|Revised Romanization||Wiman Joseon|
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Wiman Joseon (194–108 BC) was part of the Gojoseon period of ancient Korean history. It began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gojoseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo who was a grandson of Wiman. Apart from archaeological data, the main source on this period of Korean history comes from chapter 115 of Sima Qian's Shi ji (a.k.a. Records of the Grand Historian). [note 1]
|Wiman Joseon monarchs|
According to Sima Qian, Wiman was a general from the kingdom of Yan established in the early years of the Chinese dynasty, who submitted to Gojoseon's King Jun. Jun accepted and appointed Wiman commander of the western border region of Gojoseon, which probably corresponds to the west of the present-day Liaoning. Despite the generosity that King Jun had demonstrated, Wiman revolted and destroyed Gojoseon. In 194 BC, he established Wiman Joseon and decided to locate his capital in Wanggeom-seong (왕검성, 王險城). Many Korean historian believe that the exact location of Wanggeom-seong was yodong(Liaodong china)(요동).
In this period, Wiman Joseon expanded to control a vast territory and became strong economically by controlling trade between the Han Dynasty and the peoples of Manchuria. Emperor Wu of Han thought that Wiman Joseon increasingly threatened Han China, and Wiman Joseon would ally with the Xiongnu.
Wiman's grandson, King Ugeo (우거,右渠), allowed many exiles from Han China to live in Wiman Joseon. The number of Han grew, however, and King Ugeo prevented the Jin state from communicating with the Han Dynasty. As a result, in 109 BC, Wudi of China invaded Wiman Joseon near the Luan River. After failing several times to defeat Wiman Joseon's armies, Han Wudi tried to convince the princes of Wiman Joseon to kill King Ugeo. The conspiracy failed and it led to the destruction of the Gojoseon kingdom. After the war Wudi of Han China sentenced two generals to death for failing to defeat Wiman Joseon.
After a year of battle, Wanggeom-seong was captured and Wiman Joseon was destroyed. Han China established the Four Commanderies of Han in the captured areas, which corresponds to the current area of Liaodong peninsula and the northwestern Korean peninsula. The Commanderies eventually fell to the rising Goguryeo in 4th century AD.
Monarchs of Wiman Joseon
Han Dynasty destroys Wiman Joseon, and establishing the Four Commanderies.
Korea in 315. Goguryeo recovered the former Gojoseon territory.
- Watson, Burton, tr. Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty II. Revised edition. New York, Columbia University Press, 1993. p. 225-230.
- Lee Hyun-Hee; Park Sung-Soo; Yoon Nae-Hyun (2005). New History of Korea. Jimundang.
- Yap, Joseph P. (2009). "Chapter 5. 109 BC". Wars With the Xiongnu: A Translation From Zizhi tongjian. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4.
- "The term was used again by a refugee from the Han dynasty named Wiman, who about 200 B.C.E. set up a kingdom in Korea called Wiman Choson."
- "The earliest documented event in Korean history involves China. After an unsuccessful rising against the first Han emperor Gaozu, the defeated rebels sought refuge beyond the imperial frontier and one of them Wiman, took control of Choson, a Korean state in the north of the peninsula."
- Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0253000248.
- "For instance, Wiman, a refugee from the Yan dynasty, which then existed around present-day Beijing, led his band of more than 1,000 followers into exile in Old Chosŏn in the early second century bc."
- Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0253000248.
- "Wiman Chosŏn In the fourth century bc Old Chosŏn was bordered on the west, far beyond the Liao River, by the northern Chinese dynasty of Yan."
- Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0253000248.
- "Immediately after destroying Wiman Chosŏn, the Han empire established administrative units to rule large territories in the northern Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria."
- Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 220. ISBN 9780549440369.
- "Here, Wiman was described as a "Gu Yanren 故燕人"or a person from former Yan. It is confusing because there were two Yans around this period. The first was the Yan state, which was one of the seven states during the Warring States period, and the second was the vassal state of Yan of the Han dynasty."
- Holcombe, Charles (2001). The Genesis of East Asia, 221 B.C.-A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-8248-2465-5.
- "One of his ex-subordinates in Yan, named Wiman, together with some 1000 followers, sought refuge elsewhere among the old Qin fortifications in what is now Korea."
- Holcombe, Charles (2001). The Genesis of East Asia, 221 B.C.-A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-8248-2465-5.
- "Wiman is probably most accurately understood to have simply been a man from Yan."
- "One of Lu Wan's generals, Wei Man (K, Wiman), defected from Yan, led his forces to Korea where he defeated Ko-Choson, ousted king Chun (who may have fled south), and established his own state with his capital at Wanggom (P'yongyang)."
- Shin, Michael D. (2015). Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9781107098466.
- "195 BCE: Wiman flees the state of Yan and arrives in Joseon where he is made responsible for the defense of the Western border."
- Penny, Benjamin (2013). Religion and Biography in China and Tibet. Routledge; Reissue edition. p. 101. ISBN 978-0415861588.
- "Wei Man (K. Wi Man), a man from the state of Yan who made himself king of Chaoxian (Choson) when Qin conquered Yan, by leading refugees from Yan and Qi into Northern Korea."
- SHIM, JAE-HOON (2008). Journal of Asian History Vol. 40. O. Harrassowitz. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4051-5303-4.
- "Choson underwent another period of turmoil the usurpation by Wiman, a refugee from Yan, circa 194 B.C."
- J. Gordon, Melton (2014). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-61069-025-6.
- "Wiman, a general from the state of Yan, one of the last states to submit to the control of the Han Dynasty in China, left for Korea where he receives a new position assisting King Jun, the ruler of Gojoseon."
- Lee, Peter H. (2013). Sourcebook of Korean Civilization. Columbia University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0231079129.
- "Wiman, the king of Choson (Ch'ao-hsien), came originally from the state of Yen."
- "According to Samguk Yusa, the Kica Cosen period was initiated around 1120 BC by Kica, a scion of the fallen Shang Dynasty of China who fled to Ancient Cosen and the Wiman Cosen period was begun around 194 BC by Wiman, a Chinese military leader of Yen who fled to Ancient Cosen and usurped the throne."
- Hyung, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing “Korean” Origins. Harvard University Press. p. 141. ISBN 9780674002449.
- "`The Account of Zhao- xian` relates the circumstances of a certain Wiman, a lieutenant of the state of Yan, who later became the king of Choson."
- Hyung, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing “Korean” Origins. Harvard University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780674002449.
- "This interpretation of Wiman as the Leader of a Yan refugee group who became a Choson ruler is generally accepted as the starting point of Korean state formation in historical times."
- Miyake, Marc Hideo (2003). Old Japanese: A Phonetic Reconstruction. Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 978-0415305754.
- "Weiman (Korean Wiman) of the northeastern Chinese state of Yan took over the northern part of the peninsula circa the third century CE."
- "In 193 BC, a rebellion against the Kija Dynasty was led by Wiman, a Manchurian who had deserted the Chinese army and was serving Kija as a border guard."
- "Retaliation by the Han then brought in refugees from Yan, the most notable of whom was a war lord, Weiman ('Wiman'in Korean), who somewhere about 200 BC led his followers into the territory held by Choson."
- Seth, Michael J. (2016). A Concise History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 978-1442235175.
- "In 195 BCE, the Yan king revolted and went over to the Xiongnu, a steppe nomad people.One of his lieutenants, Wiman (Chinese: Weiman), is recorded in the Shiji as having fled with 1,000 followers to Chosŏn, where the ruler Chun appointed him a frontier commander."
- Taylor, Insup (2014). Writing and Literacy in Chinese, Korean and Japanese. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 186. ISBN 978-9027218100.
- "In 194 BC Old Chosön became Wiman Chosön when it was overthrown by the leader of a group of Chinese refugees, Wiman."
- Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Praeger. p. 11. ISBN 978-0275958237.
- "In 108 B.c., the Han emperor Wu Ti destroyed Wiman and established four Han provinces."
- Bowman, John Stewart (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0231110044.
- "After a period of decline, Old Choson falls to Wiman, an exile from the Yan state in northern China. Wiman proves to be a strong ruler, but his ambitious program of expansion eventually brings him into conflict with the Han dynasty of China. The Han defeats Wiman Choson and establishes a protectorate over northern Korea in 108 b.c. Resistance to Chinese hegemony, however, is strong, and China reduces the territory under its active control to Nang-nang colony with an administrative center near modern Pyongyang."
- Buckley, Patricia (2008). Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. p. 100. ISBN 978-0547005393.
- "Sima Qian's Historical Records, written around 100 B.C.E., records that in 195 B.C.E., when the king of the Han Dynasty state of Yan (in the region of modern Beijing) rebelled, one of his lieutenants named Weiman (Wiman in Korean) fled east to Choson (Chaoxian in Chinese) with a thousand followers."
- "The Han Chinese triumph was possible because the political solidarity of Wiman Joseon, which was nothing more than a loose tribal confederation, was not centralized enough to hold back external invasion. In this region, Wudi established four prefectures: Lelang, Zhenfan, Lintun, and Xientu."
- Savada, Andrea Matles (1993). EARLY KOREA[Excerpted from North Korea: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress].
- "As the Yen gave way in China to the Qin (221-207 B.C.) and the Han dynasties (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), Chosn declined, and refugee populations migrated eastward. Out of this milieu, emerged Wiman, a man who assumed the kingship of Chosn sometime between 194 and 180 B.C. The Kingdom of Wiman Chosn melded Chinese influence, and under the Old Chosn federated structure--apparently reinvigorated under Wiman--the state again expanded over hundreds of kilometers of territory. Its ambitions ran up against a Han invasion, however, and Wiman Chosn fell in 108 B.C."
- Silberman, Neil Asher (2012). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 161. ISBN 9780199735785.
- "According to the Shijing (Book of Odes), after Yan was defeated by the Jin state in 221 BC, Weiman, a former Yan officer, invaded KoChosun and founded a principality with its capital near P'yongyang around 194 BC."
- Mark E Byington, Project Director of the Early Korea Project (2009). Early Korea 2: The Samhan Period in Korean History. Korea Institute, Harvard University. p. 98. ISBN 978-0979580031.
- "In fact, of the entire contents of the Han Account, only three portions are believed to contain information of a historical nature. The first portion states that in the early-second century B.C. (between 194 and 180 B.C.), King Chun of Chosön was attacked by Wei Man, an exile from Yan China, and fled to the Han territory, accompanied only by a few court officials, where he called himself the King of Han."
- KBS, Radio Korea International (RKI) (1995). History of Korea. Jung Moon, Seoul. p. 18. ISBN 978-8986625004.
- "Wiman: A government official of the Chinese Yan Empire, Wiman fled to Kojoson with a band of his followers."
- Sohn, Ho-Min (2005). Korean Language in Culture And Society. University of Hawaii Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0824826949.
- "The only deduction we can make is that practical knowledge of Chinese and the Chinese script in Korea dates back to 194 B.C., when Wiman, from Yen in China, founded a primitive Korean state in the northwestern part of the peninsula."
- "Subsequently, the establishment by China's Han dynasty of their four commanderies on the soil of Wiman' s Ancient Choson in 108 B.C. must have familiarized the resident Koreans with Chinese and the Chinese script."
- Hiltebeitel, Alf (1998). Hair: Its Power and Meaning in Asian Cultures. State University of New York Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0791437421.
- "The Chaoxian (Korea) chapter of this Chinese history describes the origin of the first recorded Korean state, called in Korean "Wiman Choson." Wiman, the founder of the new state, had lived in the northeastern Chinese state of Yan but fled to Korea due to shifting political alliances."
- "These tombs are associated with the Lelang commandery, which was established by the Han dynasty of China, successor to the Qin. Han generals conquered the armies of Wiman's grandson Ugo and established control over the northern part of the Korean peninsula."
- Yu, Chai-Shin (2012). The New History of Korean Civilization. iUniverse. Radio Korea International (RKI). p. 19. ISBN 978-1462055593.
- "At this time a large number of people migrated to the Chosŏn fleeing from the Liaoning region on account of the chaos and confusion in China that was produced by the fall of the Chinese Qin Dynasty and the rise of the Han Dynasty. Among these migrants was a man named Wiman who was ordered by King Chun to guard Chosŏn's borders."
- Yu, Chai-Shin (2012). The New History of Korean Civilization. iUniverse. Radio Korea International (RKI). p. 21. ISBN 978-1462055593.
- "The Han established 'four commanderies' (Chin. sijun, Kor. sagun) in the conquered territories of Wiman Chosŏn, The commanderies were named Lelang (Kor. Nangnang), Zhenfan (Kor. Chinbon), Lintun (Kor. Imdun), and Xuantu (Kor. Hyéna'o)."
- The Review of Korean Studies Vol.10. 2007. p. 222.
- "This was the beginning of Wiman Joseon. Some view Wiman Joseon as a colonial dynasty of China because of the origin of Wiman, but it is accepted theory to include Wiman Joseon as part of Gojoseon."
- Kang, Jae-eun (2006). The Land of Scholars: Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism. Homa & Seka Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-1931907309.
- "Wiman (衛滿), a leader of Yan, chased King Jun (準王) of Gojoseon out of the throne in 194 BC. This is the so-called Wissi Joseon (衛氏朝鮮), the first state of ancient Korea historically verifiable."
- Pratt, Keith (2006). Everlasting Flower: A History of Korea. Reaktion Books. p. 10. ISBN 978-1861892737.
- "108 BC: Han armies invade Wiman Choson; Chinese commanderies are set up across the north of the peninsula"
- Pratt, Keith (2006). Everlasting Flower: A History of Korea. Reaktion Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-1861892737.
- "In the process they re-examined Chinese and Korean historical records and came up with two better authenticated alternatives to Tan'gun as founders of their kingdom, the aforesaid Kija, and Wiman (Ch. Wei Man). Both were apparently of Chinese origin and had founded Chinese-style statelets to set the peninsula on its historical path."
- Nelson, Sarah Milledge (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780521407830.
- "According to the Wei Ji, groups of ethnic Chinese were already living in Korea when Wiman, a general from a nearby Chinese state, "adopt the mallet shaped hairdo and dress of the eastern barbarians", and fled into the peninsula with about a thousand followers."
- Kim, Choong Soon (2011). Voices of Foreign Brides: The Roots and Development of Multiculturalism in Korea. AltaMira Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0759120358.
- "The elevation of Tan'gun to historical status is a direct challenge to Kija, a Shang aristocrat enfeoffed in Choson at the time of the fall of the Shang dynasty. Kija was later followed by Wiman, a general from the state of Yan who arrived around 195—194 BC to set up Wiman Choson and whose descendants later contested Han emperor Wu's invasion in 108 BC. Thus, the traditionally accepted dynastic state sequence of the Sam Choson of Kochoson, Kija Choson, and Wiman Choson has been overturned in the revised Korean ancestral state lineage."
- Sino-Japanese Studies, Vol.14～Vol.15. Sino-Japanese Studies Group. 2002. p. 49.
- "One of Lu Guan's generals, Wiman, escaped with one thousand of his followers to northeastern Korea and became a ruler there in about 194 B.C.E. Wiman's Choson was eventually overthrown by the Han empire in 108 B.C.E."
- Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho (1980), "An Outline History of Korean Historiography", Korean Studies, 4: 2
- "The Shih chi, mentioned earlier, and the Han shu [History of Han], written in the first century A. D., limit the treatment of Korea in their respective biography sections to descriptions of the establishment of Wiman (Weiman in Chinese) Choson and the military campaigns waged by Emperor Wu ti of Han to subdue this ancient Korean dynasty."
- "Historical knowledge becomes firmer from the second century BC, when the dominant political force in the region was of Chinese origin. This brings us to Wiman Chosŏn."
- "Among these refugees was one called Wiman, or Wei-man in Chinese, a general of the state of Yan, who managed to flee with around 1000 of his soldiers."
- "The Chinese emplaced three commanderies in Wiman Chosŏn territory, the chief of which was called Lo-lang (Nangnang in Korean)."
- Meyer, Milton W. (1997). Asia: A Concise History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 118. ISBN 978-0847680634.
- "Around 190 B.C., a man called Wiman (Wei Man in Chinese), who was either of Chinese background or a Korean in Chinese employ, usurped the throne of Choson."
- "On the other hand, the “refugee” who came to Choson shortly after 200 b.c. is called by his Korean name, Wiman, rather than the Chinese form, Wei-man, because he became a part of the Korean community."
- Yi, Hun-gu (1929). A History of Land Systems and Policies in Korea. University of Wisconsin--Madison. p. 1.
- "His descendants governed the people until Kija, a wise Chinese philosopher came to the country. Later in 193 B.C. King Kijun was overthrown by his subject Wiman, a refugee from China, and fled to the southern part of the Korean peninsula."
- "One of these refugees, Wiman, led a revolt in 190 BC, usurping the throne and establishing a state called Wiman Choson."
- Linduff, Katheryn M. (2008). Are All Warriors Male?: Gender Roles on the Ancient Eurasian Steppe. AltaMira Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0759110748.
- "Chinese accounts relate that the state of Chosun, whose ruler was named King Chun, was overthrown by a renegade Chinese from Liaodong named Wiman."
- "Horse and chariot burials from the 2nd century BCE which are earlier than the Chinese commandery of Lelang (called Nangnang in Korean), which was established in 108 BCE, have also been found in the vicinity of Pyongyang and thus would date from the time of Wiman Chosun.""
- Kim, Sun Joo (2015). Marginality and Subversion in Korea. University of Washington Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0295996042.
- "Historical records reveal a more detailed and clearer picture of the history of the northwest region after Wiman (Ch.: Wei Man), a refugee from the Chinese state of Yan (?–222 B.C.E.), usurped the throne from King Chun of the old Choson kingdom sometime between 194 and 180 B.C.E."
- "Wiman Choson fell in 108 B.C.E. to the Chinese Han dynasty (194 B.C.E.– 220 C.E.), which subsequently set up commanderies, including lelang commandery (Kor.: Nangnang, 108 B.C.E.–313 C.E.) in the former Choson territory."
- Eckert, Carter J. (1991). Korea Old and New: A History. Ilchokak Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 978-0962771309.
- "During this turbulent period refugee populations migrated eastward, and among them a leader by the name of Wiman emerged, who succeeded in driving King Chun of Old Choson from his throne (sometime between 194 and 180 B.C.)"
- "In 194 B.C. Wiman, a tribal chieftain of Chinese origin, overthrew the Han family and established the kingdom known as Wiman Choson."
- "We know that this state, at whatever period it actually originated, was conquered in 195 BC by a figure called Wiman who established a new dynasty while continuing the use of the name of the state."
- "Ancient Korean history is comprised of the following states, Former Choson, Later Choson, Wiman Choson, the Four Commanderies, the Three Han states, Silla, Koguryo, Later Koguryo, Paekche, Later Paekche, and Parhae."