Windhoek

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Windhoek
Windhuk, ǀAiǁGams, Otjomuise
City
Late-May 2005 aerial photograph of Windhoek
Late-May 2005 aerial photograph of Windhoek
Coat of arms of Windhoek
Coat of arms
Windhoek is located in Namibia
Windhoek
Windhoek
Location of Windhoek in Namibia
Coordinates: 22°34′12″S 17°5′1″E / 22.57000°S 17.08361°E / -22.57000; 17.08361Coordinates: 22°34′12″S 17°5′1″E / 22.57000°S 17.08361°E / -22.57000; 17.08361
Country  Namibia
Region Khomas Region
Settled 1840
Government
 • Mayor Muezee Kazapua[1]
 • Deputy Mayor Hangapo Veico[1]
Area
 • Total 5,133 km2 (1,982 sq mi)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 325,858
 • Density 62.8/km2 (163/sq mi)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) WAST (UTC+2)
Climate BSh

Windhoek (/ˈvɪnt.hʊk/ VINT-huuk; German: About this sound Windhuk ; Khoekhoe: ǀAiǁgams; Otjiherero: Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia in the Khomas Highland plateau area, at around 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) above sea level, almost exactly at the country's geographical centre. The population of Windhoek in 2011 was 325,858, growing continually due to an influx from all over Namibia.

The town developed at the site of a permanent spring known to the indigenous pastoral communities. It developed rapidly after Jonker Afrikaner, Captain of the Orlam, settled here in 1840 and built a stone church for his community. In the decades following, multiple wars and armed hostilities resulted in the neglect and destruction of the new settlement. Windhoek was founded a second time in 1890 by Imperial German Army Major Curt von François, when the territory became colonised by Germany.

Windhoek is the social, economic, political, and cultural centre of the country. Nearly every Namibian national enterprise, governmental body, educational and cultural institution is headquartered here.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The city of Windhoek is traditionally known by two names: ǀAiǁGams, (Khoekhoe: hot springs) and Otjomuise[3] (Otjiherero: place of steam). Both traditional indigenous names refer to the hot springs near today's city centre.

Theories vary on how the place got its modern name of Windhoek. Most believe it is derived from the Afrikaans word wind-hoek (wind corner). Another theory suggests that Captain Jonker Afrikaner named Windhoek after the Winterhoek Mountains at Tulbagh in South Africa, where his ancestors had lived. The first known mention of the name Windhoek was in a letter from Jonker Afrikaner to Joseph Tindall, dated 12 August 1844.[4]

Pre-colonial[edit]

In 1840 Jonker Afrikaner established an Orlam settlement at Windhoek.[5] He and his followers stayed near one of the main hot springs, located in the present-day Klein Windhoek suburb.[6] He built a stone church that held 500 people; it was also used as a school. Two Rhenish missionaries, Carl Hugo Hahn and Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt, started working there in late 1842. Two years later they were driven out by two Methodist Wesleyans, Richard Haddy and Joseph Tindall.[7][8] Gardens were laid out and for a while Windhoek prospered. Wars between the Nama and Herero peoples eventually destroyed the settlement. After a long absence, Hahn visited Windhoek again in 1873 and was dismayed to see that nothing remained of the town's former prosperity. In June 1885, a Swiss botanist found only jackals and starving guinea fowl amongst neglected fruit trees.[9]

Colonial era[edit]

Windhoek at the end of the 19th century
Stamps for German South West Africa postmarked Windhuk
Sanderburg, one of the three castles of Windhoek

In 1878, Britain annexed Walvis Bay and incorporated it into the Cape of Good Hope colony in 1884, but Britain did not extend its influence into the interior. A request by merchants from Lüderitzbucht resulted in the declaration of a German protectorate over what was called German South-West Africa in 1884. The borders of the German colony were determined in 1890 and Germany sent a protective corps, the Schutztruppe under Major Curt von François, to maintain order. Von François stationed his garrison at Windhoek, which was strategically situated as a buffer between the Nama and Herero peoples. The twelve strong springs provided water for the cultivation of produce and grains.

Colonial Windhoek was founded on 18 October 1890, when von François fixed the foundation stone of the fort, which is now known as the Alte Feste (Old Fortress).[10] After 1907, development accelerated as indigenous people migrated from the countryside to the growing town to seek work. More European settlers arrived from Germany and South Africa. Businesses were erected on Kaiser Street (presently Independence Avenue), and along the dominant mountain ridge over the city. At this time, Windhoek's three castles, Heinitzburg, Sanderburg, and Schwerinsburg, were built.

South African administration after World War I[edit]

The German colonial era came to an end during World War I when South African troops occupied Windhoek in May 1915 on behalf of the British Empire. For the next five years, a South African military government administered South West Africa. It was assigned to the United Kingdom as a mandate territory by the newly formed League of Nations, and South Africa administered it. Development of the city of Windhoek and the nation later to be known as Namibia came to a virtual standstill. After World War II, Windhoek's development gradually gained momentum, as more capital became available to improve the area's economy.

After 1955, large public projects were undertaken, such as the building of new schools and hospitals, tarring of the city's roads (a project begun in 1928 with Kaiser Street), and the building of dams and pipelines to stabilise the water supply.[9] The city introduced the world's first potable re-use plant in 1958, treating recycled sewage and sending it directly into the town's water supply.[11]

Windhoek pro forma received its town privileges on 18 October 1965 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the second foundation of the town by von François.[12]

Since Namibian independence[edit]

Since independence in 1990, Windhoek has remained the national capital, as well as the provincial capital of the central Khomas Region. Since independence and the end of warfare, the city has had accelerated growth and development.

Geography[edit]

Expanding the town area has – apart from financial restrictions – proven to be challenging due to its geographical location. In southern, eastern and western directions, Windhoek is surrounded by rocky, mountainous areas, which make land development costly. The southern side is not suitable for industrial development because of the presence of underground aquifers. This leaves the vast Brakwater area north of town the only feasible place for Windhoek's expansion.[13]

Windhoek's City Council has plans to dramatically expand the city's boundaries such that the town area will cover 5,133.4 square kilometres (1,982.0 sq mi). Windhoek would become the third-largest city in the world by area, after Tianjin and Istanbul, although its population density is only 63 inhabitants per square kilometre.[14]

Suburbs[edit]

Windhoek is divided into different suburbs:[15]

Climate[edit]

Windhoek is situated in a semi-arid climatic region (Köppen: BSh). Days are mostly warm with very hot days during the summer months, while nights are generally cool. The average annual temperature is 19.47 °C (67.05 °F), which is high for a site at such a high altitude on the edge of the tropics.[16] This is mainly due to the prevalence of a warm northerly airflow and the mountains to the south, which shelter the city from cold southerly winds.

The winter months of June, July and August usually experience little or no rain. Minimum temperatures in winter range between −5 and 18 °C (23 and 64 °F). Nights are usually cool, and very cold before dawn. It almost never snows. Days are usually warm to hot, varying from a maximum of 20 °C (68 °F) in July to 31 °C (88 °F) in January.

Although the 2010/2011 rainy season brought a record of over 1,000 millimetres (39 in), mean annual rainfall is around 360 millimetres (14 in),[17] which is too low to support crops or gardens without heavy use of watering. The natural vegetation of the area is scrub and steppe. Droughts are a regular occurrence. But the rainy season brings annual flooding in rivers running from Angola. The two worst rainy seasons of recent history, 1981/82 and 2012/13, yielded rainfall of 126 millimetres (5.0 in) and 166 millimetres (6.5 in) respectively.[18]

Climate data for Windhoek, Namibia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36
(97)
34
(93)
34
(93)
31
(88)
32
(90)
26
(79)
25
(77)
29
(84)
33
(91)
34
(93)
36
(97)
36
(97)
36
(97)
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
29.1
(84.4)
27.8
(82)
26.2
(79.2)
23.7
(74.7)
21.0
(69.8)
21.3
(70.3)
23.9
(75)
27.6
(81.7)
29.7
(85.5)
30.4
(86.7)
31.6
(88.9)
26.9
(80.4)
Average low °C (°F) 17.8
(64)
17.2
(63)
16.1
(61)
13.2
(55.8)
10
(50)
7.1
(44.8)
7.0
(44.6)
9.0
(48.2)
12.6
(54.7)
15.0
(59)
16.2
(61.2)
17.3
(63.1)
13.2
(55.8)
Record low °C (°F) 9
(48)
7
(45)
4
(39)
2
(36)
−2
(28)
−3
(27)
−3
(27)
−4
(25)
−1
(30)
2
(36)
1
(34)
3
(37)
−4
(25)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 91.3
(3.594)
87.0
(3.425)
69.5
(2.736)
32.3
(1.272)
6.2
(0.244)
1.2
(0.047)
0.4
(0.016)
0.8
(0.031)
3.8
(0.15)
11.4
(0.449)
25.7
(1.012)
33.2
(1.307)
362.8
(14.283)
Average relative humidity (%) 45 53 58 54 45 43 38 30 26 28 31 36 40.6
Source #1: BBC Weather[19]
Source #2: Ministry of Works and Transport (Meteorological Service Division)

"Ministry of Works & Transport: Tabulation of Climate Statistics for Selected Stations in Namibia" (PDF). 2012. 

Politics[edit]

Windhoek is the only self-governed settlement in Khomas Region. It is governed by a multi-party municipal council that currently has fifteen seats.[20] Council is highest decision making body of the Windhoek municipality. The Council meets once a month (each last Wednesday of the month) to consider items recommended to it by the Management Committee. In making decision, Council may endorse or change any recommendation. As a democratic principle, Council decisions are taken collectively and councillors are bound by such decisions. As individuals, council members have no administrative authority. They cannot give orders or otherwise supervise City employees unless specifically directed to do so by the Council. The Council, however, has complete authority over all administrative affairs in the city. Council members devote their official time to problems of basic policy and act as liaisons between the City and the general public. Council members are concerned, not only with the conduct of daily affairs, but also with the future development of the city.

Demographics[edit]

In 1971, there were roughly 26,000 whites living in Windhoek, outnumbering the black population of 24,000. About one third of white residents at the time, at least 9,000 individuals, were German speakers.[21] Windhoek's population currently stands at over 322,500 (65% Black; 17% whites; 18% other), and is growing 4% annually in part due to informal settlements that have even higher growth rates of nearly 10% a year.[13]

Economy[edit]

The city is the administrative, commercial, and industrial center of Namibia. A 1992/93 study estimated that Windhoek provides over half of Namibia's non-agricultural employment, with its national share of employment in utilities being 96%, in transport and communication 94%, finance and business services 82%.[22] Due to its relative size[23] Windhoek is, even more than many other national capital cities, the social, economic, and cultural centre of the country. Nearly every national enterprise is headquartered here. The University of Namibia is, too, as are the country's only theatre, all ministry head offices, and all major media and financial entities.[24] The governmental budget of the city of Windhoek nearly equals those of all other Namibian local authorities combined.[25] Several shopping malls were built in the post-independence era, including Maerua Mall, Wernhil Park Mall and The Grove Mall[26]

Tourism[edit]

Due to Windhoek's close proximity to Hosea Kutako International Airport, Windhoek serves an important role in Namibia's tourism. The report on Namibia Tourism Exit Survey 2012 - 2013, produced by the Millennium Challenge Corporation for the Namibian Directorate of Tourism, indicates that 56% of all tourists visiting Namibia during that time period, visited Windhoek.[27] In addition hereto, many of Namibia's tourism related parastatals and governing bodies such as Namibia Wildlife Resorts, Air Namibia and the Namibia Tourism Board as well as Namibia's tourism related associations such as the Hospitality Association of Namibia[28] are headquartered in Windhoek. Windhoek is also home to a number of notable hotels such as Windhoek Country Club Resort and Arebbusch Travel Lodge, and some international hotel chains such as Avani Hotels and Resorts and Hilton Hotels and Resorts, that also operate in Windhoek.

Culture[edit]

In public life Afrikaans and to a lesser extent German are still used as the lingua franca even though the government only uses the English language.[29]

Notable landmarks[edit]

Tintenpalast in Windhoek

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Windhoek is connected by rail to:

Road[edit]

Downtown Windhoek

In 1928, Kaiserstraße, now Independence Avenue, was the first paved road in Windhoek. Ten years later the next one, Gobabis road, now Sam Nujoma Drive, was also paved. Today out of ca. 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi) of Namibia's total road network, about 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) is sealed.

Windhoek's three main access roads from Rehoboth, Gobabis, and Okahandja are paved, and are designed to be able to withstand the largest possible flood to be expected in fifty years. Sealed roads can carry traffic moving at 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph) and should last for 20 years.

As everywhere in Namibia, public transport is scarce and transportation across town is largely done by taxi; there were 6,492 registered taxis in 2013.[39]

Air transportation[edit]

Windhoek is served by two airports. The closest one is Eros 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) south of the city center for smaller craft, and Hosea Kutako International Airport 42 kilometres (26 mi) east of the city. A number of foreign airlines operate to and from Windhoek. Air charters and helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft rentals are also available.

Windhoek International Airport[edit]

Hosea Kutako International Airport, situated 45 kilometres outside Windhoek, handles over 800,000 passengers a year. It has one runway without capacity limitations. Other international airports are located in Walvis Bay and Luderitz. It directly connects daily to Frankfurt. Southern Africa's hub, Johannesburg, is only a two-hour flight away, from where it is possible to connect to more than 50 cities. South African Airways, Condor, [Qatar Airlines - September 2016] and Air Namibia all have daily flights to Windhoek International Airport, whilst TAAG Angola Airlines has bi-weekly turnarounds to Luanda.

Eros Airport[edit]

Eros Airport is the busiest airport in Namibia in terms of take offs and landings.[40] This city airport handles around 12,000 individual flights a year, the majority of which are light aircraft. Primarily, limitations such as runway length, noise, and air space congestion have kept Eros from developing into a larger airport. Most of Namibia's charter operators have Eros as their base.[citation needed]

Sport[edit]

The city has several football clubs which include African Stars F.C., Black Africa F.C., F.C. Civics Windhoek, Orlando Pirates F.C., Ramblers F.C. and SK Windhoek.

Many boxers such as Paulus Moses, Paulus Ambunda and Abmerk Shindjuu are from the city.

The Namibia national cricket team plays the majority of its home games at the Wanderers Cricket Ground.[41] It has also played at other grounds in the city, including the United Ground and the Trans Namib Ground.[42][43]

The 'Tony Rust Raceway' is located west of Windhoek on the Daan Viljoen road, and reopened in 2007.[44]

Education[edit]

Tertiary institutions[edit]

The general institutions of higher education in Windhoek are:

Secondary schools[edit]

Windhoek has 29 secondary schools and 58 primary schools.[45] Some of the notable schools are:

Cooperation agreements[edit]

Windhoek has co-operation agreements and partnerships with the following towns:[50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jason, Loide (28 November 2012). "Windhoek elects new mayor". New Era. 
  2. ^ "Table 4.2.2 Urban population by Census years (2001 and 2011)" (PDF). Namibia 2011 - Population and Housing Census Main Report. Namibia Statistics Agency. p. 39. Retrieved 24 August 2016. 
  3. ^ Menges, Werner (12 May 2005). "Windhoek?! Rather make that Otjomuise". The Namibian. 
  4. ^ Dierks, Klaus. "The History of ǁKhauxaǃnas. Introduction.". Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  5. ^ "The Orlams Afrikaners – the Creole Africans of the Garieb". Cape Slavery Heritage. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  6. ^ Tonchi, Victor L; Lindeke, William A; Grotpeter, John J (2012). Historical Dictionary of Namibia. Historical Dictionaries of Africa, African historical dictionaries (2 ed.). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810879904. 
  7. ^ Vedder, Heinrich (1997). Das alte Südwestafrika. Südwestafrikas Geschichte bis zum Tode Mahareros 1890 [The Old South-West Africa. South-West Africa's History until Maharero's death 1890] (in German) (7th ed.). Windhoek: Namibia Scientific Society. ISBN 0-949995-33-9. 
  8. ^ Dierks, Klaus. "Biographies of Namibian Personalities, A (entry for Jonker Afrikaner)". klausdiers.com. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Windhoek City Council: The History of Windhoek
  10. ^ Dierks, Klaus. "Biographies of Namibian Personalities, V (entry for Curt von François)". klausdiers.com. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  11. ^ "Surviving in an arid land: Direct reclamation of potable water at Windhoek's Goreangab Reclamation Plant" by Petrus Du Pisani
  12. ^ a b "Windhoek erhielt heute Stadtrechte" [Windhoek received town privileges today]. Allgemeine Zeitung (in German) (2015 reprint ed.). 18 October 1965. 
  13. ^ a b "Windhoek's battle for land", by Desie Heita; New Era, 10 Feb 2010 Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Retief, Christo (2 July 2013). "Windhoek slaan Afrika-rekord" [Windhoek beats Africa record]. Die Republikein. 
  15. ^ "The Windhoek Structure Plan" (PDF). City of Windhoek. 1996. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  16. ^ Average for years 1957–1987, Goddard Institute of Space Studies World Climate database
  17. ^ Menges, Werner (26 May 2011). "Rainy season was one for the record books". The Namibian. 
  18. ^ Menges, Werner (28 May 2013). "Most severe drought in 30 years". The Namibian. 
  19. ^ "Average Conditions Windhoek, Namibia". BBC Weather. Retrieved 16 August 2009. [dead link]
  20. ^ "Know Your Local Authority". Election Watch (3). Institute for Public Policy Research. 2015. p. 4. 
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ "The Windhoek Structure Plan" (PDF). City of Windhoek. 1996. p. 6. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  23. ^ The second biggest city in Namibia, Walvis Bay, has 43,700 inhabitants: "ELECTIONS 2010: Erongo regional profile". New Era. 16 November 2010. 
  24. ^ Kapitako, Alvine (12 November 2010). "ELECTIONS 2010: Khomas Region profile". New Era. 
  25. ^ Heita, Desie (11 February 2010). "Owning a house ... a dream deferred". New Era. 
  26. ^ thegrovemallofnamibia.com/
  27. ^ http://www.mcanamibia.org/files/files/exitsurvey.pdf
  28. ^ "Hospitality Association of Namibia". www.hannamibia.com. Retrieved 2015-12-08. 
  29. ^ Thomas Schoch. 2003. Visit Windhoek, People and languages.
  30. ^ Bause, Tanja (24 May 2010). "Landmark church celebrates centenary". The Namibian. 
  31. ^ Bause, Tanja (30 January 2012). "Monument's centenary remembered". The Namibian. 
  32. ^ Steynberg, Francoise (27 December 2013). "Ruiter val op heiligste dag" [Rider falls on holiest day]. Die Republikein (in Afrikaans). 
  33. ^ "Windhoek Supreme Court". Windhoek Consulting Engineers. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  34. ^ "Windhoek on Foot". Venture Publications. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  35. ^ Dierks, Klaus. "Biographies of Namibian Personalities, S". klausdierks.com. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  36. ^ Vogt, Andreas (18 December 2009). "100 years Turnhalle • From gymnasium to Tribunal". Die Republikein. 
  37. ^ Shejavali, Nangula (19 February 2009). "National News 19.02.2009 Public library gets a facelift". The Namibian. 
  38. ^ "Windhoek Attractions, Namibia". Sa-venues.com. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  39. ^ Shipanga, Selma (3 April 2013). "A glimpse into the taxi industry". The Namibian. pp. 6–7. 
  40. ^ http://www.airports.com.na/eros.php
  41. ^ Wanderers Cricket Ground, Windhoek, CricketArchive  Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  42. ^ United Ground, Windhoek, CricketArchive  Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  43. ^ Trans Namib Ground, Windhoek, CricketArchive  Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  44. ^ Galpin, Darren. "Tony Rust Raceway, Windhoek". GEL Motorsport Information Page. 
  45. ^ "Schools in Windhoek under pressure for places". The Namibian. Nampa. 15 January 2016. p. 6. 
  46. ^ Du Plessies, P.S. "Dagbreek school Windhoek Namibia-school for learners who are intellectually impaired". 
  47. ^ Sergei Mitrofanov. "Eros School for Girls". namibweb.com. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  48. ^ "Saint George's Diocesan College". stgeorgesnamibia.com. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
  49. ^ Nakale, Albertina (20 May 2014). "Private school draws praise from Namwandi". New Era. 
  50. ^ "Status of Cooperation Agreement" (PDF). Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  51. ^ "Berlin – City Partnerships". Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 

External links[edit]