Wind power in India
The development of wind power in India began in the 1986 with first windfarms being set up in coastal areas of Maharshtra (Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Okha) and Tamil Nadu (Tuticorin) with 55 kW Vestas wind turbines. These demonstration projects were supported by MNRE. The capacity has significantly increased in the last few years. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the United States, India has the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. In 2009-10 India's growth rate was highest among the other top four countries.
The potential for windfarms in the country was first assessed by Dr. Jami Hossain using a GIS platform at around 3000 GW in 2011. This was subsequently re-validated by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, US (LBNL) in an independent study in 2012. As a result, the MNRE set up a committee to reassess the potential  and has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind resource in India from 49,130 MW to 300,000 MW assessed at 100m Hub height. The wind resource at higher Hub heights that are prevailing is possibly even more. In the year 2015, the MNRE set the target for Wind Power generation capacity by the year 2022 at 60,000 MW.
As of 31 Dec 2015 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 25,088 MW, mainly spread across South, West and North regions. East and North east regions have no grid connected wind power plant as of March, 2015 end. No offshore wind power farm utilizing traditional fixed-bottom wind turbine technologies in shallow sea areas or floating wind turbine technologies in deep sea areas is under implementation.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Monthly electricity generation
- 3 State wise wind power
- 4 Projects
- 5 Salient data
- 6 Optimisation of wind power
- 7 Barriers
- 8 Offshore wind power plants
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The worldwide installed capacity of wind power reached 370 GW by the end of 2014. China (114,763 MW), US (65,879 MW) and Germany (40,468 MW) are ahead of India in forth position. The short gestation periods for installing wind turbines, and the increasing reliability and performance of wind energy machines has made wind power a favoured choice for capacity addition in India.
Suzlon, an Indian-owned company, emerged on the global scene in the past decade, and by 2006 had captured almost 7.7 percent of market share in global wind turbine sales. Suzlon is currently the leading manufacturer of wind turbines for the Indian market, holding some 43 percent of market share in India. Suzlon's success has made India the developing country leader in advanced wind turbine technology.
The Services segment too has evolved. WinDForce Management Services (P) Ltd.  is one of the leading players involved in implementation of nearly 800 MW capacity in 2014 - 15 and acts as Owner's Engineer, Lender's Engineer as well as an Asset Manager.
Monthly electricity generation
Wind power accounts nearly 8.5% of India's total installed power generation capacity and generated 28,214 million Kwh (MU) in the fiscal year 2014-15 which is nearly 2.6% of total electricity generation. The capacity utilisation factor is nearly 15 % in the fiscal year 2014-15. 70% of wind generation is during the five months duration from May to September coinciding with South West monsoon duration.
|Year||Cumulative Capacity (in MW)|
|Month||North||West||South||East||North East||Total (MU)|
State wise wind power
There is a growing number of wind energy installations in states across India.
|State||Capacity (MW), as of 31 March 2015|
Tamil Nadu's wind power capacity is around 35% of India's total . The Government of Tamil Nadu realized the importance and need for renewable energy, and set up a separate Agency, as registered society, called the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) as early as 1985. Now, Tamil Nadu has become a leader in Wind Power in India. In Muppandal windfarm, Tamil Nadu the total capacity is 1500MW, which is the largest in India. As per TEDA, the total installed capacity in Tamil Nadu is 7253MW. During the fiscal year 2014-15, the electricity generation is 9.521 billion Kwh which is nearly 15% capacity utilisation factor.
Maharashtra is one of the prominent states considering the installation of wind power projects second to Tamil Nadu in India. As on 30/09/2014, installed capacity of wind energy is 4167.26 MW. As of now there are 50 developers registered with state nodal agency "Maharashtra energy Development Agency" for development of wind power projects. All the major manufacturers of wind turbines including Suzlon, Vestas, Gamesa, Regen, Leitner Shriram have presence in Maharashtra.
Gujarat government's focus on tapping renewable energy has led to sharp rise in the wind power capacity in the last few years. According to official data, wind power generations capacity in the state has increased a staggering ten times in just six years.
2356 MW as per the news reported by Times of India, Dated 31.3.2012.
In consideration of unique concept, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to Madhya Pradesh Windfarms Ltd. MPWL, Bhopal at Nagda Hills near Dewas under consultation from Consolidated Energy Consultants Ltd. CECL Bhopal. All the 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31.03.2008 and under successful operation.
They generate a total of 600MW of power. The agency has identified 16 sites for setting up wind farms through private developers.
Odisha a coastal state has higher potential for wind energy. Current installation capacity stands at 2.0 MW. Odisha has a windpower potential of 1700MW. The Govt of Odisha is actively pursuing to boost Wind power generation in the state. however it has not progressed like other states primarily because Odisha having a huge coal reserve and number of existing and upcoming thermal power plants, is a power surplus state.
The total installation in West Bengal is 2.10 MW till Dec 2009 at Fraserganj, Distt- South 24 Paraganas. More 0.5 MW (approx) at Ganga Sagar, Kakdwip, Distt - South 24 Paraganas. Both the project owned by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA), Govt. of WB and project was executed on turnkey basis by Utility Powertech Limited (UPL).
Jammu and Kashmir
The Kargil, Ladakh, occupied Gilgit and China occupied Aksai Chin regions of Jammu and Kashmir state are having lucrative wind energy potential up to 80 meters height. Vast wind power mainly available during the winter months in the state, is complimentary with the vast hydro power available during the summer months from the snow melt water and solar power. Being a hill state located at higher altitude, the heating energy or HVAC requirements are enormous which can be met perennially by the renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and hydro power. The state is yet to open its account in grid connected wind power installations.
India's largest wind power production facilities (10MW and greater)
|Muppandal windfarm||Muppandal Wind||Kanyakumari||Tamil Nadu||1500|
|Jaisalmer Wind Park||Suzlon Energy||Jaisalmer||Rajasthan||1064|
|Brahmanvel windfarm||Parakh Agro Industries||Dhule||Maharashtra||528|
|Dhalgaon windfarm||Gadre Marine Exports||Sangli||Maharashtra||278|
|Vankusawade Wind Park||Suzlon Energy Ltd.||Satara District.||Maharashtra||259|
|Damanjodi Wind Power Plant||Suzlon Energy Ltd.||Damanjodi||Odisha||99|
|Cape Comorin||Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore Ltd.||Kanyakumari||Tamil Nadu||33|
|Kayathar Subhash||Subhash Ltd.||Kayathar||Tamil Nadu||30|
|Gudimangalam||Gudimangalam Wind Farm||Gudimangalam||Tamil Nadu||21|
|Puthlur RCI||Wescare (India) Ltd.||Puthlur||Andhra Pradesh||20|
|Lamda Danida||Danida India Ltd.||Lamba||Gujarat||15|
|Chennai Mohan||Mohan Breweries & Distilleries||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||15|
|Jamgudrani MP||MP Windfarms Ltd.||Dewas||Madhya Pradesh||14|
|Jogmatti BSES||BSES Ltd.||Chitradurga District||Karnataka||14|
|Perungudi Newam||Newam Power Company Ltd.||Perungudi||Tamil Nadu||12|
|Kethanur Wind Farm||Kethanur Wind Farm||Kethanur||Tamil Nadu||11|
|Hyderabad TSRTC||Telangana SRTC||Hyderabad||Telangana||10|
|Muppandal Madras||Madras Cements Ltd.||Muppandal||Tamil Nadu||10|
|Shah Gajendragarh||Sanjay D. Ghodawat||Gadag||Karnataka||10.8|
|Acciona Tuppadahalli||Tuppadahalli Energy India Pvt Ltd||Chitradurga District||Karnataka||56.1|
|Poolavadi Chettinad||Chettinad Cement Corp. Ltd.||Poolavadi||Tamil Nadu||10|
|Shalivahana Wind||Shalivahana Green Energy. Ltd.||Tirupur||Tamil Nadu||20.4|
|Dangiri Wind Farm||Oil India Ltd.||Jaiselmer||Rajasthan||54|
|Larger wind turbines in India||Unit||Data||Data|
|Biggest capacity installed||MW||2.50||2.80|
|Wind farm name / location||RPL, Vashpet, Maharashtra.|
|Manufacturer||Global Wind Power Ltd||Regen Powertech|
|Model no.||GWP 100|
|Hub height from the ground||meters||98.2|
|Rated wind speed||meters/sec||13 |
|Yearly generation||million KWh|
Optimisation of wind power
Once the location of wind farm is selected based on the available wind data, next step is to optimise the wind power out put from the farm area using the available wind turbines from the manufactures. The spacing between the adjacent wind turbine is between 5 to 9 times of the rotor diameter in the prominent wind direction and 3 to 5 times perpendicular to wind direction. If needed CFD analysis can be performed to finalise the optimum layout. Higher rotor diameter increases the swept area of wind by increasing the wind turbine power. Higher hub height from the ground enables the rotor to use high velocity air available at higher elevation. Selecting a bigger rotor diameter and more hub height with latest transmission (mechanical to electrical energy) technology would maximise a wind farm power generation capacity, reduce the wind electricity generating cost and optimise the installation cost per MW capacity.
Initial cost for wind turbines is greater than that of conventional fossil fuel generators and capacity expansion of existing hydro power plants with pumped storage hydro units. Noise is produced by the rotor blades. This is not normally an issue in the locations chosen for most wind farms.
Most of the wind power generation is during the south west monsoon season when rivers usually flood with water generating cheaper secondary hydro power. Scheduling the wind power which is unpredictable secondary power (even on daily basis), at fair price is a problem during monsoon season. Also adding additional pumped-storage hydroelectricity units instead of new wind power plants to produce predictable secondary power on daily basis during monsoon months and pumped storage operation for converting excess power in to peaking power during the rest of the year is more economical and commercial proposition.
When large wind power plants are located away from the load centres, laying dedicated transmission lines to evacuate the unreliable secondary wind power is additional cost liability. In India, solar power is complimentary to wind power as it is generated mostly during the non monsoon period in day time. Solar power plants can be located in the inter space between the towers of wind power plants or nearby area with common power evacuation facility. The wind power plant should guarantee minimum power generation/export in a year (say 15% capacity factor) to the purchaser.
In case the generation is below the guaranteed minimum power export, penalty should be applicable for the electricity which is short fall. This is to prevent over declaration of plant nameplate capacity to mobilise 100% debt financing by promoters without real equity contribution.
The wind power policy allows accelerated depreciation of the wind power plants cost out of the profits accrued from other businesses of a company to cut down the overall company's tax liability. Businessmen are using short sightedly this window for reducing tax liability by installing cheaper wind mills of vintage technology based on supplier's claims without liability. This method of wind projects financing and implementation is leading to inefficient harnessing of the available wind potential.
Wind power plants need very less land (less than one acre/MW for tower foundation, access road, substation, power evacuation lines, etc.) compared to other power generation technologies. It uses air space without effecting vegetation on the ground. Air space is a national resource similar to mines, spectrum, etc. Wind potential shall be auctioned to the highest bidder for its efficient use. Already very good sites with attractive wind potential are harnessed without reaping optimum value.
Offshore wind power plants
India is planning to enter in to offshore wind power, with a 100 MW demonstration plant located off the Gujarat coast. In 2013, a consortium (instead of group of organizations), led by Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) started project FOWIND (Facilitating Offshore Wind in India) to identify potential zones for development of off-shore wind power in India and to stimulate R & D activities in this area. The other consortium partners include the Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), DNV GL, the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and the World Institute of Sustainable Energy (WISE). The consortium was awarded the grant of â‚¬4.0 million by the delegation of the European Union to India in 2013 besides co-funding support from GPCL. The project action will be implemented from December 2013 to March 2018.
The project focuses on the States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu for identification of potential zones for development through techno-commercial analysis and preliminary resource assessment. It will also establish a platform for structural collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders from European Union and India, on offshore wind technology, policy, regulation, industry and human resource development. FOWIND activities will also help facilitate a platform to stimulate offshore wind related R&D activities in the country. The consortium published initial pre-feasibility assessment reports for offshore wind farm development in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 16 June 2015. In September 2015, the India's cabinet has approved the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy. With this, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
- Energy policy of India
- Solar power in India
- List of onshore wind farms
- Wind turbine design
- Floating wind turbine
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