Wind power in India

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The development of wind power in India began in the 1986 with first wind farms being set up in coastal areas of Maharshtra (Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Okha) and Tamil Nadu (Tuticorin) with 55 kW Vestas wind turbines. These demonstration projects were supported by MNRE. The capacity has significantly increased in the last few years. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the United States, India has the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.[1][2] In 2009-10 India's growth rate was highest among the other top four countries.

The potential for wind farms in the country was first assessed by Dr. Jami Hossain using a GIS platform to be more than 2,000 GW in 2011. This was subsequently re-validated by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, US (LBNL) in an independent study in 2012. As a result, the MNRE set up a committee to reassess the potential[3] and through the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE, previously C-WET) has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind resource in India from 49,130 MW to 302,000 MW assessed at 100m Hub height.[4] The wind resource at higher Hub heights that are prevailing is possibly even more. In the year 2015, the MNRE set the target for Wind Power generation capacity by the year 2022 at 60,000 MW.[5][6]

As of 31 March 2016 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 26,769 MW, mainly spread across South, West and North regions.[6][7][8] East and North east regions have no grid connected wind power plant as of March, 2015 end. No offshore wind farm utilizing traditional fixed-bottom wind turbine technologies in shallow sea areas or floating wind turbine technologies in deep sea areas are under implementation. However, an Offshore Wind Policy was announced in 2015 and presently weather stations and LIDARs are being set up by NIWE at some locations.

A wind farm in Kayathar, Tamil Nadu.

Overview[edit]

The worldwide installed capacity of wind power reached 435 GW by the end of 2015. China (148,000 MW), US (74,347 MW) and Germany (45,192 MW) are ahead of India in fourth position.[9] The short gestation periods for installing wind turbines, and the increasing reliability and performance of wind energy machines has made wind power a favored choice for capacity addition in India.[10]

Monthly electricity generation[edit]

Wind power accounts nearly 8.6% of India's total installed power generation capacity and generated 28,604 million Kwh (MU) in the fiscal year 2015-16 which is nearly 2.5% of total electricity generation.[11] The capacity utilisation factor is nearly 14% in the fiscal year 2015-16 (15% in 2014-15). 70% of wind generation is during the five months duration from May to September coinciding with Southwest monsoon duration.

Installed Wind Power Capacity
Fiscal Year End Cumulative Capacity (in MW)
2005
6,270
2006
7,850
2007
9,587
2008
10,925
2009
13,064
2010
16,084
2011
18,421
2012
20,149
2013
21,264
2014
23,354
2015
26,769
Month North West South East North East Total (MU)
April, 2015 331 859 338 - - 1,528
May, 2015 373 1,265 924 - - 2,562
June, 2015 348 1,342 2,030 - - 3,720
July, 2015 510 2,527 3,122 - - 6,157
August, 2015 472 1,605 2,328 - - 4,405
September, 2015 319 792 1,344 - - 2,455
October, 2015 307 414 393 - - 1,113
November, 2015 250 734 414 - - 1,061
December, 2015 156 801 522 - - 1,480
January, 2016 149 462 553 - - 1,164
February, 2016 220 728 463 - - 1,411
March, 2016 293 830 425 - - 1,548
Total (MU) 3,728 12,359 12,856 - - 28,604

State wise wind power[edit]

There is a growing number of wind energy installations in states across India.

A wind farm in Rajasthan.
State Capacity (MW), as of 31 March 2015[12]
Tamil Nadu 7455.2
Gujarat 3645.4
Maharashtra 4450.8
Rajasthan 3307.2
Karnataka 2638.4
Andhra Pradesh 1031.4
Madhya Pradesh 879.7
Kerala 35.1
Others 4.3
Total 23447.5

Tamil Nadu[edit]

Muppandal Wind farm near NH7

Tamil Nadu's wind power capacity is around 35% of India's total . The Government of Tamil Nadu realized the importance and need for renewable energy, and set up a separate Agency, as registered society, called the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) as early as 1985. Now, Tamil Nadu has become a leader in Wind Power in India. In Muppandal windfarm, Tamil Nadu the total capacity is 1500MW, which is the largest in India. As per TEDA, the total installed capacity in Tamil Nadu is 7253MW.[13] During the fiscal year 2014-15, the electricity generation is 9.521 billion Kwh which is nearly 15% capacity utilisation factor.[14]

Maharashtra[edit]

Maharashtra is one of the prominent states that installed wind power projects second to Tamil Nadu in India. As on 30/09/2014, installed capacity of wind energy is 4167.26 MW. As of now there are 50 developers registered with state nodal agency "Maharashtra energy Development Agency" for development of wind power projects. All the major manufacturers of wind turbines including Suzlon, Vestas, Gamesa, Regen, Leitner Shriram have presence in Maharashtra.

Gujarat[edit]

Gujarat government's focus on tapping renewable energy has led to sharp rise in the wind power capacity in the last few years. According to official data, wind power generations capacity in the state has increased a staggering ten times in just six years.

Rajasthan[edit]

2356 MW as per the news reported by Times of India, Dated 31.3.2012.[citation needed]

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

In consideration of unique concept, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to Madhya Pradesh Windfarms Ltd. MPWL, Bhopal at Nagda Hills near Dewas under consultation from Consolidated Energy Consultants Ltd. CECL Bhopal. All the 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31.03.2008 and under successful operation.[15]

Kerala[edit]

55 MW production of wind power is installed in Kerala. The first wind farm of the state was set up 1997[when?] at Kanjikode in Palakkad district.[citation needed]

The agency has identified 16 sites for setting up wind farms through private developers.[citation needed]

Odisha[edit]

Odisha a coastal state has higher potential for wind energy. Current installation capacity stands at 2.0 MW. Odisha has a windpower potential of 1700MW. The Govt of Odisha is actively pursuing to boost Wind power generation in the state. however it has not progressed like other states primarily because Odisha having a huge coal reserve and number of existing and upcoming thermal power plants, is a power surplus state.[16]

West Bengal[edit]

The total installation in West Bengal is 2.10 MW till Dec 2009 at Fraserganj, Distt- South 24 Paraganas. More 0.5 MW (approx) at Ganga Sagar, Kakdwip, Distt - South 24 Paraganas. Both the project owned by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA), Govt. of WB and project was executed on turnkey basis by Utility Powertech Limited (UPL).[citation needed]

Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

The Kargil, Ladakh, occupied Gilgit and China occupied Aksai Chin regions of Jammu and Kashmir state are potential wind energy areas, which are yet to be exploited.[4] Wind Speeds are higher during the winter months in the state, which is complimentary to the hydro power available during the summer months from the snow melt water. Being a Himalayan state located at higher altitude, the heating energy requirements are high which can be met by the renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and hydro power. The state is yet to open its account in grid connected wind power installations.

Projects[edit]

India's largest wind power production facilities (10MW and greater)[17]

Windmills on the Tirumala hills in Andhra Pradesh
Wind farms midst paddy fields in India.
Wind turbines midst of India's agricultural farms.
Rank Power plant Producer Location State MWe
1 Muppandal windfarm[18] Muppandal Wind Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 1500
2 Jaisalmer Wind Park[19] Suzlon Energy Jaisalmer Rajasthan 1064
3 Brahmanvel windfarm[20] Parakh Agro Industries Dhule Maharashtra 528
4 Dhalgaon windfarm[21] Gadre Marine Exports Sangli Maharashtra 278
5 Vankusawade Wind Park Suzlon Energy Ltd. Satara District. Maharashtra 259
6 Vaspet ReNew Power Vaspet Maharashtra 144
7 Mamatkheda Wind Park Orange Renewable Mamatkheda Madhya Pradesh 100.5
8 Anantapur Wind Park Orange Renewable Nimbagallu Andhra Pradesh 100
9 Damanjodi Wind Power Plant Suzlon Energy Ltd. Damanjodi Odisha 99
10 Jath ReNew Power Jath Maharashtra 84
11 Welturi ReNew Power Welturi Maharashtra 75
12 Acciona Tuppadahalli Tuppadahalli Energy India Pvt Ltd Chitradurga District Karnataka 56.1
13 Dangiri Wind Farm Oil India Ltd. Jaiselmer Rajasthan 54
14 Bercha Wind Park Orange Renewable Ratlam Madhya Pradesh 50
15 Cape Comorin Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore Ltd. Kanyakumari Tamil Nadu 33
16 Kayathar Subhash Subhash Ltd. Kayathar Tamil Nadu 30
17 Jasdan ReNew Power Jasdan Gujarat 25.2
18 Ramakkalmedu Subhash Ltd. Ramakkalmedu Kerala 25
19 Gudimangalam Gudimangalam Wind Farm Gudimangalam Tamil Nadu 21
20 Shalivahana Wind Shalivahana Green Energy. Ltd. Tirupur Tamil Nadu 20.4[22]
21 Puthlur RCI Wescare (India) Ltd. Puthlur Andhra Pradesh 20
22 Lamda Danida Danida India Ltd. Lamba Gujarat 15
23 Chennai Mohan Mohan Breweries & Distilleries Chennai Tamil Nadu 15
24 Shah Gajendragarh MMTCL Gadag Karnataka 15
25 Jamgudrani MP MP Windfarms Ltd. Dewas Madhya Pradesh 14
26 Jogmatti BSES BSES Ltd. Chitradurga District Karnataka 14
27 Perungudi Newam Newam Power Company Ltd. Perungudi Tamil Nadu 12
28 Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Tamil Nadu 11
29 Shah Gajendragarh Sanjay D. Ghodawat Gadag Karnataka 10.8
30 Hyderabad TSRTC Telangana SRTC Hyderabad Telangana 10
31 Muppandal Madras Madras Cements Ltd. Muppandal Tamil Nadu 10
32 Poolavadi Chettinad Chettinad Cement Corp. Ltd. Poolavadi Tamil Nadu 10

Salient data[edit]

Hybrid in Leh, J&K state
Larger wind turbines in India Unit Data Data
Biggest capacity installed MW 2.50 2.80[23]
Numbers installed nos 18
Wind farm name / location RPL, Vashpet, Maharashtra.
Commissioning date year 2012
Manufacturer Global Wind Power Ltd Regen Powertech
Model no. GWP 100
Hub height from the ground meters 98.2
Rotor diameter meters 100.2 109.0
Rated wind speed meters/sec 13 [24]
Yearly generation million KWh

Optimisation of wind power[edit]

Once the location of wind farm is selected based on the available wind data, next step is to optimise the wind power out put from the farm area using the available wind turbines from the manufactures. The spacing between the adjacent wind turbine is between 5 and 9 times of the rotor diameter in the prominent wind direction and 3 to 5 times perpendicular to wind direction.[25][26] If needed CFD analysis can be performed to finalise the optimum layout. Higher rotor diameter increases the swept area of wind by increasing the wind turbine power.[27] Higher hub height from the ground enables the rotor to use high velocity air available at higher elevation. Selecting a bigger rotor diameter and more hub height with latest transmission (mechanical to electrical energy) technology would maximise a wind farm power generation capacity, reduce the wind electricity generating cost and optimise the installation cost per MW capacity.[28]

Barriers[edit]

Initial cost for wind turbines is greater than that of conventional fossil fuel generators and capacity expansion of existing hydro power plants with pumped storage hydro units.[29] Noise is produced by the rotor blades. This is not normally an issue in the locations chosen for most wind farms.

Most of the wind power generation is during the south west monsoon season when rivers usually flood with water generating cheaper secondary hydro power. Scheduling the wind power which is unpredictable secondary power (even on daily basis), at fair price is a problem during monsoon season. Also adding additional pumped-storage hydroelectricity units instead of new wind power plants to produce predictable secondary power on daily basis during monsoon months and pumped storage operation for converting excess power in to peaking power during the rest of the year is more economical and commercial proposition.

When large wind power plants are located away from the load centres, laying dedicated transmission lines to evacuate the unreliable secondary wind power is additional cost liability. In India, solar power is complimentary to wind power as it is generated mostly during the non monsoon period in day time.[30] Solar power plants can be located in the inter space between the towers of wind power plants or nearby area with common power evacuation facility. The wind power plant should guarantee minimum power generation/export in a year (say 15% capacity factor) to the purchaser.

In case the generation is below the guaranteed minimum power export, penalty should be applicable for the electricity which is short fall. This is to prevent over declaration of plant nameplate capacity to mobilise 100% debt financing by promoters without real equity contribution.

The wind power policy allows accelerated depreciation of the wind power plants cost out of the profits accrued from other businesses of a company to cut down the overall company's tax liability. Businessmen are using short sightedly this window for reducing tax liability by installing cheaper wind mills of vintage technology based on supplier's claims without liability. This method of wind projects financing and implementation is leading to inefficient harnessing of the available wind potential.[24]

Wind power plants need very less land (less than one acre/MW for tower foundation, access road, substation, power evacuation lines, etc.) compared to other power generation technologies. It uses air space without effecting vegetation on the ground. Air space is a national resource similar to mines, spectrum, etc. Wind potential shall be auctioned to the highest bidder for its efficient use.[31] Already very good sites with attractive wind potential are harnessed without reaping optimum value.[24][32]

Offshore wind power plants[edit]

India is planning to enter in to offshore wind power, with a 100 MW demonstration plant located off the Gujarat coast.[33] In 2013, a consortium (instead of group of organizations), led by Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) started project FOWIND (Facilitating Offshore Wind in India) to identify potential zones for development of off-shore wind power in India and to stimulate R & D activities in this area.[34] The other consortium partners include the Centre for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP), DNV GL, the Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and the World Institute of Sustainable Energy (WISE). The consortium was awarded the grant of €4.0 million by the delegation of the European Union to India in 2013 besides co-funding support from GPCL. The project action will be implemented from December 2013 to March 2018.

The project focuses on the States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu for identification of potential zones for development through techno-commercial analysis and preliminary resource assessment. It will also establish a platform for structural collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders from European Union and India, on offshore wind technology, policy, regulation, industry and human resource development. FOWIND activities will also help facilitate a platform to stimulate offshore wind related R&D activities in the country. The consortium published initial pre-feasibility assessment reports for offshore wind farm development in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu on 16 June 2015.[35][36] In September 2015, the India's cabinet has approved the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy. With this, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Wind Energy Report 2015". Report. "World Wind Energy Report 2008"
  2. ^ "Wind atlas of India". Retrieved 2014-08-28. 
  3. ^ "India Wind Power Potential". 
  4. ^ a b "Estimation of Installable Wind Power Potential at 80 m level in India". Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "Tentative State-wise break-up of Renewable Power target to be achieved by the year 2022 So that cumulative achievement is 1,75,000 MW" (PDF). http://mnre.gov.in. Retrieved 7 May 2015.  External link in |website= (help)
  6. ^ a b "Physical Progress (Achievements)". Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  7. ^ Welcome to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), Chennai. Cwet.tn.nic.in (2013-02-31). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
  8. ^ "Installed Wind Capacity". Indianwindpower.com. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  9. ^ Global Wind 2012 Report
  10. ^ Suzlon partners with Maharashtra in record year for wind power
  11. ^ "NLDC monthly reports (refer table 7 of each month)". Retrieved 23 April 2016. 
  12. ^ "Installed capacity of wind power projects in India". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  13. ^ [1], Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency - Site.
  14. ^ "SRLDC monthly report, March 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  15. ^ "Developer of Wind Power Estate". Wind Power India. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  16. ^ "Wind power and solar energy in Odisha". REVE. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  17. ^ "Indian Wind Energy - Projects, Companies, Research, Data, Statistics - Energy Alternatives India". EAI.in. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  18. ^ "Muppandal windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Jaisalmer windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  20. ^ "Brahmanvel windfarm (India)". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  21. ^ "Dhalgaon windfarm". Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  22. ^ "Shalivahana Green Energy | Bio Mass | Municipal Solid Waste | Wind Energy | Hydel Energy". Shalivahanagroup.com. Retrieved 2012-09-17. 
  23. ^ "Important facts & figures of Indian wind power". Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  24. ^ a b c "Assessment of investment Climate for Wind Power Development in India" (PDF). Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  25. ^ "Wind turbines". Retrieved 7 May 2015. 
  26. ^ "10 Wind Turbines That Push the Limits of Design". Retrieved 7 May 2015. 
  27. ^ "Wind turbine capacity vs rotor diameter". Retrieved 7 May 2015. 
  28. ^ "How It Works: Gearless wind Turbine". Popsci.com. 2010-03-26. Retrieved 2013-11-06. 
  29. ^ http://www.greenworldinvestor.com/2011/04/08/wind-power-plants-in-india-guide-to-cost-and-how-to-setup-a-wind-farmstate-wind-capacitywind-subsidies-and-list-of-major-wind-farms-in-india/
  30. ^ "ReGen enters solar power with hybrid solution". Retrieved 16 October 2015. 
  31. ^ "Govt can use auctions to get renewable energy projects: Study". Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  32. ^ "Government seeks to phase out all sub 1 MW wind turbines built before 2000". Retrieved 6 March 2016. 
  33. ^ "MOU Signed for First Ever Offshore Wind Power Project in India". http://pib.nic.in. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2015.  External link in |website= (help)
  34. ^ "FOWIND Project". Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  35. ^ pre-feasibility assessment reports "FOWIND Project" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  36. ^ R. Srikanth; Sangeetha Kandavel (29 January 2015). "Tapping the offshore wind". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  37. ^ "National Offshore Wind Power Policy 2015". GKToday. 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2015-11-03. 

External links[edit]