Wales with some at Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, as well as a small section in New Zealand. Industrial Light & Magic created the visual effects sequences, which led to a revolutionary breakthrough with digital morphing technology.

The film was released in 1988 to mixed reviews from critics. It grossed $137.6 million worldwide against a $35 million budget. While not the blockbuster some expected, it turned a profit based on international box office returns and strong home video and television returns. Additionally, it received two Academy Award nominations.

A television series based on the film is in development, scheduled to be released on Disney+ in 2022.

Plot[edit]

To prevent the fulfillment of a prophecy that a Daikini (human) child with a special rune birthmark will bring about her downfall, the evil sorceress Queen Bavmorda of Nockmaar imprisons all pregnant Daikini women in her domain. The foretold child is born, but her mother convinces the midwife to smuggle the baby out of the castle. Bavmorda executes the mother and sends her wolf-like Nockmaar hounds after the midwife. The midwife sets the baby adrift on a grass raft before she is killed by the dogs, and Bavmorda sends her daughter Sorsha and an army, led by General Kael, to hunt down the baby.

Some distance downriver, a village of Nelwyn (little people) prepares for a festival. The baby is found by the children of farmer and aspiring sorcerer Willow Ufgood, and his family takes her in and comes to love her. At the festival, Willow fails to become the apprentice to the High Aldwin, his people's leader and sorcerer. Suddenly, a Nockmaar hound arrives and attacks all the cradles it finds. After the Nelwyn warriors kill it, Willow presents the baby to the High Aldwin, as the probable reason for the dog's appearance. The High Aldwin orders the baby must return to a Daikini family, so Willow and a party of volunteers set out to find one.

At a crossroads, they find Madmartigan, a mercenary trapped in a crow's cage, who offers to take the baby in exchange for his freedom. The majority of the Nelwyn think that they should give the baby to him, but Willow and his friend Meegoch refuse, causing the others to abandon them and go home. After meeting Madmartigan's old comrade Airk, on his way with an army to attack Bavmorda, Willow relents and agrees to Madmartigan's terms.

On the way home, Willow and Meegoch discover that some brownies have stolen the baby, and pursue them. They are captured by the brownies, but Fairy Queen Cherlindrea frees them and explains the baby is Elora Danan, the foretold Princess of Tir Asleen. She gives Willow a magic wand and sends him to find Fin Raziel, an aging enchantress.

Willow sends Meegoch home, and continues the journey in the company of two brownies. On the way, he re-encounters Madmartigan, who is hiding from his mistress's husband Llug. Sorsha and Kael's army arrives, but Madmartigan reveals himself to Llug, who starts a brawl which helps Willow and Madmartigan escape with the baby.

Madmartigan reluctantly leads Willow to the lake where Raziel lives. They are captured soon thereafter, along with Raziel, who had been turned into a brushtail possum by Bavmorda. Willow tries to restore her, but he turns her into a rook.

The brownies accidentally dose Madmartigan with Love Potion. He declares undying love for Sorsha, but she is skeptical. Willow's party flees, finding Airk and the remnants of his army after Bavmorda defeated them. When the Nockmaar army pursues, Madmartigan takes Sorsha hostage, and they flee once more. However, Sorsha manages to escape.

Willow's party arrives at Tir Asleen, only to find it enchanted and overrun with trolls. Kael's army arrives, and Madmartigan and Willow attempt to fend them off. Sorsha, realizing she has fallen in love with Madmartigan, defects to his side. Willow accidentally turns a troll into an Eborsisk monster with the wand, and in the chaos that ensues, Kael captures Elora and takes her to Bavmorda. Bavmorda orders preparation of a ritual to banish Elora from the world forever.

Airk's army arrives and Willow's party joins them, but Bavmorda casts a spell to turn them all to pigs. Willow uses the wand to protect himself before finally restoring Raziel to her humanoid form. She breaks Bavmorda's spell over the army, and they trick their way into the castle. Kael slays Airk, but Madmartigan avenges him, and Willow, Sorsha, and Raziel confront Bavmorda in the ritual chamber. After a grueling fight, Bavmorda incapacitates Raziel and Sorsha. Willow uses sleight-of-hand to trick Bavmorda into thinking he has teleported Elora away. Bavmorda attacks him, but accidentally spills some of the ritual blood, banishing herself from the world forever.

Willow is gifted a spellbook by Raziel. Madmartigan and Sorsha adopt Elora and go to live with her in the restored Tir Asleen. Willow returns home to his village and family in triumph, performing a magical trick that impresses the High Aldwin.

Cast[edit]

  • Warwick Davis as Willow Ufgood, a Nelwyn dwarf and aspiring sorcerer who plays a critical role in protecting infant Elora Danan from the evil queen Bavmorda.
  • Val Kilmer as Madmartigan, a boastful immured mercenary swordsman who helps Willow on his quest.
  • Kate and Ruth Greenfield/Rebecca Bearman as Elora Danan, an infant princess that prophecy says will bring about Queen Bavmorda's downfall.
  • Joanne Whalley as Sorsha, Bavmorda's warrior daughter who turns against her mother when she falls in love with Madmartigan.
  • Jean Marsh as Queen Bavmorda, the villainous ruler of Nockmaar, a powerful black sorceress and mother of Sorsha.
  • Patricia Hayes as Fin Raziel, the aging sorceress who is turned into a brush tailed possum due to a curse from Bavmorda.
  • Billy Barty as The High Aldwin, the Nelwyn wizard who commissions Willow to go on his journey, realizing the potential that Willow possesses in magic.
  • Pat Roach as General Kael, the villainous associate to Queen Bavmorda and high commander of her army.
  • Gavan O'Herlihy as Airk Thaughbaer, the military commander of the destroyed kingdom of Galladoorn who shares a mixed friendship with Madmartigan.
  • Maria Holvöe as Cherlindrea, the fairy queen who resides in the forest and updates Willow on the importance of his quest.
  • Kevin Pollak and Rick Overton as Rool and Franjean, a brownie duo who also serve as comic relief in Willow's journey.
  • David J. Steinberg as Meegosh, Willow's closest friend who accompanies Willow partway on his journey.
  • Mark Northover as Burglekutt, the leader of the Nelwyn village council who maintains a running enmity with Willow.
  • Phil Fondacaro as Vohnkar, a Nelwyn warrior who also accompanies Willow partway on his journey.
  • Julie Peters as Kaiya Ufgood, Willow's wife; a loving mother and enthusiastic in caring for Elora.
  • Malcolm Dixon as a Nelwyn warrior.
  • Tony Cox as a Nelwyn warrior.
  • Zulema Dene as Ethna, the midwife.
  • Sallyanne Law as Elora Danan’s mother.

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

George Lucas conceived the idea for the film (originally titled Munchkins) in 1972. Similar in intent to Star Wars, he created "a number of well-known mythological situations for a young audience".[4][5] During the production of Return of the Jedi in 1982, Lucas approached Warwick Davis, who was portraying Wicket the Ewok, about playing Willow Ufgood. Five years passed before he was actually cast in the role. Lucas "thought it would be great to use a little person in a lead role. A lot of my movies are about a little guy against the system, and this was just a more literal interpretation of that idea."[4]

Lucas explained that he had to wait until the mid-1980s to make the film because visual effects technology was finally advanced enough to execute his vision.[5] Meanwhile, actor-turned-director Ron Howard was looking to do a fantasy film. He was at Industrial Light & Magic during the post-production phase of Cocoon, when he was first approached by Lucas to direct Willow. He had previously starred in Lucas's American Graffiti,[6] and Lucas felt that he and Howard shared a symbiotic relationship similar to the one he enjoyed with Steven Spielberg. Howard nominated Bob Dolman to write the screenplay based on Lucas's story. Dolman had worked with him on a 1983 television pilot called Little Shots that had not resulted in a series, and Lucas admired Dolman's work on the sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati.[7]

Dolman joined Howard and Lucas at Skywalker Ranch for a series of lengthy story conferences, and wrote seven drafts of his script between the spring and fall of 1986.[7] Pre-production began in late 1986. Various major film studios turned down the chance to distribute and co-finance it with Lucasfilm because they believed the fantasy genre was unsuccessful. This was largely due to films such as Krull, Legend, Dragonslayer, and Labyrinth.[8] Lucas took it to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), which was headed by Alan Ladd Jr. Ladd and Lucas shared a relationship as far back as the mid-1970s, when Ladd, running 20th Century Fox, greenlighted Lucas's idea for Star Wars.[9] However, in 1986, MGM was facing financial troubles, and major investment in a fantasy film was perceived as a risk. Ladd advanced half the $35 million budget for it in return for theatrical and television rights, leaving Lucasfilm with home video and pay television rights to offer in exchange for the other half.[9] RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video paid $15 million to Lucas in exchange for the video rights.[10]

Lucas based the character of General Kael (Pat Roach) on the film critic Pauline Kael,[11] a fact that was not lost on Kael in her printed review of the film. She referred to General Kael as an "homage a moi". Similarly, the two-headed dragon was called an "Eborsisk" after film critics Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert.[3]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography began on April 2, 1987, and ended the following October. Interior footage took place at Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England, while location shooting took place in Dinorwic quarry, Wales and New Zealand.[9] Lucas initially visualized shooting the film similar to Return of the Jedi, with studio scenes at Elstree and locations in Northern California, but the idea eventually faded. However, some exteriors were done around Skywalker Ranch and on location at Burney Falls, near Mount Shasta.[12] The Chinese government refused Lucas the chance for a brief location shoot. He then sent a group of photographers to South China to photograph specific scenery, which was then used for background blue screen footage. Tongariro National Park in New Zealand was chosen to house Bavmorda's castle.[12]

Some of the waterfalls scenes for the movie were shot at Burney Falls in Northern California, although Powerscourt Waterfall in Ireland was also used for other scenes.[13]

Visual effects[edit]

A little man in a hooded cloak with his back to the camera holds a lightening wand toward a two-legged animal that appears to be part goat and part ostrich.
Willow attempts to restore Fin Raziel to human form.

Lucasfilm's Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) created the visual effects sequences. The script called for Willow to restore Fin Raziel (Patricia Hayes) from a goat to her human form. Willow recites what he thinks is the appropriate spell, but turns the goat into an ostrich, a peacock, a tortoise and, finally, a tiger, before returning her to normal. ILM supervisor Dennis Muren considered using stop motion animation for the scene.[14] He also explained that another traditional and practical way in the late 1980s to execute this sequence would have been through the use of an optical dissolve with cutaways at various stages.[9]

Muren found both stop motion and optical effects to be too technically challenging and decided that the transformation scene would be a perfect opportunity for ILM to create advances with digital morphing technology. He proposed filming each animal, and the actress doubling for Hayes, and then feeding the images into a computer program developed by Doug Smythe.[9] The program would then create a smooth transition from one stage to another before outputting the result back onto film. Smythe began development of the necessary software in September 1987. By March 1988, Muren and fellow designer David Allen achieved what would represent a breakthrough for computer-generated imagery (CGI).[9] The techniques developed for the sequence were later utilized by ILM for Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country.[15]

The head of ILM's animation department, Wes Takahashi, supervised the film's animation sequences.[16]

Soundtrack[edit]

Willow
Soundtrack album by
Released1988
GenreFilm music
Length69:23
LabelVirgin
ProducerJames Horner, Shawn Murphy

The film score was written by James Horner and performed by the London Symphony Orchestra.[17]

"I am a musicologist, a doctor of music. Therefore I listened to, studied and analysed a lot of music. I also enjoy metaphors, the art of quoting and of cycles. The harmonic draft of the Willow score, and most particularly its spiritual side, came from such a cycle, from such mythology and music history that I was taught, and that I myself convey with my own emotions and compositions."[18]

Eclectic influences on the score include Leoš Janáček's Glagolitic Mass, Mozart's "Requiem", "The Nine Splendid Stags" from Béla Bartók, Edvard Grieg's "Arabian Dance" for the theater play Peer Gynt, and compositions by Sergei Prokofiev.[18]

"Willow's Theme" purposefully (see Horner's quote above) contains a reworking/alteration of part of the theme of the first movement ("Lebhaft") of Robert Schumann's Symphony No. 3 referencing it, while "Elora Danan's Theme" shows a reference to the Bulgarian folk song "Mir Stanke Le" (Мир Станке ле), also known as the "Harvest Song from Thrace".

Track listing[17]
  1. "Elora Danan" – 9:45
  2. "Escape from the Tavern" – 5:04
  3. "Willow's Journey Begins" – 5:26
  4. "Canyon of Mazes" – 7:52
  5. "Tir Asleen" – 10:47
  6. "Willow's Theme" – 3:54
  7. "Bavmorda's Spell is Cast" – 18:11
  8. "Willow the Sorcerer" – 11:55

Release[edit]

Before the film began, the film was accompanied with a THX trailer, called “Cimarron”, the original trailer was recalled after a few months, due to complaints of theater owners, complaining that it blew out speaker drivers, which then lead to the events of THX themselves creating a new quieter, more symphonic mix and more common of the said trailer, composed and conducted by the late James Horner. The common version was released in 1995, to promote the benefits of Dolby Digital sound and can also be seen on DVD and YouTube. The original mix was supposedly still used up until 1992, and some theater projectionists continued to use it after then based on their preference.

The original mix is a lost piece of media and snippets of it have been found on VHS recordings of certain programs, such as the FOX channel's special "Star Wars: The Magic and the Mystery" from 1997, which was about the then up-coming Star Wars special editions. A microcassette recording of most of the audio mix was also found, but that is of extremely poor sound quality. The actual original audio mix still has yet to be found, and it only survives in the hands of home projectionists.

Box office[edit]

The film was shown and promoted at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival.[19][20] It was released on May 20, 1988, in 1,209 theaters, earning $8,300,169 in its opening weekend, placing number one at the weekend box office. Lucas had hoped it would earn as much money as E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial,[20] but the film faced early competition with Crocodile Dundee II, Big and Rambo III.[21] Grossing $57.3 million at the box office in the United States and Canada[22] it was not the blockbuster hit insiders had anticipated.[23] The film opened in Japan in July and grossed $16.7 million in its first seven weeks, MGM's highest-grossing film in Japan at the time.[24] It performed well in other international markets, grossing $80.3 million[25][26] for a worldwide total of $137.6 million. Strong home video, and television sales added to its profits.[27]

Critical reception[edit]

The film was released to mixed reviews from critics.[20] As of December 2020, based on 55 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, it reported a "Rotten" 51% rating, with an average score of 5.9/10. The critical consensus reads, "State-of-the-art special effects and an appealing performance from Warwick Davis can't quite save Willow from its slow pace and generic story."[28]

Janet Maslin from The New York Times praised Lucas's storytelling, but was critical of Ron Howard's direction. "Howard appears to have had his hands full in simply harnessing the special effects," Maslin said.[29]

Siskel & Ebert gave it Two Thumbs Down.

Desson Thomson writing in The Washington Post, explained "Rob Reiner's similar fairytale adventure The Princess Bride (which the cinematographer Adrian Biddle also shot) managed to evoke volumes more without razzle-dazzle. It's a sad thing to be faulting Lucas, maker of the Star Wars trilogy and Raiders of the Lost Ark, for forgetting the tricks of entertainment."[30] Mike Clark in USA Today wrote that "the rainstorm wrap-up, in which Good edges Evil is like Led Zeppelin Meets The Wild Bunch. The film is probably too much for young children and possibly too much of the same for cynics. But any 6–13-year-old who sees this may be bitten by the ’movie bug’ for life."[9]

Accolades[edit]

At the Academy Awards, the film was nominated for Sound Effects Editing and Visual Effects, but lost both to Who Framed Roger Rabbit, which was similarly done by Industrial Light & Magic.[31] It won Best Costume Design at the Saturn Awards, where it was also nominated for Warwick Davis for Best Performance by a Younger Actor (lost to Fred Savage for Vice Versa) and Jean Marsh for Best Supporting Actress (lost to Sylvia Sidney for Beetlejuice). It also lost Best Fantasy Film[32] and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation to Who Framed Roger Rabbit.[33] It was also nominated for two Golden Raspberry Awards including Worst Screenplay, which lost to Cocktail and Worst Supporting Actor for Billy Barty, who lost to Dan Aykroyd for Caddyshack II.[34]

Home media[edit]

The film was first released on VHS, Betamax, Video 8, and LaserDisc on November 22, 1988 by RCA Columbia Pictures Home Video and had multiple re-releases on VHS in the 1990s under Columbia-TriStar Home Video as well as a Widescreen LaserDisc in 1995. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment re-released the film on VHS and on DVD for the first time as a "special edition" in November 2001. The release included an audio commentary by Warwick Davis and two "making of" featurettes. In the commentary, Davis confirms that there were a number of "lost scenes" previously rumored to have been deleted from it including a battle in the valley, Willow battling a boy who transforms into a shark in a lake while retrieving Fin Raziel, and an extended sorceress duel at the climax.[35] 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment released the film on Blu-ray Disc on March 12, 2013, with an all-new digital transfer overseen by Lucasfilm.[36] Following Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm, the film was re-released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on Blu-ray, DVD, and Digital (for the first time) on January 29, 2019, and was later made available to stream on Disney+ when the service launched on November 12, 2019.

Other media[edit]

Board game[edit]

In 1988, Tor Books released The Willow Game,[37] a two- to six-player adventure board game based on the film and designed by Greg Costikyan.

Video games[edit]

Three video games based on the film were released. Mindscape published an action game in 1988 for Amiga, Atari ST, Commodore 64, and DOS.[38] Japanese game developer Capcom published two different games in 1989 based on the film; the first Willow is a platform game for the arcades and the second Willow game is a role-playing game for the Nintendo Entertainment System.[39][40]

Novels[edit]

Wayland Drew adapted Lucas's story into a film novel,[41] providing additional background information to several major characters and various additional scenes, including an encounter with a lake monster near Razel's island which was filmed, but ultimately not used in the movie. A segment of that scene's filmed material can be found in the DVD's "Making of Willow" documentary.

Lucas outlined the Chronicles of the Shadow War trilogy to follow the film and hired comic book writer/novelist Chris Claremont to adapt them into a series of books. They take place about fifteen years after the original film and feature the teenage Elora Danan as a central character. Madmartigan and Sorsha are killed off almost immediately in the first book and play no further part in the series.

  1. Shadow Moon (1995) ISBN 0-553-57285-7
  2. Shadow Dawn (1996) ISBN 0-553-57289-X
  3. Shadow Star (2000) ISBN 0-553-57288-1

Television series[edit]

Beginning in 2005, Lucas and Davis discussed the possibility of a television series serving as a sequel to Willow.[42] Throughout the years, in various interviews, Davis expressed interest in reprising his role as the titular character.[43][44][45]

By May 2018, Howard confirmed that there were ongoing discussions regarding a sequel, while confirming the project would not be called Willow 2.[46] In 2019, Ron Howard announced that a sequel television series is currently in development, with intentions for the series to be exclusively released on the Disney+ streaming service. Jonathan Kasdan will write the television series, while Warwick Davis will reprise his role from the original film.[47][48][49]

In October 2020, the series was officially green-lit by Disney+, with Ron Howard set to executive produce the series alongside Kasdan, Wendy Mericle, and Jon M. Chu. Chu will direct the series first episode, with Kasdan and Mericle serving as showrunners, Warwick Davis reprising his role as Willow Ufgood, and Bob Dolman serving as a consulting producer.[50] In December 2020, it was announced the show would be released in 2022.[51] In January 2021, Chu left his directorial duties due to production moving towards the summer and it corresponding with birth of his next child.[52]

That same month, it was revealed that Jonathan Entwistle had officially been hired to replace Chu as director, with filming expected to commence in Spring 2021[53] in Wales.[54] According to Wales Online, the series "revisits the story of Willow Ufgood (Davis), a sorcerer, and also stars ... Ellie Bamber and ... Erin Kellyman".[55]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In January 2019, the film's distribution rights were transferred from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.

[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "WILLOW (PG)". British Board of Film Classification. November 17, 1988. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  2. ^ "Willow (1988)". American Film Institute. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  3. ^ a b Gray, Beverly. Ron Howard: from Mayberry to the moon-and beyond, page 134. Rutledge Hill Press, Nashville, Tennessee (2003). ISBN 1-55853-970-0.
  4. ^ a b Hearn, Marcus (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. p. 153. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
  5. ^ a b Harmetz, Aljean (May 21, 1987). "'Star Wars' Is 10, And Lucas Reflects". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  6. ^ Howard, Ron (2005). "Forward". The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
  7. ^ a b Hearn, p.154-155
  8. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (June 9, 1988). "A Pained Lucas Ponders Attacks on 'Willow'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Hearn, p.156-157
  10. ^ Wasko, Janet (June 26, 2013). Hollywood in the Information Age: Beyond the Silver Screen. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780745678337.
  11. ^ Van Gelder, Lawrence (September 4, 2001). "Pauline Kael, Provocative and Widely Imitated New Yorker Film Critic, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
  12. ^ a b Baxter, John (October 1999). Mythmaker: The Life and Work of George Lucas. New York City: Avon. pp. 365–366. ISBN 0-380-97833-4.
  13. ^ Where Was Willow Filmed: All Locations
  14. ^ Baxter, p.367
  15. ^ Failes, Ian (April 3, 2018). "Over 30 Years, WILLOW has Morphed into an Effects Classic". VFX Voice. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  16. ^ "Subject: Wes Ford Takahashi". Animators' Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  17. ^ a b Hobart, Tavia. "Willow [Original Score]". AllMusic. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
  18. ^ a b Martin, Jean-Baptiste (June 3, 2013). "Willow: Between Quotes". jameshorner-filmmusic.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  19. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Willow". festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  20. ^ a b c Baxter, p.372
  21. ^ "'Crocodile Dundee II' Top Film at Box Office". The New York Times. Associated Press. June 9, 1988. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  22. ^ "Willow". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  23. ^ Wasko, Janet. Hollywood in the information age: beyond the silver screen, page 198. Polity Press/Blackwell Publishers, UK (1994). ISBN 0-292-79093-7.
  24. ^ "'Willow' Top Grosser For MGM in Japan". Variety. October 5, 1988. p. 5.
  25. ^ "MGM/UA International had a record breaking year (advertisement)". Variety. August 9, 1989. pp. 30–31.
  26. ^ Groves, Don (August 9, 1989). "UIP Up, Up and Away For Year; Rentals Take Off". Variety. p. 11.
  27. ^ Maltby, Richard. Hollywood cinema: second edition, page 198. Blackwell Publishing, UK (1994). ISBN 0-631-21614-6.
  28. ^ "Willow". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  29. ^ Maslin, Janet (May 20, 1988). "'Willow,' a George Lucas Production". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  30. ^ Desson, Howe (May 20, 1988). "Willow". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  31. ^ "Willow". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved December 23, 2008.[permanent dead link]
  32. ^ "Past Saturn Awards". Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  33. ^ "1989 Hugo Awards". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on June 6, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  34. ^ "Ninth Annual RAZZIE Awards (for 1988)". Golden Raspberry Award Foundation. Archived from the original on May 30, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  35. ^ "Willow (Special Edition) (1988)". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  36. ^ Neuwirth, Aaron. "WILLOW Comes To Blu-ray For The First Time In March". Archived from the original on December 17, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  37. ^ "The Willow Game (1988)". BoardGameGeek. Archived from the original on July 7, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
  38. ^ "Willow for Amiga, Atari ST, Commodore 64, DOS". MobyGames. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  39. ^ "The Unconverted: Arcade Games that never made it Home". Retro Gamer. No. 123. Imagine Publishing. December 2013. p. 82.
  40. ^ "Sala de Maquinas". Superjuegos. No. 82. February 1999. p. 118.
  41. ^ Drew, Wayland, Bob Dolman, and George Lucas. Willow: A Novel. New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. ISBN 0345351959.
  42. ^ Vespe, Eric "Quint" (April 24, 2005). "CELEBRATION is had by many a STAR WARS geek! Lucas talks! Footage shown! Details here!". Ain't It Cool News. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  43. ^ "Warwick Davis talks Episode VIII 'cliffhanger'". NewsComAu. September 30, 2016.
  44. ^ Adler, Shawn (June 13, 2008). "Warwick Davis Enthusiastic About Possibility For 'Willow 2'". MTV News. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  45. ^ Larnick, Eric (March 12, 2013). "Warwick Davis, 'Willow' Star, on the 25th Anniversary, Sequel Plans, and George Lucas (EXCLUSIVE)". moviefone.com. Archived from the original on June 10, 2013.
  46. ^ "Exclusive: Ron Howard Confirms 'Willow' Sequel Discussions". Star Wars.
  47. ^ Josh Horowitz [@joshuahorowitz] (April 30, 2019). "DISNEY+ is developing a WILLOW series based on a pitch by @JonKasdan. It's a continuation and would feature @WarwickADavis. Straight from @RealRonHoward's mouth to a greenlight please!!! You in, @valkilmer?" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  48. ^ Butler, Mary Anne (May 1, 2019). "Ron Howard Confirms 'Willow' TV Series Talks for Disney+, with Warwick Davis". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  49. ^ Thorne, Will (May 1, 2019). "Ron Howard in Talks for 'Willow' Sequel Series at Disney+". Variety. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  50. ^ "'Willow' Series a Go at Disney+ | Hollywood Reporter". www.hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  51. ^ @StarWars (December 10, 2020). "Willow, an Original Series from Lucasfilm starring Warwick Davis, with pilot directed by @JonMChu, is coming in 2022 to @DisneyPlus" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  52. ^ "Jon M. Chu Steps Away From Directing Disney's Willow". TV Shows. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  53. ^ "'Willow': Disney+ Series Finds Its Director with 'I'm Not Okay With This' Co-Creator (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. January 29, 2021. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  54. ^ Willow Disney+ Series Gets I'm Not Okay with This Co-Creator to Direct
  55. ^ The huge Disney+, Sky and Netflix TV shows and films being filmed in Wales right now February 18, 2021

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