Wind power in the Netherlands

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As of June 2022, wind power in the Netherlands has an installed capacity of 8,052 MW, 30.5% of which is based offshore.[1] In 2019, the wind turbines provided the country with 12% of its electricity demand during the year, a figure that is growing but somewhat below the average of 15% that wind power provides across the whole of the EU's electricity consumption.[2] The Dutch are trying to meet the EU-set target of producing 14% of total energy use from renewable sources by 2020, and 16% by 2023. Windmills have historically played a major part in the Netherlands by providing an alternative to water driven mills.[3]

In March 2022, the Dutch government announced that by 2030 offshore wind was to become the Netherlands' biggest power source, aiming at 21 GW of installed capacity.[4]

Since 2015 there has been a trend towards the deployment and planning for large wind farms, both onshore and offshore, with a view to the approximate tripling wind power capacity from 2015 levels by 2023.[5] The first of these, the 429 MW Noordoostpolder wind farm was already partially deployed by year end 2015 whilst the 600 MW Gemini offshore wind farm was commissioned in 2017. These newer and larger wind farms are making use of some of the largest wind turbines available, in particular in the case of Noordoostpolder the Enercon E-126 7500 kW wind turbine, the largest onshore turbine available at that time. The Netherlands is also well prepared for a significant rise in the production of intermittent power from wind energy by good linkages to its neighbours via high voltage cables enabling power to be imported or exported as required. These include the 580 km NorNed submarine cable (700 MW) link to Norway, the 1,000 MW BritNed cable link to the United Kingdom and the COBRA cable link to Denmark (700 MW).

Many of the numerous smaller and older wind farms in the Netherlands consist of much smaller turbines compared to those typically deployed today. These were often manufactured by lesser known wind turbine manufacturers, sometimes producing innovative products such as the Nedwind 2 blade turbine. Many of these smaller companies were eventually acquired by the larger wind turbine manufactures such as Vestas, Siemens and Lagerwey.

Installed capacity[edit]

  Cumulative sea-based wind capacity (MW)
  Cumulative land-based wind capacity (MW)
Installed land-based wind capacity (MW) by province in 2021[6]
Cumulative wind capacity in The Netherlands[7][8][9]
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Installed capacity (MW) 50 83 101 131 152 250 296 324 363 410
Electricity generated (GWh) 56 88 137 173 221 314 435 489 571 642
% of electricity consumption 0.07 0.11 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.34 0.45 0.49 0.55 0.61
Capacity factor in percent[a] 12.79 12.10 15.48 15.08 16.60 14.34 16.78 17.23 17.96 17.88
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Sea-based capcity (MW) 108 108 228 228
Land-based capacity (MW) 447 485 672 905 1,075 1,224 1,453 1,641 1,921 1,994
Installed capacity (MW) 447 485 672 905 1,075 1,224 1,561 1,749 2,149 2,222
Electricity generated (GWh) 744 822 1,020 1,359 1,763 2,034 2,540 3,166 3,925 4,481
% of electricity consumption 0.69 0.74 0.91 1.19 1.50 1.72 2.11 2.58 3.18 3.78
Capacity factor in percent[a] 19.00 19.35 17.33 17.14 18.72 18.97 18.57 20.66 20.85 23.02
Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Sea-based capacity (MW) 228 228 228 228 228 357 957 957 957 957
Land-based capacity (MW) 2,009 2,088 2,205 2,485 2,637 3,034 3,300 3,245 3,436 3,527
Installed capacity (MW) 2,237 2,316 2,433 2,713 2,865 3,391 4,257 4,202 4,393 4,484
Electricity generated (GWh) 4,503 4,725 4,939 5,368 5,810 6,917 8,364 9,642 10,030 10,774
% of electricity consumption 3.69 3.84 4.10 4.47 4.92 5.81 6.97 7.98 8.22 8.84
Capacity factor in percent[a] 22.98 23.29 23.17 22.59 23.15 23.29 22.43 26.19 26.06 27.43
Year 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029
Sea-based capacity (MW) 2,460 2,460
Land-based capacity (MW) 4,159 5,341
Installed capacity (MW) 6,619 7.801
Electricity generated (GWh) 13,945 19,058
% of electricity consumption 11.54 15.60
Capacity factor in percent[a] 24.05 27.89

Future targets[edit]

The Dutch government has set a target of 6,000 MW nameplate capacity of onshore wind power by 2020 (not met, as per the data above) and 4,450 MW of offshore wind power by 2023.[5] This will contribute towards the Dutch target of 14% renewable energy use out of total energy use by 2020[10] and 16% by 2023.[5] In 2020 wind power provided 11.54% of the Dutch electricity generation (see table above) while solar power provided an additional 7.25% for a combined 18.79% - easily meeting the target without taking other renewable sources into account, even though the target for onshore wind capacity was not met.

For offshore wind a new system of tendering is under development. New wind farm deployment is based on the SER agreement that describes a plan for five years of tendering 700 MW per year. Under this system the government chooses locations and organizes tenders for projects of 350 MW, and project developers can offer bids for each farm. These sites are also surveyed centrally by the government allowing developers to avoid costly and multiple surveys.[11]

Offshore Wind Energy the Targets Defined in the 2015 SER Agreement[11]
Call for tender (year) Additional offshore wind power (MW) Becoming operational Target met?
2016 (early) 700 2019–2020
2016 (late) 700 2020
2017 700 2021
2018 700 2022
2019 700 2023 TBD
Total 3,500 by 2023 TBD

Turbine manufacturers and repowering[edit]

Many small scale wind farms exist throughout the Netherlands which bear testament to earlier models of wind turbines and lesser known manufacturers which provided a range of niche products, ranging in size and power output. There are several Dutch turbine manufacturers that continue to manufacture both large and small installations for domestic and international clients. Smaller turbines are often used for off grid, bespoke and community power internationally.

Selected Dutch wind turbine manufacturers[12]
Manufacturer/ Model Notes
Lagerwey Started operations in 1979. Produced at least 19 models at 250, 750, 1500, 2000, 2300, 2500, 2600, 3000, 3600, 3800, 4000 and 4500 kW. Active 2020.
WES Established 1983. Produced at least 3 models of outputs 100, 200, 250 kW. Two of the models are still under production.
NedWind Began operating in 1990. Produced at least 8 models with power outputs of 100, 250, 500, 1000 kW.

Acquired by Neg Micon 1998

Windmaster Produced at least 14 models of 100. 150, 200, 225, 300, 500, 750, 850 and 1300 kW. Acquired by Lagerway in 1998.
2-B Energy Started operation in 2001 and is developing a 6,000 kW two blade downwind turbine. Active 2016.
EWT Founded in 2004, Produced at least 12 models at 250, 500, 750, 900 and 2000 kW. Active 2020.
XEMC-Darwind Started operations 2009. Produced at least 12 models of 2000, 4000, 4500, and 5000 kW. Active 2016.

Some of the newer larger wind farms currently under construction are replacing smaller turbines previously installed at given locations. One such example is the largest wind farm in Holland, Noordoostpolder, which is installing industrial scale wind turbines such as the new Enercon onshore wind turbines, at the time the largest onshore turbines in the world rated at 7500 kW nameplate capacity. The turbines have a hub height of 135 metres (443 ft) and each new turbine can generate as much electricity as all 50 turbines of the old wind farm combined.[13] The wind farm demonstrates the growth in scale in wind power as between 1987 and 1991 it was the largest of its kind in Europe with 50 turbines and a total nameplate capacity of 15 MW. The new Zuidwester site at the wind farm will have just 12 turbines and a total nameplate capacity of 90 MW.[14] A second hand market for turbines also exists, which could grow as older turbines are replaced by larger newer ones.[15]

Timeline of developments[edit]

2022

In Februari 2022 the Netherlands announced it increased its offshore wind target to 21 GW by 2030. That would meet approximately 75% of the countries electricity needs. With this, offshore wind energy makes an important contribution to achieving the increased climate target of 55% less CO2-emissions.[16]

2018

In March 2018 the Dutch government announced that it will build between 2023 and 2030 several new windfarms with a total installed capacity of 7 gigawatt.[17] Where the parks will come and how they will be built is still being discussed. However, the government wants 40% of the total electricity used in 2030 in the Netherlands to be supplied by wind.[18]

2016

In the first week of December 2016, all 150 turbines of the new 600 MW Gemini offshore windfarm began producing power, and the project is expected to be fully commissioned by mid 2017.[19] In July 2016, the first two stages of offshore wind farm development for a combined 700 MegaWatt capacity in a water area near Borssele was awarded to DONG Energy at a price of 7.27 Euro cent per kilowatt hour for 15 years. Transmission costs of 1.4 eurocent/kWh is to be added as TenneT is required to take power from sea to shore.[10] [11] [12]

2015 2015 was a record year for new installations in the Netherlands with 586 MW added of which 180 MW were offshore. This record was immediately beaten the following year with another 766 MW being added.[1]

The Dutch government has expressed the aspiration to build 4.450 MW of offshore wind power by 2023[5] which will have a considerable impact on the Dutch electricity grid, operated by TenneT. [9] As a first step, the government has determined 65 sites for offshore wind farms in the North Sea and IJsselmeer. [1]

2013

By December 2013, 1,975 wind turbines were operational on land in the Netherlands, with an aggregate capacity of 2,479 MW.[20] An additional 228 MW of capacity was installed at sea.[21]

2011

In November 2011, the Dutch government decided to no longer fund €6 billion per year to maintain subsidized wind kWh at €0.18. It sharply cut subsidies down to €1.5 billion, leaving private sector to carry over wind turbine investments should these be beneficial.[6]

Onshore wind power[edit]

Wind turbines at the Westereems Wind Park
Aerial view of Windpark Krammer

Whilst there are a growing number of large onshore wind farms in Holland, most of the onshore farms in 2015 consisted of a large number of small wind farms, including many single installation turbines as well as farms of between 1–10 turbines. In total there were 3,004 MW of onshore wind power at the end of 2015. Most wind power is produced in the province of Flevoland.[20] A few of the larger wind farms are listed here.

Selection of larger onshore wind farms in the Netherlands, Feb 2021
Wind farm Province Capacity (MW) Turbines Commissioning Notes/Ref
Windplan Groen Flevoland 400-500 90 Planned 2023 [22]
Noordoostpolder Flevoland 429 38 × Enercon E-126 7.5MW
48 × Siemens 3.0DD-108 3MW
2017 [23]
Wieringermeer North Holland 360 82 × Nordex N117 3.6MW
8 × Vestas V126 3.6MW
9 × Other
2020 [24]
Windplan Blauw Flevoland 339.2 37 × EnVentus V162-5.6MW
24 × GE Cypress 5.5MW
Planned 2023 [25]
Zeewolde Flevoland 320 91 Planned 2022 [26]
De Drentse Monden en Oostermoer Drenthe 175.5 45 × Nordex N131 3.9MW 2021 [27]
Westereems Groningen 171 50 × Enercon E82 3MW
2 × Senvion M6 6.15MW
2 × Lagerwey L136 4.5MW
2009/2012/2020 [28]
N33 Groningen 147 35 × Siemens Gamesa DD-230 R19 4.2MW 2021 [29]
Princess Alexia Windpark Flevoland 122 36 × Senvion 3.4M104 2013 [30]
Windpark Maasvlakte 2 South Holland 116.7 13 × Vestas V162 6.0MW

9 × Vestas V117 4.3MW

Planned 2023 [31]
Windpark Krammer Zeeland 102 34 × Enercon E-115 3MW 2018/2019 [32]
Windpark Oostpolder Groningen 94.5 21 × Enercon 2021
Windpark Kroningswind South Holland 80 19 × Vestas Planned 2022 [33]
Windpark Oosterhorn Groningen 77.4 18 × Vestas V136 2021
Windpark Delfzijl Zuid Groningen 75 34 × Enercon E70 2006
GroWind Groningen 63 21 × Vestas 2008 [30]
Windpark Delfzijl Noord Groningen 63 19 × Nordex 2015 [30]
Windpark Geefsweer Groningen 60.2 14 × Vestas 136 Planned 2021
Slufterdam South Holland 50.4 14 × Vestas V112 3.6MW 2018 [34]
Deil Gelderland 46 11 × Vestas V136 4.2MW 2020 [35]
Delfzijl-Zuid Groningen 43 10 × Enercon E70 2MW

10 × Enercon E70 2.3MW

2008 [30]
Koegorspolder Zeeland 42 21 × Vestas V80/2000 2007 [30]
Delfzijl Zuid Groningen 32 14 × Enercon 2008 [30]
Rachel Carson

(Eemmeerdijk)

Flevoland 18 18 × NedWind 1MW 1998 [30]

Noordoostpolder[edit]

The largest wind farm in the Netherlands is Noordoostpolder with a capacity of 429 MW. The farm consists of three smaller wind farms owned by separate organisations with local community links. The wind farm's 86 wind turbines will produce 1.4 billion kWh of electricity, enough. power for over 400,000 households every day, a figure roughly equivalent to the number of households in the Northern Netherlands.[13]

Westereems[edit]

The next largest onshore wind farm is the Westereems wind farm located in Eemshaven in Groningen, in the north of the Netherlands.

Princess Alexia[edit]

Up until the Westereems Wind Park was commissioned the largest onshore wind farm was the Princess Alexia Windpark in Zeewolde (122MW),[36] consisting of 36 REpower turbines and a 3.2MW/33MWh battery storage power station of BMW i3 batteries.[37] Other large wind farms are located in Delfzijl-zuid (43 MW),[30] Lelystad (46 MW), Terneuzen, (Koegorspolder, 44 MW), and Biddinghuizen (WP Kubbeweg, 34 MW).[20]

Rachel Carson[edit]

The Rachel Carson wind farm (also known as the Eemmeerdijk Wind Park.) remarkably consists of wind turbines with just 2 blades, manufactured by Nedwind, the 18 turbines have a combined nominal power of 18 MW.[30]

Offshore wind power[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML

See also: List of offshore wind farms in the North Sea

In contrast to onshore wind farms, almost all turbines by January 2017 were situated in just a few large wind farms.

Wind farm Location Nameplate capacity
(MW)
Turbines Commissioning Build
Cost
Depth
range (m)
km to
shore
Owner Refs.
Wind farms in the North Sea
Borssele I–II 51°41′44″N 3°4′56″E / 51.69556°N 3.08222°E / 51.69556; 3.08222 752 94 × Siemens Gamesa 8 MW 2020 14–40 22 Ørsted [38]
Borssele III–IV 51°41′50″N 2°55′22″E / 51.69722°N 2.92278°E / 51.69722; 2.92278 731.5 77 × MHI Vestas V164 9.5MW 2021 14–38 22 Shell, Van Oord, Eneco, Partners Group, DGE [39]
Borssele V 51°42′33″N 3°00′11″E / 51.7092°N 3.003°E / 51.7092; 3.003 19 2 × MHI Vestas 9.5MW 2021 Green giraffe holding, Investri Offshore, Van Oord [40]
Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) 52°36′22″N 4°25′8″E / 52.60611°N 4.41889°E / 52.60611; 4.41889 108 36 × Vestas V90-3MW 2008 €200m 15–18 13 Nuon, Shell [41][42]
Eneco Luchterduinen 52°24′18″N 4°09′43″E / 52.40500°N 4.16194°E / 52.40500; 4.16194 129 43 × Vestas V112/3000 2015 €450m 18–24 24 Eneco, Mitsubishi [43]
Gemini 54°2′13″N 5°57′54″E / 54.03694°N 5.96500°E / 54.03694; 5.96500 600 150 × Siemens SWT- 4.0–130 2017 €2.8 b 28–36 55 Northland Power, Siemens, Van Oord, HVC Groep [44][45]
Hollandse Kust (Noord) V 52°43′10″N 4°14′14″E / 52.71944°N 4.23722°E / 52.71944; 4.23722 759 69 × Siemens Gamesa 11.0-200 DD Planned 2023 15–28 18.5 Shell, Eneco [46]
Hollandse Kust (Zuid) I–IV 52°19′15″N 4°2′36″E / 52.32083°N 4.04333°E / 52.32083; 4.04333 1540 140 × Siemens Gamesa 11.0-200 DD Planned 2023 18–28 18–36 Vattenfall, BASF, Allianz [47][48]
Princess Amalia 52°35′16″N 4°13′23″E / 52.58778°N 4.22306°E / 52.58778; 4.22306 120 60 × Vestas V80-2MW 2008 €350m 19–24 26 Eneco Energie [49][50]
Wind farms in the IJsselmeer
Friesland 53°2′26″N 5°16′59″E / 53.04056°N 5.28306°E / 53.04056; 5.28306 380 89 × Siemens SWT-4.3–130 2021 €300m 3–6 2 Windpark Fryslân B.V. [51][52][53][54]
IJsselmeer Buitendijks (Windplan Blauw) 52°36′23″N 5°34′21″E / 52.6065°N 5.5725°E / 52.6065; 5.5725 132 24 × GE Cypress 5.5 MW Planned 2023 [55]
Irene Vorrink (decommissioned 2022) 52°35′53″N 5°35′20″E / 52.59806°N 5.58889°E / 52.59806; 5.58889 17 28 × Nordtank NTK600/43 1996 GBP 19m 2–3 0.1 Vattenfall [56][57]
Lely (decommissioned 2016) 52°47′49″N 5°7′8″E / 52.79694°N 5.11889°E / 52.79694; 5.11889 2 4 × Nedwind 500 kW/41 1994 GBP 4.4m 3–4 0.8 Nuon [58]
Westermeerwind (Noordoostpolder) 52°43′50″N 5°34′50″E / 52.73056°N 5.58056°E / 52.73056; 5.58056 144 48 × Siemens SWT-3.0-DD 2016 4–7 0.7–1.2 Westermeerwind BV [59]

Future offshore wind farms[edit]

Wind farm[60] Capacity (MW) Tender Planned Commissioning
Hollandse Kust (West) VI 700 2022 2025/2026
Hollandse Kust (West) VII 700 2022 2025/2026
IJmuiden Ver I 1000 2023 2028
IJmuiden Ver II 1000 2023 2028
IJmuiden Ver III 1000 2023 2029
IJmuiden Ver IV 1000 2023 2029
IJmuiden Ver (Noord) V 1000 2025 2029
IJmuiden Ver (Noord) VI 1000 2025 2029
Nederwiek (Zuid) I 2000 2025 2030
Nederwiek (Noord) II 2000 2026 2030
Nedrewiek (Noord) III 2000 2026 2031
Doordewind I 2000 2027 2031
Doordewind II 2000 2027 2031
Ten noorden van de Waddeneilanden I 700 2026/2027 2031
Hollandse Kust (West) VIII 700 2026/2027 -

Luchterduinen[edit]

Princess Amalia Wind Farm in the North Sea

The Eneco Luchterduinen wind farm was officially opened in September 2015 and is a 50/50 joint venture between Dutch energy company Eneco and Japan's Mitsubishi corporation. The 129 MW Eneco Luchterduinen wind farm is located 23 km off the coast between Zandvoort and Noordwijk cities in the Netherlands. The farm consists of 43 Vestas V112 turbines of 3 MW capacity each.[61] A further 228 MW of installed capacity will be added when completed.[61]

Princess Amalia[edit]

In 2008, a second, somewhat larger offshore wind farm was built: the Princess Amalia Wind Farm, consisting of 60 Vestas V80 2MW turbines totaling 120 MW, sufficient to power 125,000 homes and help the Netherlands cut 225,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions.[2] [6] The wind park was developed off the coast of IJmuiden by Econcern and Eneco Energie, at a total cost of $522.3 million.[6]

Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ)[edit]

In 2006, the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Farm was built, consisting of 36 Vestas V90 3MW turbines, totaling 108 MW, sufficient to light 100,000 houses.[1] [2] [7] The project cost $272 million and is cooperatively owned by Royal Dutch Shell and the Dutch utility company Nuon.

Lely[edit]

Built 1992 this nearshore wind farm had just 4 Nedwind 500 KW turbines based 1 km to shore. The farm was dismantled after 22 years service in 2016.[62]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Calculated value from total installed nameplate capacity and actual electricity generation. Statistical artifacts possible if new capacity was added late in the year

References[edit]

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