Wind power in India
Wind power generation capacity in India has significantly increased in the last few years and as of 31 January 2017 the installed capacity of wind power was 28,871.59 MW, mainly spread across the South, West and North regions. By year end 2015 India had the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. The levelised tariff of wind power reached a record low of ₹3.46 (5.1¢ US) per kWh (without any direct or indirect subsidies) during auctions for wind projects in February 2017.
The development of wind power in India began in 1986 with the first wind farms being set up in coastal areas of Maharashtra (Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Okha) and Tamil Nadu (Tirunelveli) with 55 kW Vestas wind turbines. These demonstration projects were supported by the Minstry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
The potential for wind farms in the country was first assessed by Dr. Jami Hossain using a GIS platform to be more than 2,000 GW in 2011. This was subsequently re-validated by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, US (LBNL) in an independent study in 2012. As a result, the MNRE set up a committee to reassess the potential and through the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE, previously C-WET) has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind resource in India from 49,130 MW to 302,000 MW assessed at 100 m hub height. The wind resource at higher hub heights that are prevailing is possibly even more. In 2015, the MNRE set the target for Wind Power generation capacity by the year 2022 at 60,000 MW.
East and North east regions have no grid connected wind power plant as of March 2015. No offshore wind farm utilizing traditional fixed-bottom wind turbine technologies in shallow sea areas or floating wind turbine technologies in deep sea areas are under implementation. However, an Offshore Wind Policy was announced in 2015 and presently weather stations and LIDARs are being set up by NIWE at some locations.
- 1 Monthly electricity generation
- 2 Statistics
- 3 Wind power by state
- 4 Projects
- 5 Optimisation of wind power
- 6 Barriers
- 7 Offshore wind power plants
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Monthly electricity generation
Wind power accounts nearly 8.6% of India's total installed power generation capacity and generated 28,604 million kWh in the fiscal year 2015-16 which is nearly 2.5% of total electricity generation. The capacity utilisation factor is nearly 14% in the fiscal year 2015-16 (15% in 2014-15). 70% of wind generation is during the five months duration from May to September coinciding with Southwest monsoon duration.
|Fiscal||Year End Cumulative Capacity (in MW)|
|Month||North||West||South||East||North East||Total (GWh)|
The table below shows the India's year on year installed wind power since 1991.(Sources?)
|Installed Capacity (MW)||39||39||79||185||576||816||950||968||1,077||1,167||3,000||4,430|
|Installed Capacity (MW)||6,270||7,850||9,587||10,925||13,064||16,084||18,421||20,150||22,465||23,447||26,777|
Wind power by state
There is a growing number of wind energy installations in states across India.
|State||Total Capacity (MW)|
Tamil Nadu's wind power capacity is around 29% of India's total.[when?] The Government of Tamil Nadu realized the importance and need for renewable energy, and set up a separate Agency, as registered society, called the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) as early as 1985. Now,[when?] Tamil Nadu has become a leader in Wind Power in India. In Muppandal windfarm the total capacity is 1500 MW, the largest wind power plant in India. The total wind installed capacity in Tamil Nadu is 7633 MW. During the fiscal year 2014-15, the electricity generation is 9.521 GWh, with about a 15% capacity utilization factor.
Maharashtra is one of the prominent states that installed wind power projects second to Tamil Nadu in India. As of end of March 2016, installed wind power capacity is 4655.25 MW. As of now[when?] there are 50 developers registered with state nodal agency "Maharashtra energy Development Agency" for development of wind power projects. All the major manufacturers of wind turbines including Suzlon, Vestas, Gamesa, Regen, Leitner Shriram have presence in Maharashtra.
Gujarat government's focus on tapping renewable energy has led to sharp rise in the wind power capacity in the last few years. According to official data, wind power generations capacity in the state has increased a staggering ten times in just six years. ONGC Ltd. has installed a 51MW wind energy farm at Bhuj in Gujarat. Renewable energy projects worth a massive Rs 1 lakh crore of memorandums of understanding (MoUs) in the Vibrant Gujarat Summit in 2017.
4031.99 MW wind power installed as per 31.03.2016.
In consideration of unique concept, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to Madhya Pradesh Windfarms Ltd. MPWL, Bhopal at Nagda Hills near Dewas under consultation from Consolidated Energy Consultants Ltd. CECL Bhopal. All the 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31.03.2008 and under successful operation.
The agency has identified 16 sites for setting up wind farms through private developers.
Odisha a coastal state has higher potential for wind energy. Current installation capacity stands at 2.0 MW. Odisha has a windpower potential of 1700MW. The Govt of Odisha is actively pursuing to boost Wind power generation in the state. however it has not progressed like other states primarily because Odisha having a huge coal reserve and number of existing and upcoming thermal power plants, is a power surplus state.
The total installation in West Bengal is 2.10 MW till Dec 2009 at Fraserganj, Distt- South 24 Paraganas. More 0.5 MW (approx) at Ganga Sagar, Kakdwip, Distt - South 24 Paraganas. Both the project owned by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA), Govt. of WB and project was executed on turnkey basis by Utility Powertech Limited (UPL).
Jammu and Kashmir
The Kargil, Ladakh, occupied Gilgit and China occupied Aksai Chin regions of Jammu and Kashmir state are potential wind energy areas, which are yet to be exploited. Wind Speeds are higher during the winter months in the state, which is complimentary to the hydro power available during the summer months from the snow melt water. Being a Himalayan state located at higher altitude, the heating energy requirements are high which can be met by the renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and hydro power. The state is yet to open its account in grid connected wind power installations.
India's largest wind power production facilities (10MW and greater)
|1||Muppandal windfarm||Muppandal Wind||Kanyakumari||Tamil Nadu||1500|
|2||Jaisalmer Wind Park||Suzlon Energy||Jaisalmer||Rajasthan||1064|
|3||Brahmanvel windfarm||Parakh Agro Industries||Dhule||Maharashtra||528|
|4||Dhalgaon windfarm||Gadre Marine Exports||Sangli||Maharashtra||278|
|5||Vankusawade Wind Park||Suzlon Energy Ltd.||Satara District.||Maharashtra||259|
|7||Mamatkheda Wind Park||Orange Renewable||Mamatkheda||Madhya Pradesh||100.5|
|8||Anantapur Wind Park||Orange Renewable||Nimbagallu||Andhra Pradesh||100|
|9||Damanjodi Wind Power Plant||Suzlon Energy Ltd.||Damanjodi||Odisha||99|
|12||Acciona Tuppadahalli||Tuppadahalli Energy India Pvt Ltd||Chitradurga District||Karnataka||56.1|
|13||Dangiri Wind Farm||Oil India Ltd.||Jaiselmer||Rajasthan||54|
|14||Bercha Wind Park||Orange Renewable||Ratlam||Madhya Pradesh||50|
|15||Cape Comorin||Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore Ltd.||Kanyakumari||Tamil Nadu||33|
|16||Kayathar Subhash||Subhash Ltd.||Kayathar||Tamil Nadu||30|
|19||Gudimangalam||Gudimangalam Wind Farm||Gudimangalam||Tamil Nadu||21|
|20||Shalivahana Wind||Shalivahana Green Energy. Ltd.||Tirupur||Tamil Nadu||20.4|
|21||Puthlur RCI||Wescare (India) Ltd.||Puthlur||Andhra Pradesh||20|
|22||Lamda Danida||Danida India Ltd.||Lamba[disambiguation needed]||Gujarat||15|
|23||Chennai Mohan||Mohan Breweries & Distilleries||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||15|
|25||Jamgudrani MP||MP Windfarms Ltd.||Dewas||Madhya Pradesh||14|
|26||Jogmatti BSES||BSES Ltd.||Chitradurga District||Karnataka||14|
|27||Perungudi Newam||Newam Power Company Ltd.||Perungudi||Tamil Nadu||12|
|28||Kethanur Wind Farm||Kethanur Wind Farm||Kethanur||Tamil Nadu||11|
|29||Shah Gajendragarh||Sanjay D. Ghodawat||Gadag||Karnataka||10.8|
|30||Hyderabad TSRTC||Telangana SRTC||Hyderabad||Telangana||10|
|31||Muppandal Madras||Madras Cements Ltd.||Muppandal||Tamil Nadu||10|
|32||Poolavadi Chettinad||Chettinad Cement Corp. Ltd.||Poolavadi||Tamil Nadu||10|
Optimisation of wind power
Once the location of wind farm is selected based on the available wind data, next step is to optimise the wind power out put from the farm area using the available wind turbines from the manufactures. The spacing between the adjacent wind turbine is between 5 and 9 times of the rotor diameter in the prominent wind direction and 3 to 5 times perpendicular to wind direction. If needed CFD analysis can be performed to finalise the optimum layout. Higher rotor diameter increases the swept area of wind by increasing the wind turbine power. Higher hub height from the ground enables the rotor to use high velocity air available at higher elevation. Selecting a bigger rotor diameter and more hub height with latest transmission (mechanical to electrical energy) technology would maximise a wind farm power generation capacity, reduce the wind electricity generating cost and optimise the installation cost per MW capacity.
Initial cost for wind turbines is greater than that of conventional fossil fuel generators and capacity expansion of existing hydro power plants with pumped storage hydro units. Noise is produced by the rotor blades. This is not normally an issue in the locations chosen for most wind farms.
Most of the wind power generation is during the south west monsoon season when rivers usually flood with water generating cheaper secondary hydro power. Scheduling the wind power which is unpredictable secondary power (even on daily basis), at fair price is a problem during monsoon season. Also adding additional pumped-storage hydroelectricity units instead of new wind power plants to produce predictable secondary power on daily basis during monsoon months and pumped storage operation for converting excess power in to peaking power during the rest of the year is more economical and commercial proposition.
When large wind power plants are located away from the load centres, laying dedicated transmission lines to evacuate the unreliable secondary wind power is additional cost liability. In India, solar power is complementary to wind power as it is generated mostly during the non monsoon period in day time. Solar power plants can be located in the inter space between the towers of wind power plants or nearby area with common power evacuation facility. The wind power plant should guarantee minimum power generation/export in a year (say 15% capacity factor) to the purchaser.
In case the generation is below the guaranteed minimum power export, penalty should be applicable for the electricity which is short fall. This is to prevent over declaration of plant nameplate capacity to mobilise 100% debt financing by promoters without real equity contribution.
The wind power policy allows accelerated depreciation of the wind power plants cost out of the profits accrued from other businesses of a company to cut down the overall company's tax liability. Businessmen are using short sightedly this window for reducing tax liability by installing cheaper wind mills of vintage technology based on supplier's claims without liability. This method of wind projects financing and implementation is leading to inefficient harnessing of the available wind potential.
Wind power plants need very less land (less than one acre/MW for tower foundation, access road, substation, power evacuation lines, etc.) compared to other power generation technologies. It uses air space without effecting vegetation on the ground. Air space is a national resource similar to mines, spectrum, etc. Wind potential shall be auctioned to the highest bidder for its efficient use. Already very good sites with attractive wind potential are harnessed without reaping optimum value.
Offshore wind power plants
India is planning to enter in to offshore wind power, with a 100 MW demonstration plant located off the Gujarat coast. In 2013, a consortium (instead of group of organizations), led by Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) started project FOWIND (Facilitating Offshore Wind in India) to identify potential zones for development of off-shore wind power in India and to stimulate R & D activities in this area. The other consortium partners include the Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), DNV GL, the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and the World Institute of Sustainable Energy (WISE). The consortium was awarded the grant of €4.0 million by the delegation of the European Union to India in 2013 besides co-funding support from GPCL. The project action will be implemented from December 2013 to March 2018.
The project focuses on the States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu for identification of potential zones for development through techno-commercial analysis and preliminary resource assessment. It will also establish a platform for structural collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders from European Union and India, on offshore wind technology, policy, regulation, industry and human resource development. FOWIND activities will also help facilitate a platform to stimulate offshore wind related R&D activities in the country. The consortium published initial pre-feasibility assessment reports for offshore wind farm development in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 16 June 2015. In September 2015, the India's cabinet has approved the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy. With this, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
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