Wind power in India

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Mean wind speed in India[1]

Wind power generation capacity in India has significantly increased in recent years. As of 31 December 2023, the total installed wind power capacity was 44.736 gigawatts (GW), the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.[2] Wind power capacity is mainly spread across the southern, western, and northwestern states.[3]

Wind power costs in India are decreasing rapidly.[4] The levelised tariff of wind power reached a record low of 2.43 (3.0¢ US) per kWh (without any direct or indirect subsidies) during auctions for wind projects in December 2017.[5][6][7] However, the levelised tariff increased to 3.17 (4.0¢ US) per kWh in May 2023.[8][9] In December 2017, union government announced the applicable guidelines for tariff-based wind power auctions to bring more clarity and minimise the risk to the developers.[10] Wind power installations occupy only 2% of the wind farm area facilitating rest of the area for agriculture, plantations, etc.[11] Wind power plants are also capable to provide fast frequency response in ramping up falling grid frequency.[12]

Installed capacity[edit]

The table below shows India's year on year installed wind power, annual wind power generation and annual growth in wind power generation since 2006.[13] Wind power generation in India ranks fifth globally in 2021.

Installed wind power capacity and generation in India since 2006[14]
Financial year 6-07 7-08 8-09 09-10 10–11 11–12 12–13 13–14 14–15 15–16 16–17 17–18 18–19[15] 19–20 20–21 21–22[16] 22-23
Installed capacity (MW) 7,850 9,587 10,925 13,064 16,084 18,421 20,150 22,465 23,447 26,777 32,280 34,046 35,626 37,669 38,785 40,355 42,633
Generation (GWh) 28,214 28,604 46,011 52,666 62,036 64,485 59,824 68,640 71,814

History[edit]

Installed wind power capacity
Fiscal year, cumulative capacity (MW)
2005
6,270
2010
16,084
2014
23,354
2015
26,769
2016
32,280
2017
34,046
2018
35,626
2019
37,669
2020
38,785
2021
40,355
2022
42,633
Wind farms in paddy fields in India

Development of wind power in India began in December 1952, when Maneklal Sankalchand Thacker, a distinguished power engineer, initiated a project with the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to explore the possibilities of harnessing wind power in the country.[17] The CSIR established a Wind Power Sub-Committee under P. Nilakantan, which was assigned the task of investigating the available resources that could be practically utilised, along with researching the economic possibilities of wind energy.[18] With assistance from the Indian Meteorological Department, the Sub-Committee extensively reviewed available data on surface winds in India and their velocity duration, and began detailed surveys of promising sites for harnessing the optimum amount of wind energy; it also successfully developed and tested large wood-and-bamboo windmills.

In September 1954, a Symposium on Solar Energy and Wind Power organised by the CSIR and UNESCO was held in New Delhi; among the attendees was E. W. Golding, a British power engineer and authority on wind energy generation.[17] Convinced of the potential of wind power in India, he recommended continued and extensive wind velocity surveys in different regions of India, the full-time assignment of staff to experimental wind power studies, the establishment of a dedicated research laboratory and development of small to medium-sized wind-powered electrical generators. Golding's recommendations were adopted by the CSIR in 1957.[17] By this time, regions of Saurashtra and around Coimbatore had been identified as promising sites for generating electricity from wind power, and the Wind Power Sub-Committee had begun to erect 20 wind velocity survey stations across India, in addition to testing its indigenously designed windmills and obtaining a 6 kW. Allgaier wind turbine, which was presented to India by the West German government; experiments at Porbandar with the latter had commenced by 1961.[18][17] The Indian government also considered a proposal to erect over 20,000 small to medium-sized wind-powered electrical generators in rural districts, to be used for powering water pumps and supplying electricity for remotely situated structures such as lighthouses.[18]

In 1960, the CSIR established a Wind Power Division as part of the new National Aeronautical Laboratory (NAL) in Bangalore, which was founded that year.[17] From the 1960s into the 1980s, the NAL and other groups continued to carry out wind velocity surveys and develop improved estimates of India's wind energy capacity.[19] Large-scale development of wind power began in 1985 with the first wind project in Veraval, Gujarat, in the form of a 40-kW Dutch machine (make Polenko) connected to the grid. The project, an initiative of late Dr. K S Rao, the then Director of GEDA (Gujarat Energy Development Agency), was a joint venture between GEDA and J K Synthetics Ltd. Though the performance of this machine was quite poor, it established the technical viability of operating wind turbines in the grid-connected mode in India. Subsequently, the Government of India planned several demonstration wind farms in the coastal regions of the country and simultaneously launched a massive programme to identify sites suitable for wind projects. In 1986, demonstration wind farms were set up in the coastal areas of Maharashtra (Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Okha) and Tamil Nadu (Tirunelveli) with 55 kW Vestas wind turbines. These demonstration projects were supported by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). The demonstration projects set up in 1985–86 established beyond doubt, both the technical and economic viability of the wind energy projects, while the wind-mapping programme resulted in the identification of many sites suitable for wind power projects (C-WET 2001; Mani 1990, 1992, 1994; Mani and Mooley 1983).

The potential for wind farms in the country was first assessed in 2011 to be more than 2,000 GW by Prof. Jami Hossain of TERI University, New Delhi.[20] This was subsequently re-validated by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, US (LBNL) in an independent study in 2012. As a result, the MNRE set up a committee to reassess the potential[21] and through the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE, previously C-WET) has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind resource in India from 49,130 MW to 302,000 MW assessed at 100 m hub height.[22] Wind turbines are now being set up at even 120 m hub height and the wind resource at higher hub heights of around 120 m or more that are prevailing is possibly even more.

In 2015, the MNRE set the target for Wind Power generation capacity by 2022 at 60,000 MW.[2][23]

East and Northeast regions have no grid-connected wind power plant as of December 2017.

No offshore wind farm is under implementation as of December 2017.[24] However, an Offshore Wind Policy was announced in 2015 and presently weather stations and Lidars are being set up by NIWE at some locations.[25] The first offshore wind farm is planned near Dhanushkodi in Tamil Nadu.[26]

Electricity generation[edit]

Wind power accounts for nearly 10% of India's total installed utility power generation capacity and generated 71.814 TWh in the fiscal year 2022–23, which is nearly 4.43% of total electricity generation.[27] The capacity utilization factor is nearly 18% in the fiscal year 2022–23 (19.33% in 2018–19, 16% in 2017–18, 19.62% in 2016–17 and 14% in 2015–16). 70% of annual wind generation is during the five months duration from May to September coinciding with Southwest monsoon duration. In India, solar power is complementary to wind power as it is generated mostly during the non-monsoon period in the daytime.[28] Nearly 60% of the wind power is generated during the night time which is equal to the stored solar power in terms of pricing.[29]

Monthly electricity generation, April 2022 – March 2023[30]
Month North West South East North East Total (GWh)
April 2022 467.46 2,513.64 1,145.12 0 0 4,126.22
May 2022 1,092.60 4,619.10 4,462.57 0 0 10,174.27
June 2022 1,092.44 3,635.86 4,980.22 0 0 9,708.52
July 2022 532.70 3,942.27 5,791.47 0 0 10,266.44
August 2022 548.23 3,163.02 4,983.71 0 0 8,694.96
September 2022 488.82 2,146.59 4,019.08 0 0 6,654.49
October 2022 243.51 1,531.83 1,646.46 0 0 3,421.80
November 2022 248.47 1,197.48 1,043.55 0 0 2,489.50
December 2022 281.01 2,133.49 1,581.65 0 0 3,996.15
January 2023 471.84 2,733.68 1,808.23 0 0 5,013.74
February 2023 274.53 1,434.89 1,417.57 0 0 3,126.99
March 2023 369.80 1,884.13 1,887.13 0 0 4,141.07
Total (GWh) 6,111.41 30,935.99 34,766.76 0 0 71,814.16

Wind power by state[edit]

Muppandal Wind farm near NH44
Muppandal Wind Farm in Tamil Nadu

There is a growing number of wind energy installations in states across India. Gujarat has the highest installed wind power capacity, followed by Tamil Nadu.

Installed wind capacity by state as of 31 May 2023[31]
State Total capacity (MW)
Gujarat 10,415.82
Tamil Nadu 10,124.52
Karnataka 5,303.05
Rajasthan 5,193.42
Maharashtra 5,026.33
Andhra Pradesh 4,096.65
Madhya Pradesh 2,844.29
Telangana 128.10
Kerala 62.50
Others 4.30
Total 43,198.98

Gujarat[edit]

Gujarat government's focus on tapping renewable energy has led to a sharp rise in the wind power capacity in the last few years.[32] According to official data, wind power generation capacity in the state has increased a staggering ten times in the last six years. Gujarat has the highest share (around 24%) of the total installed wind power capacity of the country. Renewable energy projects worth a massive Rs 1 trillion (short scale) of memorandums of understanding (MoUs) in the Vibrant Gujarat Summit in 2017.[33] The single largest wind turbine of 5.2 MW capacity at 120 meters hub height was installed in the state as of November 2022.[34][32] The tallest wind turbine (3 MW) is located at Gondal in Gujarat with 160 m hub height.[35]

Tamil Nadu's total wind capacity was 9608 MW by the end of March 2021, while Gujarat's capacity was approximately 1,000 MW lower, at 8562 MW. However, by the end of January 2023, Gujarat's total wind power capacity had risen to 9,919 MW, while Tamil Nadu's installed wind energy capacity was at 9964 MW. Gujarat gained 710 MW in the current fiscal year, whereas Tamil Nadu added only 99 MW. By mid-2023, Gujarat had surpassed Tamil Nadu in installed capacity.[36][37]

Tamil Nadu[edit]

Tamil Nadu's wind production capacity was second highest (around 23% share) after Gujarat as of 31 May 2023. The Government of Tamil Nadu realized the importance and need for renewable energy, and set up a separate Agency, as a registered society, called the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) as early as 1985. Tamil Nadu was a leader in Wind Power in India, before being surpassed by Gujarat in 2023. The largest capacity wind turbine of 4.2 MW is installed in Tamil Nadu state as of October 2022.[38] It was surpassed in the next month by a wind turbine of 5.2 MW capacity at 120 meters hub height installed in Mundra, Gujarat in November 2022.[34] In Muppandal windfarm, the total capacity is 1500 MW with nearly 3000 wind turbines, the largest wind power plant in India. The total wind installed capacity in Tamil Nadu is 7633 MW.[39] During the fiscal year 2014–15, the electricity generation is 9.521 GWh, with about a 15% capacity utilisation factor.[40]

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

In consideration of a unique concept, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to Madhya Pradesh Windfarms Ltd. MPWL, Bhopal at Nagda Hills near Dewas under consultation from Consolidated Energy Consultants Ltd. CECL Bhopal. All 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31 March 2008 and are under successful operation.[41]

Odisha[edit]

Odisha a coastal state has a higher potential for wind energy. The current installed capacity stands at 2.0 MW. Odisha has a wind power potential of 1700MW. The Govt of Odisha is actively pursuing to boost Wind power generation. However, it has not progressed like other states primarily because Odisha having a huge coal reserve and a number of existing and upcoming thermal power plants, is a power surplus state.[42]

Ladakh[edit]

The union territory of Ladakh and its Kargil district are potential wind energy areas, which are yet to be exploited.[22]

Projects[edit]

India's largest wind power production facilities (20 MW and greater)[43][44]

Windmills on the Tirumala hills in Andhra Pradesh
A wind farm in Rajasthan
Wind turbines in India's agricultural farms
Power plant Location State MWe Producer Ref
Kutch Wind Farm (Gujarat Hybrid Renewable Energy Park) Kutch Gujarat 11,500 (wind)

+ 11,500 (solar + wind)

Adani Group[45] Suzlon[46] [47][48]
Muppandal Wind Farm Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 1500 Muppandal Wind [49]
Jaisalmer Wind Park Jaisalmer Rajasthan 1064 Suzlon Energy [50]
Brahmanvel windfarm Dhule Maharashtra 528 Parakh Agro Industries [51]
Kayathar Tutcorin Tamilnadu 300 Siemens Gamesa, ReNew Power
Dhalgaon windfarm Sangli Maharashtra 278 Gadre Marine Exports [52]
Vankusawade Wind Park Satara district Maharashtra 259 Suzlon Energy Ltd. [53]
Vaspet Vaspet Maharashtra 144 ReNew Power
Tuljapur Osmanabad Maharashtra 126 Siemens Gamesa, ReNew Power
Sipla Jaisalmer Rajasthan 102 CLP Wind Farms (India) Private Ltd [54]
Saeame Jamnagar Gujarat 101 CLP Wind Farms (India) Private Ltd [55]
Beluguppa Wind Park Beluguppa Andhra Pradesh 100.8 Orange Renewable
Mamatkheda Wind Park Mamatkheda Madhya Pradesh 100.5 Orange Renewable
Anantapur Wind Park Nimbagallu Andhra Pradesh 100 Orange Renewable
Damanjodi Wind Power Plant Damanjodi Odisha 99 Suzlon Energy Ltd.
Theni Tamil Nadu 99 CLP Wind Farms (India) Private Ltd [56]
Saundatti Belgaum Karnataka 84 CLP Wind Farms (India) Private Ltd [57]
Jath Jath Maharashtra 84 ReNew Power
Welturi Welturi Maharashtra 75 ReNew Power
Acciona Tuppadahalli Chitradurga District Karnataka 56.1 Tuppadahalli Energy India Pvt Ltd
Dangiri Wind Farm Jaiselmer Rajasthan 54 Oil India Ltd.
Nuziveedu Seeds Bhimasamudra Karnataka 50.4 NSL Renewable Power Pvt Ltd.
Khandke Ahmednagar Maharashtra 50 CLP Wind Farms (India) Private Ltd [58]
Narmada Nallakonda Andhra Pradesh 50 CLP Wind Farms (India) Private Ltd [59]
Bercha Wind Park Ratlam Madhya Pradesh 50 Orange Renewable
Harapanahalli Davanagere Karnataka 40 CLP Wind Farms (India) Private Ltd. [60]
Cape Comorin Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 33 Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore Ltd.
Kayathar Subhash Kayathar Tamil Nadu 30 Subhash Ltd.
Dedan Rajula (Sawarkundla) Gujarat 30 IB Vogt Solar India Pvt Ltd.
Jasdan Jasdan Gujarat 25.0 NTPC LTD.
Ramakkalmedu Ramakkalmedu Kerala 25 Subhash Ltd.
Gudimangalam Gudimangalam Tamil Nadu 21 Gudimangalam Wind Farm
Shalivahana Wind Tirupur Tamil Nadu 20.4[61] Shalivahana Green Energy. Ltd.
Puthlur RCI Puthlur Andhra Pradesh 20 Wescare (India) Ltd.

Repowering wind power projects[edit]

The union government has released a policy for the repowering of wind power projects which states that the repowering potential is nearly 25,406 MW.[62] The policy includes the installation of additional wind turbines, of minimum 3 MW capacity each with hub heights above 120 meters, located in between the existing wind turbines in place of few existing turbines without any effect on one another's performance.[63][64][65] Increasing the hub height also enhances the average wind speed captured by the turbine, thanks to the wind profile power law.[66][67] Spacing between wind turbines in a wind farm can be optimized by yaw control minimizing the wake effect to enhance the capacity density (MW per square km).[68][69] With the advent of towers made of wood up to 100 meters tall, the top half of the tower can be of light weight wood structure to locate wind turbines above 200 m height.[70]

Additional electricity can be produced by covering the south-facing façade area of the wind turbine towers/masts with solar panels up to the rotor bottom tip height at an economical price.[71][72]

Offshore wind power plants[edit]

India has an offshore wind energy potential of around 70 GW in parts along the coast of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.[73][74] As of May 2022, there is no offshore wind project under construction or operation.[75] India has announced tentative schedule for calling request for quotation (RfQ) to establish off shore wind power projects.[76]

India started planning in 2010 to enter into offshore wind power,[77] and a 100 MW demonstration plant located off the Gujarat coast began planning in 2014.[78] In 2013, a consortium (instead of a group of organisations), led by Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) started project FOWIND (Facilitating Offshore Wind in India) to identify potential zones for development of offshore wind power in India and to stimulate R & D activities in this area.[79] The other consortium partners include the Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), DNV GL, the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and the World Institute of Sustainable Energy (WISE). The consortium was awarded a grant of €4.0 million by the delegation of the European Union to India in 2013 besides co-funding support from GPCL. The project activities will be implemented from December 2013 to March 2018.

The project focuses on the States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu for the identification of potential zones for development through techno-commercial analysis and preliminary resource assessment. It will also establish a platform for structural collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders from European Union and India, on offshore wind technology, policy, regulation, industry, and human resource development. FOWIND activities will also help facilitate a platform to stimulate offshore wind-related R&D activities in the country. The consortium published initial pre-feasibility assessment reports for offshore wind farm development in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 16 June 2015.[80][81] In September 2015, India's cabinet has approved the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy. With this, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorised as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).[82]

India seems pacing up rapidly towards offshore wind energy development as the Nodal Ministry (MNRE) & Nodal Agency (NIWE) calls with the Expression of Interest (EoI)[83] inviting the bidders for development of first 1000MW commercial-scale offshore wind farm in India, near the coast of Gujarat. The EoI published on 16 April 2018, specifies the proposed area identified under the FOWIND & FOWPI study funded by European Union. The proposed location of the offshore wind farm could be 23–40 km off the coast from the Pipavav port, Gulf of Khambhat. The proposed area covers about 400sq km. The wind measurements & other data collection are in progress under the supervision of NIWE.

See also[edit]

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