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Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory

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Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory
WillyWonkaMoviePoster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byMel Stuart
Screenplay byRoald Dahl[a]
Based onCharlie and the Chocolate Factory
by Roald Dahl
Produced by
Starring
CinematographyArthur Ibbetson
Edited byDavid Saxon
Music by
Production
companies
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release date
  • June 30, 1971 (1971-06-30)
Running time
100 minutes[1]
Countries
  • United States[2]
LanguageEnglish
Budget$3 million[3]
Box office$4.5 million[3][4]

Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory is a 1971 American musical fantasy film directed by Mel Stuart and starring Gene Wilder as Willy Wonka. It is an adaptation of the 1964 novel Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl. The film tells the story of a poor child named Charlie Bucket who, after finding a Golden Ticket in a chocolate bar, visits Willy Wonka's chocolate factory along with four other children from around the world.

Filming took place in Munich from August to November 1970. Dahl was credited with writing the film's screenplay; however, David Seltzer was brought in to do an uncredited rewrite. Against Dahl's wishes, changes were made to the story and other decisions made by the director led him to disown the film. The musical numbers were written by Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley while Walter Scharf arranged and conducted the orchestral score.

The film was released by Paramount Pictures on June 30, 1971. With a budget of just $3 million, the film received generally positive reviews and earned $4 million by the end of its original run. The film gained a cult following and became highly popular in part through repeated television airings and home entertainment sales.[5] In 1972, the film received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score, and Wilder was nominated for a Golden Globe as Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy, but both nominations lost to Fiddler on the Roof. The film also introduced the song "The Candy Man", which went on to become a popular hit when recorded by Sammy Davis Jr. and has since been covered by numerous artists.

In 2014, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[6][7]

Plot[edit]

Charlie Bucket, a poor paperboy on his way home from school, watches children visit a candy shop, then passes Willy Wonka's chocolate factory, where a mysterious tinker recites the first lines of William Allingham's poem "The Fairies" and tells Charlie "nobody ever goes in, and nobody ever comes out." Charlie rushes home to his widowed mother and bedridden grandparents. That night, Charlie tells his Grandpa Joe what the tinker said, and Joe reveals that Wonka had locked the factory up several years earlier because other candy makers, including his rival, Arthur Slugworth, were sending in spies to steal his recipes. Wonka shut down the factory, but resumed selling candy after three years. The gates remained locked and the original workers did not return to their jobs, leaving everyone wondering who had taken their old jobs.

Wonka then announces that he has hidden five Golden Tickets in chocolate Wonka Bars. Finders of the tickets will receive a factory tour and a lifetime supply of chocolate. The first four tickets are found by the gluttonous Augustus Gloop from West Germany, the spoiled Veruca Salt whose father has built up his wealth in the English nut business, the gum-chewing Violet Beauregarde from Montana, and the television-obsessed Mike Teevee from Arizona in the United States. As each winner is announced on television, a sinister-looking man then appears and whispers to them, and when Veruca Salt receives her ticket, he is on the scene within seconds in her father's factory, having been previously seen working there.

A subsequent news report reveals the fifth ticket was found in Paraguay by a millionaire casino owner, causing Charlie to lose hope. The next day, Charlie is on his way home from school when he finds money in a gutter and uses it to buy a Wonka Bar; with the change, he buys a regular Wonka Bar for Grandpa Joe. While walking home, Charlie overhears that the millionaire forged the fifth ticket. Charlie opens the Wonka Bar and finds the fifth ticket. Rushing home, he encounters the same man seen whispering to the other winners, who introduces himself as Slugworth and offers a reward for a sample of Wonka's latest creation, the Everlasting Gobstopper.

Returning home with the Golden Ticket, Charlie chooses Joe, who excitedly rises out of bed for the first time in twenty years, as his chaperone. The next day, Wonka greets the ticket winners at the front gates of the factory and leads them inside, where each signs a contract before the tour. The factory includes a candy land with a river of chocolate and other sweets. The visitors meet Wonka's labor force, dwarfish men known as Oompa-Loompas. Individual character flaws cause the other winners to give into temptation, resulting in their elimination from the tour while the Oompa-Loompas sing a song of morality after each. As the tour continues, Charlie and Joe enter the Fizzy Lifting Drinks Room and sample the beverages against Wonka's orders. They float and have a near-fatal encounter with the exhaust fan at the top of the room before their burping allows them to descend back to the ground.

At the end of the tour, Charlie and Joe, now the only two remaining guests, ask about what will become of the other kids, and Wonka assures them that they will be fine. Wonka then hastily retreats to his office without awarding them the promised lifetime supply of chocolate. Grandpa Joe and Charlie enter his office to ask about this, where Wonka angrily informs them that they have violated the contract when they drank the Fizzy Lifting Drinks, thereby forfeiting their prize. Joe denounces Wonka and suggests to Charlie that he should give Slugworth the Gobstopper in retaliation, but Charlie returns the candy to Wonka. All of a sudden, Wonka joyously declares Charlie the winner, and reveals that "Slugworth" is actually an employee of his, Mr. Wilkinson; the offer to buy the Gobstopper was a morality test for the ticket winners, and only Charlie passed. The trio enter the Wonkavator, a multi-directional glass elevator that flies out of the factory. During their flight, Wonka tells Charlie that he created the contest to find someone worthy enough to assume control of his factory, and when he retires, he will give it to Charlie and his family.

Cast[edit]

The main cast during filming in 1970. Back row (left to right): Michael Boellner (Augustus Gloop), Ursula Reit (Mrs. Gloop), Gene Wilder (Willy Wonka) Second row (left to right): Leonard Stone (Sam Beauregarde), Roy Kinnear (Henry Salt), Nora Denney (Mrs. Teavee), Jack Albertson (Grandpa Joe) Front row (left to right): Denise Nickerson (Violet Beauregarde), Julie Dawn Cole (Veruca Salt), Paris Themmen (Mike Teavee), Peter Ostrum (Charlie Bucket)

Oompa Loompas

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

The idea for adapting the book into a film came about when director Mel Stuart's ten-year-old daughter read the book and asked her father to make a film out of it, with "Uncle Dave" (producer David L. Wolper, who was not related to the Stuarts) producing it. Stuart showed the book to Wolper, who happened to be in the midst of talks with the Quaker Oats Company regarding a vehicle to introduce a new candy bar from its Chicago-based Breaker Confections subsidiary (since renamed the Willy Wonka Candy Company and sold to Nestlé). Wolper persuaded the company, which had no previous experience in the film industry, to buy the rights to the book and finance the picture for the purpose of promoting a new Quaker Oats Wonka Bar.[9]

Wolper and Roald Dahl agreed that Dahl himself would write the screenplay.[9] Though credited for the film, Dahl had not delivered a completed screenplay at the start of production and only gave an outline pointing to sections of the book.[10] Wolper called in David Seltzer for an uncredited rewrite after Dahl left due to creative differences.[11] Wolper promised to produce Seltzer's next film for his lack of a credit as they needed to maintain credibility by keeping Dahl's name attached to the production.[10] Also uncredited, were several short humorous scenes by screenwriter Robert Kaufman about the Golden Ticket hysteria.[12] Changes to the story included Wonka's character given more emphasis over Charlie; Slugworth, originally a minor character who was a Wonka industry rival in the book, was reworked into a spy so that the film could have a villain for intrigue; a belching scene was added with Grandpa and Charlie having "fizzy lifting drinks"; and the ending dialogue.[13]

Wolper decided with Stuart that the film would be a musical, and he also changed the title to Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory making the product placement have a more closer association with the Wonka Bar.[9] Seltzer created a recurring theme that had Wonka quote from various literary sources, such as Arthur O'Shaughnessy's Ode, Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.[14]

Gene Wilder wanted specific changes to Wonka's costume, including what type of trousers the character should wear, "the color and cut" of his jacket and the placement of pockets. Wilder's attention to detail also requested, "The hat is terrific, but making it 2 inches shorter would make it more special".[15][16]

Casting[edit]

All six members of Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Eric Idle, Terry Gilliam, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin) expressed interest in playing Wonka, but at the time they were deemed not big enough names for an international audience. Cleese, Idle, and Palin were later considered for the same role in Tim Burton's version.[17][18]

Before Wilder was officially cast for the role, producers considered Fred Astaire, Joel Grey, Ron Moody, and Jon Pertwee.[18][19] Spike Milligan was Roald Dahl's original choice to play Willy Wonka.[18] Peter Sellers reportedly begged Dahl for the role.[20]

When Wilder was cast as Wonka, he accepted the role on one condition:

When I make my first entrance, I'd like to come out of the door carrying a cane and then walk toward the crowd with a limp. After the crowd sees Willy Wonka is a cripple, they all whisper to themselves and then become deathly quiet. As I walk toward them, my cane sinks into one of the cobblestones I'm walking on and stands straight up, by itself; but I keep on walking, until I realize that I no longer have my cane. I start to fall forward, and just before I hit the ground, I do a beautiful forward somersault and bounce back up, to great applause.

— Gene Wilder[15]

The reason why Wilder wanted this in the film was that "from that time on, no one will know if I'm lying or telling the truth".[15]

Jean Stapleton turned down the role of Mrs. Teevee.[21][22] Jim Backus was considered for the role of Sam Beauregarde.[12] Sammy Davis Jr. wanted to play Bill, the candy store owner, but Stuart did not like the idea because he felt that the presence of a big star in the candy store scene would break the reality,[17] though Davis would make Bill's signature song, "The Candy Man", into his only number 1 hit, and it would spend three weeks at the top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart starting June 10, 1972, and two weeks at the top of the easy-listening chart.[23] Anthony Newley also wanted to play Bill, but Stuart also objected to this for the same reason.[12]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography commenced on August 31, 1970, and ended on November 19, 1970.[24] The primary shooting location was Munich, Bavaria, West Germany, because it was significantly cheaper than filming in the United States and the setting was conducive to Wonka's factory; Stuart also liked the ambiguity and unfamiliarity of the location. External shots of the factory were filmed at the gasworks of Stadtwerke München (Emmy-Noether-Straße 10); the entrance and side buildings still exist. The exterior of Charlie Bucket's house, a set constructed solely for the film, was filmed at Quellenstraße in Munich. Charlie's school was filmed at Katholisches Pfarramt St. Sylvester, Biedersteiner Straße 1 in Munich. Bill's Candy Shop was filmed at Lilienstraße, Munich. The closing sequence, in which the Wonkavator is flying above the factory, is footage of Nördlingen, Bavaria, and the elevator rising shot showing that it shoots out of the factory was from Bößeneckerstraße 4, 86720 Nördlingen, Germany, now the location of a CAP-Märkte.

Production designer Harper Goff centered the factory on the massive Chocolate Room. According to Paris Themmen, who played Mike Teevee, "The river was made of water with food coloring. At one point, they poured some cocoa powder into it to try to thicken it but it didn't really work. When asked [what the river was made of], Michael Böllner, who played Augustus Gloop, answers, 'It vas dirty, stinking vater.'"[25]

In addition to the main scenes set in town and at the factory, several comic interludes were also shot. Stuart lamented in his book Pure Imagination: The Making of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory, that his favorite scene was cut due to poor test screenings. In the scene, which took a lot of preparation and money to film, an English explorer climbs a holy mountain to ask a guru the meaning of life. The guru requests a Wonka Bar. Finding no golden ticket, he says, "Life is a disappointment." Stuart loved the scene, but few laughed. He invited a psychologist friend to a preview, where again, the audience reaction was muted. The psychologist told him, "You don't understand, Mel. For a great many people, life is a disappointment."[26]

When interviewed for the 30th anniversary special edition, Gene Wilder stated that he enjoyed working with most of the child actors, but said that he and the crew had some problems with Paris Themmen, claiming that he was "a handful".[27][failed verification][28]

Promotion[edit]

Before its release, the film received advance publicity through TV commercials offering a "Willy Wonka candy factory kit" for sending $1.00 and two seals from boxes of Quaker cereals such as King Vitaman, Life and any of the Cap'n Crunch brands.[29]

Release[edit]

Television[edit]

The film made its television debut on Thanksgiving Night, November 28, 1974, on NBC.[30]

The film was repeated the following year on November 23, 1975, on NBC. There was some controversy with the broadcast, as a football game between the Oakland Raiders and Washington Redskins went into overtime, and the first 40 minutes of the film were cut.[31] The film placed 19th in the television ratings for the week ending November 23, beating out The Streets of San Francisco and Little House on the Prairie.[32] The next television showing of the film was on May 2, 1976,[33] where it placed 46th in the ratings. Some television listings indicate the showing was part of The Wonderful World of Disney time slot.

Home media[edit]

The film was first released on DVD in 1997 in a "25th anniversary edition"[34] as a double sided disc containing a widescreen and "standard" version. The "standard" version is an open matte print, where the mattes used to make the image widescreen are removed, revealing more picture at the top and bottom that was masked off from viewers.[35] VHS and Betamax copies were also available, but only containing the "standard" version.

A special edition DVD was released, celebrating the film's 30th anniversary, on August 28, 2001, but in full screen only. Due to the lack of a letterboxed release, fan petitioning eventually led Warner Home Video to issue a widescreen version on November 13, 2001. It was also released on VHS, with only one of the special features (a making-of feature). Several original cast members reunited to film documentary footage for this special edition DVD release. The two editions featured restored sound, and better picture quality. In addition to the documentary, the DVD included a trailer, a gallery, and audio commentary by the cast.

In 2007, Warner Home Video released the film on HD DVD with all the bonus features from the 2001 DVD.[36] The film was released on Blu-ray on October 20, 2009.[37] It includes all the bonus features from the 2001 DVD and 2007 HD DVD as well as a 38-page book.

On November 1, 2011, a deluxe edition set was released in celebration of the film's 40th anniversary. The set included the film on Blu-ray and DVD, a bonus disc and a number of rarities including a Wonka Bar tin, four scented pencils, a scented eraser, a book about the making of the film, original production papers and a "Golden Ticket" for the chance to win a trip to Los Angeles.[38]

A 4K release took place on June 29, 2021; coinciding with the film's 50th anniversary. This latest edition restores the original Paramount logo to the start of the movie. [39][40]

Reception[edit]

Willy Wonka was released on June 30, 1971. The film was not a big success, being the 53rd highest-grossing film of the year in the U.S., earning just over $2.1 million on its opening weekend.[41] However, it received generally positive reviews from critics. Roger Ebert gave the film a perfect four out of four stars, calling it:

Probably the best film of its sort since The Wizard of Oz. It is everything that family movies usually claim to be, but aren't: Delightful, funny, scary, exciting, and, most of all, a genuine work of imagination. Willy Wonka is such a surely and wonderfully spun fantasy that it works on all kinds of minds, and it is fascinating because, like all classic fantasy, it is fascinated with itself.[42]

Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times praised the film as "lively and enjoyable" and called Wilder's performance "a real star turn", but thought the songs were "instantly forgettable" and that the factory looked "a lot more literal and industrial and less empathic than it might have".[43] Variety called the film "an okay family musical fantasy" that had "good" performances but lacked any tunes that were "especially rousing or memorable".[44] Howard Thompson of The New York Times panned it as "tedious and stagy with little sparkle and precious little humor".[45] Gene Siskel gave the film two stars out of four, writing, "Anticipation of what Wonka's factory is like is so well developed that its eventual appearance is a terrible letdown. Sure enough there is a chocolate river, but it looks too much like the Chicago River to be appealing. The quality of the color photography is flat. The other items in Wonka's factory—bubblegum trees and lollypop flowers—also look cheap. Nothing in the factory is appealing."[46] Jan Dawson of The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote that after a slow start the second half of the film was "an unqualified delight—one of those rare, genuinely imaginative children's entertainments at which no adult need be embarrassed to be seen".[47]

By the mid-1980s, Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory had experienced a spike in popularity thanks in large part to repeated television broadcasts and home video sales. Following a 25th anniversary theatrical re-release in 1996, it was released on DVD the next year, allowing it to reach a new generation of viewers. The film was released as a remastered special edition on DVD and VHS in 2001 to commemorate the film's 30th anniversary. In 2003, Entertainment Weekly ranked it 25th in the "Top 50 Cult Movies" of all time.

The tunnel scene during the boat ride has been cited by many websites as one of the scariest of scenes in a film for children, due to its surreal visuals. Willy Wonka was ranked No. 74 on Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments for the tunnel scene.[48]

On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 91% approval rating and an average rating of 7.8/10 based on 53 reviews. The site's critical consensus states: "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory is strange yet comforting, full of narrative detours that don't always work but express the film's uniqueness."[49]

Dahl's reaction[edit]

Dahl disowned the film and was "infuriated" by the plot deviations and considered the music to be "saccharine, sappy and sentimental" including "Pure Imagination" and "The Candy Man".[13][11] He was also disappointed because the film "placed too much emphasis on Willy Wonka and not enough on Charlie," and was cast with Gene Wilder instead of Spike Milligan as Wonka.[13][11] In 1996, Dahl's second wife, Felicity, commented on her husband's objections toward film adaptations of his works, saying "they always want to change a book's storyline. What makes Hollywood think children want the endings changed for a film, when they accept it in a book?"[50]

Music[edit]

The Academy Award-nominated original score and songs were composed by Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley, and musical direction was by Walter Scharf. The soundtrack was first released by Paramount Records in 1971. On October 8, 1996, Hip-O Records (in conjunction with MCA Records, which by then owned the Paramount catalog), released the soundtrack on CD as a "25th Anniversary Edition". In 2016, UMe and Geffen Records released a 45th Anniversary Edition LP.

The music and songs, in order of appearance, are as follows:

  1. "Main Title" – Instrumental medley of "(I've Got A) Golden Ticket" and "Pure Imagination"
  2. "The Candy Man" – Aubrey Woods
  3. "Cheer Up, Charlie" – Diana Lee (dubbing over Diana Sowle)
  4. "(I've Got A) Golden Ticket" – Jack Albertson and Peter Ostrum
  5. "Pure Imagination" – Gene Wilder
  6. "Oompa Loompa (Augustus)" – The Oompa Loompas
  7. "The Wondrous Boat Ride" / "The Rowing Song" – Gene Wilder
  8. "Oompa Loompa (Violet)" – The Oompa Loompas
  9. "I Want it Now!" – Julie Dawn Cole
  10. "Oompa Loompa (Veruca)" – The Oompa Loompas
  11. "Ach, so fromm" (alternately titled "M'appari", from Martha) – Gene Wilder
  12. "Oompa Loompa (Mike)" – The Oompa Loompas
  13. "End Credits" – "Pure Imagination"

Soundtrack[edit]

The track listing for the soundtrack, originally released on Paramount Records, is as follows:

  1. "Main Title" ("Golden Ticket"/"Pure Imagination")
  2. "The Candy Man"
  3. "Charlie's Paper Run"
  4. "Cheer up, Charlie"
  5. "Lucky Charlie"
  6. "(I've Got A) Golden Ticket"
  7. "Pure Imagination"
  8. "Oompa Loompa"
  9. "The Wondrous Boat Ride"
  10. "Everlasting Gobstoppers/Oompa Loompa"
  11. "The Bubble Machine"
  12. "I Want it Now/Oompa Loompa"
  13. "Wonkamobile, Wonkavision/Oompa Loompa"
  14. "Wonkavator/End Title" ("Pure Imagination")

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Though Dahl is the sole credited screenwriter, David Seltzer made major rewrites to the script and went uncredited.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory". British Board of Film Classification. August 20, 1971. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
  2. ^ "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971)". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) – Financial Information". The-numbers.com. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  4. ^ "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  5. ^ "Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  6. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Archived from the original on October 31, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  7. ^ "Cinematic Treasures Named to National Film Registry". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Archived from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  8. ^ "Oompa Loompa stars in Snow White". BBC News.
  9. ^ a b c J.M. Kenny (Writer, director, Producer) (2001). Pure Imagination: The Story of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (DVD). USA: Warner Home Video. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved December 2, 2006.
  10. ^ a b Aguiar, Annabel (June 29, 2021). "'Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory' at 50: The tender yet terrifying movie that never lost its flavor". Washington Post.
  11. ^ a b c Falky, Ben (September 12, 2016). "Why Roald Dahl Hated The Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory Film". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (1971): Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  13. ^ a b c "Willy Wonka's Everlasting Film Plot". BBC News. July 11, 2005. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
  14. ^ Cobb, Mark Hughes. "A little nonsense now and then is relished by all but the original pen". Tuscaloosa News.
  15. ^ a b c Perkins, Will. "Gene Wilder's Willy Wonka Demands Revealed". Yahoo! Entertainment. Archived from the original on September 18, 2015. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
  16. ^ Usher, Shaun. "Part of this world, part of another". news.lettersofnote.com.
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  23. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2002). Top Adult Contemporary: 1961–2001. Record Research. p. 72.
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  25. ^ "I am Paris Themmen. I played Mike Teevee in the original Willy Wonka. AMA!". Reddit. September 2, 2014. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  26. ^ Stuart, Mel (June 2005). Pure Imagination: The Making of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory. St. Martin's Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-312-35240-0.
  27. ^ Stuart, Mel; Young, Josh (2005). Pure Imagination: The Making of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory. St. Martin's Press. pp. 85–ff. ISBN 978-0-312-35240-0. Archived from the original on November 18, 2020. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
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  43. ^ Champlin, Charles (July 28, 1971). "'Wonka' Fare for Families". Los Angeles Times. Part IV, p. 1, 10.
  44. ^ "Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory". Variety: 13. May 26, 1971.
  45. ^ Thompson, Howard (July 1, 1971). "Chocolate Factory". The New York Times: 61.
  46. ^ Siskel, Gene (July 18, 1971). "There's Gold in Willy Wonka Chocolate Bars". Chicago Tribune. Section 5, p. 1.
  47. ^ Dawson, Jan (December 1971). "Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 38 (455): 253.
  48. ^ "Bravo's 'The 100 Scariest Movie Moments'". Archived from the original on August 1, 2007.
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  50. ^ Gritten, David (April 15, 1996). "Home Court Advantage: Six Years After His Death, Roald Dahl's Kids' Books Are a Hot Movie Property". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  51. ^ Rampton, Mike. "A Mind-Bogglingly Deep Dive Into Alien Ant Farm's Movies Video". Kerrang!.
  52. ^ Chester, Tim. "How beloved actor Gene Wilder became an internet meme". Mashable. Archived from the original on November 20, 2020. Retrieved November 21, 2020.

External links[edit]