Wind power in the Netherlands

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Installed wind power. Source GWEC Global Wind Report 2015
Year Cumulative Capacity (in MW)
2001
481
2002
682
2003
908
2004
1,078
2005
1,224
2006
1,561
2007
1,749
2008
2,149
2009
2,225
2010
2,218
2011
2,272
2012
2,391
2013
2,713
2014
2,865
2015
3,431

Wind power in the Netherlands reached an installed capacity of 3,431 MW by year end 2015, 427 MW of which were based offshore.[1] The 2,174 turbines sited in the Netherlands by the end of 2015 provided the country with 5.6% of its electricity demand during the year, a figure that is growing but somewhat below the average of 11.4% that wind power provides across the whole of the EU’s electricity consumption.[2] 2015 was a record year for new installations in the Netherlands with 586 MW added of which 180 MW were offshore.[1]

The Dutch are trying to meet the EU-set target of producing 14% of total energy use from renewable sources by 2020, and 16% by 2023. Windmills have historically played a major part in the Netherlands by providing an alternative to water driven mills.[3]

Many of the numerous smaller and older wind farms in the Netherlands consist of much smaller turbines compared to those typically deployed today. These were often manufactured by lesser known wind turbine manufacturers, sometimes producing innovative products such as the Nedwind 2 blade turbine. Many of these smaller companies were eventually acquired by the larger wind turbine manufactures such as Vestas, Siemens and Lagerwey.

Since 2015 there has been a trend towards the deployment and planning for large wind farms, both onshore and offshore, with a view to the approximate tripling wind power capacity from 2015 levels by 2023.[4] The first of these, the 429 MW Noordoostpolder wind farm was already partially deployed by year end 2015 whilst the 600 MW Gemini offshore wind farm is expected to be commissioned in 2017. These newer and larger wind farms are making use of some of the largest wind turbines available, in particular in the case of Noordoostpolder the Enercon E-126 7500 kW wind turbine, the largest onshore turbine available at that time. The Netherlands is also well prepared for a significant rise in the production of intermittent power from wind energy by good linkages to its neighbours via high voltage cables enabling power to be imported or exported as required. These include the 580 km NorNed submarine cable (700 MW) link to Norway, the 1,000 MW BritNed cable link to the United Kingdom and the planned 2019 COBRA cable link to Denmark (700 MW).

Future targets[edit]

The Dutch government has set a target of 6,000 MW of onshore wind power by 2020 and 4,450 MW of offshore wind power by 2023.[4] This will contribute towards the Dutch target of 14% renewable energy use out of total energy use by 2020[5] and 16% by 2023.[4]

For offshore wind a new system of tendering is under development. New wind farm deployment is based on the SER agreement that describes a plan for five years of tendering 700 MW per year. Under this system the government chooses locations and organizes tenders for projects of 350 MW, and project developers can offer bids for each farm. These sites are also surveyed centrally by the government allowing developers to avoid costly and multiple surveys.[6]

Offshore Wind Energy the Targets Defined in the 2015 SER Agreement [6]
Call for tender (year) Additional offshore wind power (MW) Becoming operational
2016 (early) 700 2019-2020
2016 (late) 700 2020
2017 700 2021
2018 700 2022
2019 700 2023
Total 3,500

Turbine manufacturers and rempowering[edit]

Many small scale wind farms exist throughout the Netherlands which bear testament to earlier models of wind turbines and lesser known manufacturers which provided a range of niche products, ranging in size and power output. There are several Dutch turbine manufacturers that continue to manufacture both large and small installations for domestic and international clients. Smaller turbines are often used for off grid, bespoke and community power internationally.

Selected Dutch wind turbine manufacturers[7]
Manufacturer/ Model Notes
Lagerwey Started operations in 1979. Produced at least 19 models at 250, 750, 1500, 2000, 2300, 2500, 2600, 3000, 3600, 3800, 4000 kW. Active 2016.
WES Established 1983. Produced at least 3 models of outputs 100, 200, 250 kw. Two of the models are still under production.
Bonus Bonus began operating in 1983 and produced at least 18 models with power outputs of 100, 120, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750, 1000, 1300, 2000, 2300 kw.

Acquired by Siemens in 2004

NedWind Began operating in 1990. Produced at least 8 models with power outputs of 100, 250, 500, 1000 kw.

Acquired by Neg Micon 1998

Windmaster Produced at least 14 models of 100. 150, 200, 225, 300, 500, 750, 850 and 1300 kW. Acquired by Lagerway in 1998.
2-B Energy Started operation in 2001 and is developing a 6,000 kW two blade downwind turbine. Active 2016.
EWT Founded in 2004, Produced at least 12 models at 250, 500, 750, 900 and 2000 kW. Active 2016.
XEMC-Darwind Started operations 2009. Produced at least 12 models of 2000, 4000, 4500, and 5000 kW. Active 2016.

Some of the newer larger wind farms currently under construction are replacing smaller turbines previously installed at given locations. One such example is the largest wind farm in Holland, Noordoostpolder, which is installing industrial scale wind turbines such as the new Enercon onshore wind turbines, the largest onshore turbines in the world rated at 7500 kW. The turbines have a hub heigh of 135 m and each new turbine can generate as much electricity as all 50 turbines of the old wind farm combined.[8] The wind farm demonstrates the growth in scale in wind power as between 1987 and 1991 was the largest of its kind in Europe with 50 turbines and a total capacity of 15 MW. The new Zuidwester site at the wind farm will have just 12 turbines and a total capacity of 90 MW.[9] A second hand market for turbines also exists, which could grow as older turbines are replaced by larger newer ones.[10]

Timeline of developments[edit]

2018

In March 2018 the Dutch government announced that it will build between 2023 and 2030 several new windfarms which will deliver a total of 7 gigawatt energy.[11] Where the parks will come and how they will be built is still being discussed. However, the government wants 40% of the total energy used in 2030 in the Netherlands to be powered by windfarms.[12]

2016

In the first week of December 2016, all 150 turbines of the new 600 MW Gemini offshore windfarm began producing power, and the project is expected to be fully commissioned by mid 2017.[13] In July 2016, the first two stages of offshore wind farm development for a combined 700 MegaWatt capacity in a water area near Borssele was awarded to DONG Energy at a price of 7.27 Euro cent per kilowatt hour for 15 years. Transmission costs of 1.4 eurocent/kWh is to be added as TenneT is required to take power from sea to shore.[10][11][12]

2015

The Dutch government has expressed the aspiration to build 4.450 MW of offshore wind power by 2023[4] which will have a considerable impact on the Dutch electricity grid, operated by TenneT.[9] As a first step, the government has determined 65 sites for offshore wind farms in the North Sea and IJsselmeer.[1]

2013

By December 2013, 1,975 wind turbines were operational on land in the Netherlands, with an aggregate capacity of 2,479 MW.[14] An additional 228 MW of capacity was installed at sea.[15]

2011

In November 2011, the Dutch government decided to no longer fund €6 billion per year to maintain subsidized wind kWh at €0.18. It sharply cut subsidies down to €1.5 billion , leaving private sector to carry over wind turbine investments should these be beneficial.[6]

Onshore wind power[edit]

Wind turbines at the Westereems Wind Park

Whilst there are a growing number of large onshore wind farms in Holland most of the onshore farms in 2015 consisted of a large number of small wind farms, including many single installation turbines as well as farms of between 1-10 turbines. Detailed maps and information about wind farms in the Netherlands can be found from this wind map and list of wind farms.[16] In total there were 3,004 MW of onshore wind power at the end of 2015. Most wind power is produced in the province of Flevoland.[14] A few of the larger wind farms are listed here.

Selection of larger onshore wind farms in the Netherlands, Jan 2017
Wind farm Capacity (MW) Notes/Ref
Noordoostpolder 201

(end 2015)

A further 228 MW of capacity to be added when completed[1] Includes three windfarms: -Westermeerwind Wind Farm 144 MW (nearshore based) 69 Enercon turbines -NOP Agrowind Wind Farm 195 MW[17] (Noordermeerdijk – Northern Dyke) 13 Enercon E126/7500 (power 7500 kW). (Westermeerdijk – Western Dyke) 13 Enercon E126/7500 (power 7500 kW) and -Zuidwester wind farm 90 MW.12 turbines: Enercon E126/7500 (power 7500 kW)
Westereems 213 (Commissioning: 2009. 69 Enercon turbines.[16]
Princess Alexia Windpark 122 Commissioning 2013. 36 turbines: Senvion 3.4M104 (power 3400 kW.[16]
GroWind 63 Commissioning: 2008. 21 Vestas turbines.[16]
Delfzijl Noord 63 Commissioning: 2015. 19 Nordex turbines.[16]
Delfzijl-Zuid 43 (Commissioning: 2008. 10 Enercon E70/2000 (power 2000 kW), 10 Enercon E70/2300 (power 2300 kW).[16]
Koegorspolder 42 Commissioning: 2007/12. 21 turbines: Vestas V80/2000 (power 2000 kW).[16]
Delfzijl Zuid 32 Commissioning: 2008. 14 Enercon turbines.[16]
Rachel Carson

(Eemmeerdijk)

18 Commissioning: 1998. 18 NedWind turbines (power 1000 kW).[16]

Noordoostpolder[edit]

The largest planned wind farm in the Netherlands is the newly commissioned and partially deployed Noordoostpolder wind farm. By year end 2015 the farm had 201 MW of capacity connected to the grid and on full deployment this figure will rise to 429 MW. The farm consists of three smaller wind farms owned by separate organisations with local community links. The wind farm’s 86 wind turbines will produce 1.4 billion kWh of electricity, enough. power for over 400,000 households every day, a figure roughly equivalent to the number of households in the Northern Netherlands.[8]

Westereems[edit]

The next largest onshore wind farm is the Westereems wind farm located in Eemshaven in Groningen, in the north of the Netherlands.

Princess Alexia[edit]

Up until the Westereems Wind Park was commissioned the largest onshore wind farm was the Princess Alexia Windpark in Zeewolde (122MW),[18] consisting of 36 REpower turbines and a 3.2MW/33MWh battery storage power station of BMW i3 batteries.[19] Other large wind farms are located in Delfzijl-zuid (43 MW),[16] Lelystad (46 MW), Terneuzen, (Koegorspolder, 44 MW), and Biddinghuizen (WP Kubbeweg, 34 MW).[14]

Rachel Carson[edit]

The Rachel Carson wind farm (also known as the Eemmeerdijk Wind Park.) remarkably consists of wind turbines with just 2 blades, manufactured by Nedwind, the 18 turbines have a combined nominal power of 18 MW.[16]

Offshore wind power[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

See also: List of offshore wind farms in the Netherlands, List of offshore wind farms in the North Sea

In contrast to onshore wind farms, almost all turbines by January 2017 were situated in just a few large wind farms.

Wind farm Cap.
(MW)
Turbines Where When Build
Cost
Cap.
fac.
Depth
range (m)
km to
shore
Country Owner Refs.
Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) 108 36x Vestas V90-3MW 52°36′22″N 4°25′8″E / 52.60611°N 4.41889°E / 52.60611; 4.41889 (Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) 108MW) 2008 €200m 15-18 13  Netherlands Nuon, Shell [20][21]
Eneco Luchterduinen 129 43 × Vestas V112/3000 52°24′18″N 4°09′43″E / 52.40500°N 4.16194°E / 52.40500; 4.16194 (Eneco Luchterduinen 129MW) 2015 €450 million 18-24 24  Netherlands Eneco, Mitsubishi [22]
Friesland 320 89 × 53°2′26″N 5°16′59″E / 53.04056°N 5.28306°E / 53.04056; 5.28306 (Friesland 320MW) 2021 3-4 2  Netherlands Windpark Fryslân B.V. [23][24]
Gemini 600 150x Siemens SWT- 4.0-130 54°2′13″N 5°57′54″E / 54.03694°N 5.96500°E / 54.03694; 5.96500 (Gemini 600MW) 2017 €2.8 b 28-36 55  Netherlands Northland Power, Siemens, Van Oord, HVC Groep [25][26]
Irene Vorrink 17 28x Nordtank NTK600/43 52°35′53″N 5°35′20″E / 52.59806°N 5.58889°E / 52.59806; 5.58889 (Irene Vorrink 17MW) 1996 GBP 19m 2-3 1  Netherlands Nuon [27]
Lely (decommissioned 2016) 2 4x Nedwind 500kW/41 52°47′49″N 5°7′8″E / 52.79694°N 5.11889°E / 52.79694; 5.11889 (Lely (decommissioned 2016) 2MW) 1994 GBP 4.4m 3-4 0.8  Netherlands Nuon [28]
Princess Amalia 120 60x Vestas V80-2MW 52°35′16″N 4°13′23″E / 52.58778°N 4.22306°E / 52.58778; 4.22306 (Princess Amalia 120MW) 2008 €350m 19-24 26  Netherlands Eneco Energie [29][30]
  • "Cap." is the rated nameplate capacity of the wind farm
  • "When" is the year when the windfarm was commissioned and put into service.
  • "Cost" is the total capital cost of the project up to commissioning.
  • "Cap. Fac." is the average capacity factor, i.e. the average power generated by the windfarm, as a percentage of its nameplate capacity.
  • "km to shore" is the average distance of the windfarm to shore, or (where available) the distance from the in-farm transformer/substation to the shore
  • "Depth range (m)" is the range of minimum to maximum depths of water that the windfarm is sited in
  • "Refs" cite the source references for the information. The [w ...] footnotes link to each windfarm's own home page

Luchterduinen[edit]

Princess Amalia Wind Farm in the North Sea

The Eneco Luchterduinen wind farm was officially opened in September 2015 and is a 50/50 joint venture between Dutch energy company Eneco and Japan’s Mitsubishi corporation. The 129 MW Eneco Luchterduinen wind farm is located 23 km off the coast between Zandvoort and Noordwijk cities in the Netherlands. The farm consists of 43 Vestas V112 turbines of 3 MW capacity each.[31] A further 228 MW of installed capacity will be added when completed.[31]

Princess Amalia[edit]

In 2008, a second, somewhat larger offshore wind farm was built: the Princess Amalia Wind Farm, consisting of 60 Vestas V80 2MW turbines totaling 120 MW, sufficient to power 125,000 homes and help the Netherlands cut 225,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions.[2][6] The wind park was developed off the coast of IJmuiden by Econcern and Eneco Energie, at a total cost of $522.3 million.[6]

Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ)[edit]

In 2006, the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Farm was built, consisting of 36 Vestas V90 3MW turbines, totaling 108 MW, sufficient to light 100,000 houses.[1][2][7] The project cost $272 million and is cooperatively owned by Royal Dutch Shell and the Dutch utility company Nuon.

Lely[edit]

Built 1992 this nearshore wind farm had just 4 Nedwind 500 KW turbines based 1km to shore. The farm was dismantled after 22 years service in 2016.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Global Wind Report 2015, p60". 
  2. ^ "Global Wind Report 2015, p86". 
  3. ^ Blunt, Elizabeth. "Exploiting wind power in Holland." BBC News. N.p., 13 Nov. 2000. Web. 14 Oct. 2009. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1021714.stm>.
  4. ^ a b c d "Global Wind Report 2015, 61". 
  5. ^ Goals Dutch Government 2020,
  6. ^ a b "IEA Wind Annual Report for 2015 (Netherlands)". 
  7. ^ "The Windpower, Netherlands, Manufacturers". 
  8. ^ a b "Noordoostpolder wind farm". 
  9. ^ "Sun and Wind Energy". 
  10. ^ "Dutchwind". 
  11. ^ "Drie nieuwe windparken in de Noordzee". www.nos.nl (in Dutch). 27 March 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  12. ^ "Windenergie op zee". www.rijksoverheid.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  13. ^ 4C Offshore, Key project dates for Gemini [2], accessed 22 January 2017
  14. ^ a b c "Windenergie op land; productie en capaciteit per provincie (Windenergy on land; production and capacity per province". Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  15. ^ "Windenergie; elektriciteitsproductie, capaciteit en windaanbod per maand (Windenergy; electricity production, capacity and wind per month)". CBS StatLine. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Windpower, List of wind farms,". 
  17. ^ "NOP Agrowind". 
  18. ^ "Princess Alexia (Zuidlob) Wind Farm". Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  19. ^ "BMW drives Vattenfall storage". 14 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  20. ^ NoordzeeWind (Egmond aan Zee)
  21. ^ OWEZ (Netherlands) offshore wind farm 4C . Retrieved: 24 August 2010.
  22. ^ Eneco project Luchterduinen
  23. ^ "Netherlands' Friesland province to invest in 320-MW wind park". Renewables Now. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  24. ^ Windpark Fryslân (Dutch) http://windparkfryslan.nl/. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. ^ Gemini Offshore Wind Park
  26. ^ http://www.4coffshore.com/windfarms/gemini-netherlands-nl18.html
  27. ^ Irene Vorrink (Netherlands) offshore wind farm 4C . Retrieved: 24 August 2010.
  28. ^ Lely (Netherlands) offshore wind farm 4C . Retrieved: 24 August 2010.
  29. ^ Prinses Amaliawindpark
  30. ^ Princess Amalia (Netherlands) offshore wind farm 4C . Retrieved: 24 August 2010.
  31. ^ a b "Power Technology.com". 
  32. ^ "offshoreWIND.biz".