Windows Server 2003
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|A version of the Windows NT operating system|
Screenshot of Windows Server 2003
|Source model||Shared source|
|April 24, 2003|
|Latest release||Service Pack 2 (5.2.3790) / March 13, 2007|
|Platforms||IA-32, x64, Itanium|
|Kernel type||Hybrid kernel|
|License||Trialware and volume licensing, with client access licenses|
|Preceded by||Windows 2000 (2000)|
|Succeeded by||Windows Server 2003 R2 (2005)|
|Mainstream support ended on July 13, 2010
Extended support ended on July 14, 2015
Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft and released on April 24, 2003. It was a successor of Windows 2000 Server and incorporated some of Windows XP's features. An updated version, Windows Server 2003 R2, was released to manufacturing on December 6, 2005. Its successor, Windows Server 2008, was released on February 4, 2008. Windows Server 2003's kernel was later adopted in the development of Windows Vista.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Development
- 3 Changes
- 4 Editions
- 5 Derivatives
- 6 Updates
- 7 Windows Server 2003 R2
- 8 Support lifecycle
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Windows Server 2003 is the follow-up to Windows 2000 Server, incorporating compatibility and other features from Windows XP. Unlike Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003's default installation has none of the server components enabled, to reduce the attack surface of new machines. Windows Server 2003 includes compatibility modes to allow older applications to run with greater stability. It was made more compatible with Windows NT 4.0 domain-based networking. Windows Server 2003 brought in enhanced Active Directory compatibility, and better deployment support, to ease the transition from Windows NT 4.0 to Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional.
Changes to various services include those to the IIS web server, which was almost completely rewritten to improve performance and security, Distributed File System, which now supports hosting multiple DFS roots on a single server, Terminal Server, Active Directory, Print Server, and a number of other areas. Windows Server 2003 was also the first operating system released by Microsoft after the announcement of its Trustworthy Computing initiative, and as a result, contains a number of changes to security defaults and practices.
The product went through several name changes during the course of development. When first announced in 2000, it was known by its codename, "Whistler Server"; it was named "Windows 2002 Server" for a brief time in mid-2001, followed by "Windows .NET Server" and "Windows .NET Server 2003". After Microsoft chose to focus the ".NET" branding on the .NET Framework, the OS was finally released as "Windows Server 2003".
Windows Server 2003 was the first Microsoft Windows version which was thoroughly subjected to semi-automated testing for bugs with a software system called PREfast developed by computer scientist Amitabh Srivastava at Microsoft Research. The automated bug checking system was first tested on Windows 2000 but not thoroughly. Amitabh Srivastava's PREfast found 12% of Windows Server 2003's bugs, the remaining 88% being found by human computer programmers. Microsoft employs more than 4,700 programmers who work on Windows, 60% of whom are software testers whose job is to find bugs in Windows source code. Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates stated that Windows Server 2003 was Microsoft's "most rigorously tested software to date."
The following features are new to Windows Server 2003:
- Internet Information Services (IIS) v6.0
- Significant improvements to Message Queuing
- Manage Your Server – a role management administrative tool that allows an administrator to choose what functionality the server should provide
- Improvements to Active Directory, such as the ability to deactivate classes from the schema, or to run multiple instances of the directory server (ADAM)
- Improvements to Group Policy handling and administration
- Provides a backup system to restore lost files
- Improved disk management, including the ability to back up from shadows of files, allowing the backup of open files.
- Improved scripting and command line tools, which are part of Microsoft's initiative to bring a complete command shell to the next version of Windows
- Support for a hardware-based "watchdog timer", which can restart the server if the operating system does not respond within a certain amount of time.
Windows Server 2003 comes in a number of editions, each targeted towards a particular size and type of business. In general, all variants of Windows Server 2003 have the ability to share files and printers, act as an application server, host message queues, provide email services, authenticate users, act as an X.509 certificate server, provide LDAP directory services, serve streaming media, and to perform other server-oriented functions.
|Maximum physical CPUs||2||4||8||64|
|Maximum RAM||IA-32||2 GB||4 GB||64 GB||64 GB|
|x64||N/A||32 GB||1 TB||1 TB|
|Itanium||N/A||N/A||2 TB||2 TB|
Windows Server 2003 Web is meant for building and hosting Web applications, Web pages, and XML web services. It is designed to be used primarily as an IIS 6.0 Web server and provides a platform for developing and deploying XML Web services and applications that use ASP.NET technology, a key part of the .NET Framework. Terminal Services is not included on Web Edition. However, Remote Desktop for Administration is available. Only 10 concurrent file-sharing connections are allowed at any moment. It is not possible to install Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft Exchange software in this edition without installing Service Pack 1. Despite supporting XML Web services and ASP.NET, UDDI cannot be deployed on Windows Server 2003 Web. The .NET Framework version 2.0 is not included with Windows Server 2003 Web, but can be installed as a separate update from Windows Update.
Windows Server 2003 Web supports a maximum of 2 physical processors and a maximum of 2 GB of RAM. However, an instance of Windows Server 2003 Web cannot act as a domain controller. It is the only edition of Windows Server 2003 that does not require any client access license (CAL) when used as the internet facing server front-end for Internet Information Services and Windows Server Update Services. When using it for storage or as a back-end with another remote server as the front-end, CALs may still be required.[clarification needed]
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Standard is aimed towards small to medium-sized businesses. Standard Edition supports file and printer sharing, offers secure Internet connectivity, and allows centralized desktop application deployment. A specialized version for the x64 architecture was released in April 2005. The IA-32 version supports up to four physical processors and up to 4 GB RAM; the x64 version is capable of addressing up to 32 GB of RAM and also supports Non-Uniform Memory Access.
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise is aimed towards medium to large businesses. It is a full-function server operating system that supports up to 8 physical processors and provides enterprise-class features such as eight-node clustering using Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) software and support for up to 64 GB of RAM through PAE. Enterprise Edition also comes in specialized versions for the x64 and Itanium architectures. With Service Pack 2 installed, the x64 and Itanium versions are capable of addressing up to 1 TB and 2 TB of RAM, respectively. This edition also supports Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA). It also provides the ability to hot-add supported hardware. Windows Server 2003 Enterprise is also the required edition to issue custom certificate templates.
Windows Server 2003 Datacenter is designed for infrastructures demanding high security and reliability. Windows Server 2003 is available for IA-32, Itanium, and x64 processors. It supports a maximum of 32 physical processors on IA-32 platform or 64 physical processors on x64 and IA-64 hardware. IA-32 versions of this edition support up to 64 GB of RAM. With Service Pack 2 installed, the x64 versions support up to 1 TB while the IA-64 versions support up to 2 TB of RAM. Windows Server 2003 Datacenter also allows limiting processor and memory usage on a per-application basis.
This edition has better support for storage area networks (SANs): It features a service which uses Windows sockets to emulate TCP/IP communication over native SAN service providers, thereby allowing a SAN to be accessed over any TCP/IP channel. With this, any application that can communicate over TCP/IP can use a SAN, without any modification to the application.
The Datacenter edition, like the Enterprise edition, supports 8-node clustering. Clustering increases availability and fault tolerance of server installations by distributing and replicating the service among many servers. This edition supports clustering with each cluster having its own dedicated storage, or with all cluster nodes connected to a common SAN.
Windows Compute Cluster Server
Windows Compute Cluster Server 2003 (CCS), released in June 2006, is designed for high-end applications that require high performance computing clusters. It is designed to be deployed on numerous computers to be clustered together to achieve supercomputing speeds. Each Compute Cluster Server network comprises at least one controlling head node and subordinate processing nodes that carry out most of the work.
Compute Cluster Server uses the Microsoft Messaging Passing Interface v2 (MS-MPI) to communicate between the processing nodes on the cluster network. It ties nodes together with a powerful inter-process communication mechanism which can be complex because of communications between hundreds or even thousands of processors working in parallel.
The application programming interface consists of over 160 functions. A job launcher enables users to execute jobs to be executed in the computing cluster. MS MPI was designed to be compatible with the reference open source MPI2 specification which is widely used in High-performance computing (HPC). With some exceptions because of security considerations, MS MPI covers the complete set of MPI2 functionality as implemented in MPICH2, except for the planned future features of dynamic process spawn and publishing.
Windows Storage Server
Windows Storage Server 2003, a part of the Windows Server 2003 series, is a specialized server operating system for network-attached storage (NAS). Launched in 2003 at Storage Decisions in Chicago, it is optimized for use in file and print sharing and also in storage area network (SAN) scenarios. It is only available through Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Unlike other Windows Server 2003 editions that provide file and printer sharing functionality, Windows Storage Server 2003 does not require any CAL.
Windows Storage Server 2003 NAS equipment can be headless, which means that they are without any monitors, keyboards or mice, and are administered remotely. Such devices are plugged into any existing IP network and the storage capacity is available to all users. Windows Storage Server 2003 can use RAID arrays to provide data redundancy, fault-tolerance and high performance. Multiple such NAS servers can be clustered to appear as a single device, which allows responsibility for serving clients to be shared in such a way that if one server fails then other servers can take over (often termed a failover) which also improves fault-tolerance.
Windows Storage Server 2003 can also be used to create a Storage Area Network, in which the data is transferred in terms of chunks rather than files, thus providing more granularity to the data that can be transferred. This provides higher performance to database and transaction processing applications. Windows Storage Server 2003 also allows NAS devices to be connected to a SAN.
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2, as a follow-up to Windows Storage Server 2003, adds file-server performance optimization, Single Instance Storage (SIS), and index-based search. Single instance storage (SIS) scans storage volumes for duplicate files, and moves the duplicate files to the common SIS store. The file on the volume is replaced with a link to the file. This substitution reduces the amount of storage space required, by as much as 70%.
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 provides an index-based, full-text search based on the indexing engine already built into Windows server. The updated search engine speeds up indexed searches on network shares. This edition also provides filters for searching many standard file formats, such as .zip, AutoCAD, XML, MP3, and .pdf, and all Microsoft Office file formats.
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 includes built in support for Windows SharePoint Services and Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server, and adds a Storage Management snap-in for the Microsoft Management Console. It can be used to manage storage volumes centrally, including DFS shares, on servers running Windows Storage Server R2.
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 can be used as an iSCSI target with standard and enterprise editions of Windows Storage Server 2003 R2, incorporating WinTarget iSCSI technology which Microsoft acquired in 2006 by from StringBean software. This will be an add-on feature available for purchase through OEM partners as an iSCSI feature pack, or is included in some versions of WSS as configured by OEMs.
Windows Storage Server 2003 can be promoted to function as a domain controller; however, this edition is not licensed to run directory services. It can be joined to an existing domain as a member server.
- Distributed File System (DFS): DFS allows multiple network shares to be aggregated as a virtual file system.
- Support for SAN and iSCSI: Computers can connect to a Storage Server over the LAN, and there is no need for a separate fibre channel network. Thus a Storage Area Network can be created over the LAN itself. iSCSI uses the SCSI protocol to transfer data as a block of bytes, rather than as a file. This increases performance of the Storage network in some scenarios, such as using a database server.
- Virtual Disc Service: It allows NAS devices, RAID devices and SAN shares to be exposed and managed as if they were normal hard drives.
- JBOD systems: JBOD (Just a bunch of discs) systems, by using VDS, can manage a group of individual storage devices as a single unit. There is no need for the storage units to be of the same maker and model.
- Software and Hardware RAID: Windows Storage Server 2003 has intrinsic support for hardware implementation of RAID. In case hardware support is not available, it can use software enabled RAID. In that case, all processing is done by the OS.
- Multi Path IO (MPIO): It provides an alternate connection to IO devices in case the primary path is down.
This section does not cite any sources. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 was available in the following editions:
|Number of physical CPUs[i]||1||1||1–4||1–64|
|x64 versions available||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Numbers of disk drives||2||4||Unlimited||Unlimited|
|iSCSI target support||Optional||Optional||Optional||Optional|
- Microsoft defines a physical CPU/processor as a single socket/node on the systemboard. For O/S licensing purposes, a dual-socket single-core (Intel Pentium/4 Xeon, AMD Athlon/64) system counts as a total of 2 processors, whereas a single-socket quad-core CPU (such as AMD's Opteron and Intel's Xeon) counts as 1 processor. Microsoft's policy has no bearing on how third-party software vendors (such as Oracle) administer CPU licensing for its server applications.
Windows Unified Data Storage Server is a version of Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 with iSCSI target support standard, available in only the standard and enterprise editions.
Windows Small Business Server
Windows Small Business Server (SBS) is a software suite which includes Windows Server and additional technologies aimed at providing a small business with a complete technology solution.
The Standard edition of SBS includes Microsoft Remote Web Workplace, Windows SharePoint Services, Microsoft Exchange Server, Fax Server, Active Directory, a basic firewall, DHCP server and network address translation capabilities. The Premium edition of SBS adds Microsoft SQL Server 2000 and Microsoft ISA Server 2004.
SBS has its own type of CAL that is different and costs slightly more than CALs for the other editions of Windows Server 2003. However, the SBS CAL encompasses the user CALs for Windows Server, Exchange Server, SQL Server and ISA Server, and hence is less expensive than buying all other CALs individually.
SBS has the following design limitations, mainly affecting Active Directory:
- Only one computer in a Windows Server domain can be running SBS
- SBS must be the root of the Active Directory forest
- SBS cannot trust any other domains
- SBS is limited to 75 users or devices depending on the type of CAL
- SBS is limited to a maximum of 4 GB of RAM (Random Access Memory)
- SBS domains cannot have any child domains
- Terminal Services only operates in remote administration mode on SBS, meaning that only two simultaneous RDP sessions are allowed
To remove the limitations from an instance of SBS and upgrade to regular Windows Server, Exchange Server, SQL and ISA Server, there is a Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2 Transition Pack.
Windows Home Server
Windows Home Server is an operating system from Microsoft based on Windows Small Business Server 2003 SP2 (this can be seen in the directory listings of the installation DVD). Windows Home Server was announced on January 7, 2007 at the Consumer Electronics Show by Bill Gates and is intended to be a solution for homes with multiple connected PCs to offer file sharing, automated backups, and remote access.
Windows Home Server began shipment to OEMs on September 15, 2007.
Windows Server for Embedded Systems
Windows Server 2003 for Embedded Systems replaced "Windows 2000 Server for Embedded Systems". Intended use was for building firewall, VPN caching servers and similar appliances. Versions were available with "Server Appliance Software" and with "Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server" 
Availability of the original version ended May 28, 2003. Availability of R2 ended March 5, 2006. End of Support is scheduled for July 14, 2015 (R2 and original), and End of Licence is scheduled for May 28, 2018 (R2 and original). The end of support date indicates that the supported service pack was dated July 14, 2005. The End of Licence date is the last date that OEM's may distribute systems using this version. All versions continue to receive Critical security updates until the end of support: Microsoft has not announced extended support dates for Windows Server 2003 for Embedded Systems.
Release 2 for Embedded Systems was available in 32 and 64 bit versions, Standard (1-4 CPU) and Enterprise (1-8 CPU):
Service Pack 1
On March 30, 2005, Microsoft released Service Pack 1 for Windows Server 2003. Among the improvements are many of the same updates that were provided to Windows XP users with Service Pack 2. Features that are added with Service Pack 1 include:
- Security Configuration Wizard: A tool that allows administrators to more easily research, and make changes to, security policies.
- Hot Patching: This feature is set to extend Windows Server 2003's ability to take DLL, Driver, and non-kernel patches without a reboot.
- IIS 6.0 Metabase Auditing: Allowing the tracking of metabase edits.
- Windows Firewall: Brings many of the improvements from Windows XP Service Pack 2 to Windows Server 2003; also with the Security Configuration Wizard, it allows administrators to more easily manage the incoming open ports, as it will automatically detect and select default roles.
- Other networking improvements include support for Wireless Provisioning Services, better IPv6 support, and new protections against SYN flood TCP attacks.
- Post-Setup Security Updates: A default mode that is turned on when a Service Pack 1 server is first booted up after installation. It configures the firewall to block all incoming connections, and directs the user to install updates.
- Data Execution Prevention (DEP): Support for the No Execute (NX) bit which helps to prevent buffer overflow exploits that are often the attack vector of Windows Server exploits.
- Windows Media Player version 10
- Internet Explorer 6 SV1 (e.g. 'IE6 SP2')
- Support for fixed disks bearing data organized using the GUID Partition Table system
A full list of updates is available in the Microsoft Knowledge Base.
Service Pack 2
Service Pack 2 for Windows Server 2003 was released on March 13, 2007. The release date was originally scheduled for the first half of 2006. On June 13, 2006, Microsoft made an initial test version of Service Pack 2 available to Microsoft Connect users, with a build number of 2721. This was followed by build 2805, known as Beta 2 Refresh. The final build is 3790.
Microsoft has described Service Pack 2 as a "standard" service pack release containing previously released security updates, hotfixes, and reliability and performance improvements. In addition, Service Pack 2 contains Microsoft Management Console 3.0, Windows Deployment Services (which replaces Remote Installation Services), support for WPA2, and improvements to IPsec and MSConfig. Service Pack 2 also adds Windows Server 2003 Scalable Networking Pack (SNP), which allows hardware acceleration for processing network packets, thereby enabling faster throughput. SNP was previously available as an out-of-band update for Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1.
Windows Server 2003 R2
Windows Server 2003 R2 is the title of a complementary offering by Microsoft. It consists of a copy of Windows Server 2003 SP1 on one CD and a host of optionally installed new features (reminiscent of Microsoft Plus!) on another. It was released to manufacturing on December 6, 2005 for IA-32 and x64 platforms, but not for IA-64. It was succeeded by Windows Server 2008.
New features of Windows Server 2003 R2 include:
- .NET Framework 2.0
- Active Directory Federation Services
- Microsoft Management Console version 3.0. Additionally, several new snap-ins are included:
- A new version of Distributed File System that includes remote differential compression technology
- Microsoft Virtual Server 2005, a hypervisor and the precursor to Hyper-V
- Windows Services for UNIX
On July 13, 2010, Windows Server 2003's mainstream support expired and the extended support phase began. During the extended support phase, Microsoft continued to provide security updates; however, free technical support, warranty claims, and design changes are no longer being offered. Extended support lasted until July 14, 2015.
Although Windows Server 2003 is unsupported, Microsoft released an emergency security patch in May 2017 for the OS as well as other unsupported versions of Windows (including Windows XP and Windows 8 RTM), to address a vulnerability that was being leveraged by the WannaCry ransomware attack.
- Microsoft Servers
- Comparison of Microsoft Windows versions
- History of Microsoft Windows
- Comparison of operating systems
- List of operating systems
- "Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Is Available Worldwide Today". News Center. San Francisco: Microsoft. April 24, 2003.
- "SP2 Goes Live". Windows Server Blog. Microsoft.
- "Windows Server 2003 Evaluation Kit". microsoft.com. Microsoft. 6 November 2003. Archived from the original on 1 January 2005.
- "Volume Licensing Programs for Windows Server 2003". microsoft.com. Microsoft. 15 June 2004. Archived from the original on 13 January 2005.
- "Windows Server 2003 Pricing". microsoft.com. Microsoft. 6 February 2004. Archived from the original on 29 December 2004.
- "Windows server 2003 Lifecycle Policy". Microsoft. March 8, 2008.
- "Windows Server 2003 end of support". Microsoft. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Is Available Worldwide Today". News Center. San Francisco: Microsoft. 24 April 2003. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Rob Short (and kernel team) - Going deep inside Windows Vista's kernel architecture - Going Deep - Channel 9". Channel 9. Microsoft.
- "Windows Server's identity crisis". CNET News. CBS Interactive. 9 January 2003. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "The Exterminator - Forbes.com". forbes.com.
- "The Exterminator - Forbes.com". forbes.com.
- "Watchdog Timer Hardware Requirements for Windows Server 2003". WHDC. Microsoft. January 14, 2003. Archived from the original on November 18, 2006. Retrieved May 13, 2006.
- "Compare the Editions of Windows Server 2003". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012.
- Holme, Dan; Thomas, Orin (2004). "1: Introducing Microsoft Windows Server 2003". Managing and maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 environment. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 0-7356-1437-7.
- "Memory Limits for Windows Releases". Msdn.microsoft.com. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "Licensing Windows Server 2003, Web Edition". Microsoft.com. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "Microsoft Raises the Speed Limit with the Availability of 64-Bit Editions of Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional" (Press release). Microsoft. April 25, 2005. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- "Microsoft documentation for Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition". Microsoft.com. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- David Chernicoff (April 17, 2006). "Storage Server R2 Boasts Search and File-Access Improvements". Windows IT Pro. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- Nicholas Kolakowski (2011-09-07). "HP TouchPad Needs 6 to 8 Weeks for Additional Shipments". Eweek.com. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- "Microsoft Corporation Acquires WinTarget Technology from String Bean Software". Microsoft.com. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 – Frequently Asked Questions". Microsoft.
- "Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2: Frequently Asked Questions". Microsoft. July 11, 2006. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- "Licensing – Windows Small Business Server 2003 R2: Frequently Asked Questions". Microsoft. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- Windows Server 2003
- Hill, Brandon (August 22, 2007). "Windows Home Server Systems to Ship 15 September". DailyTech.com. DailyTech. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "Windows Server with Embedded Licensing". Zoliherczeg.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- "Product Lifecycles & Support". Microsoft. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- Massy, Dave (February 17, 2014). "What does the end of support of Windows XP mean for Windows Embedded?". Windows Embedded Blog.
- "Embedded Total Solution - Windows Embedded OS |Industrial Storages and Motherboards| Cloning and Recovery Solutions Development, Analysis and Testing Solutions". MDS Pacific. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Security Configuration Wizard for Windows Server 2003". Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- "Metabase Auditing (IIS 6.0)". Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- "The Cable Guy – December 2004: New Networking Features in Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1". Microsoft TechNet. December 1, 2004. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- "A detailed description of the Data Execution Prevention (DEP) feature in Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005, and Windows Server 2003 (KB 875352)". Microsoft. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- SV1 stands for "Security Version 1", referring to the set of security enhancements made for that release . This version of Internet Explorer is more popularly known as IE6 SP2, given that it is included with Windows XP Service Pack 2, but this can lead to confusion when discussing Windows Server 2003, which includes the same functionality in the SP1 update to that operating system.
- "Windows and GPT FAQ". Microsoft.com. June 15, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 list of updates (KB 824721)". Microsoft. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- "Windows Service Pack Road Map". Microsoft. July 10, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
- Ralston, Ward (August 1, 2006). "Windows Server 2003 and XP x64 Editions Service Pack 2". Windows Server Blog. Microsoft.
- "Windows Server 2003 gets second update". Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- "Windows Server 2003 R2 installation help". Microsoft. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- "New Version Of Windows Server Is On The Way". InformationWeek. UBM. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- Otey, Michael (24 April 2006). "New Features in Windows Server 2003 R2". Windows IT Pro. Penton.
- "Microsoft Support Lifecycle". Support. Microsoft. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- "Microsoft issues 'highly unusual' Windows XP patch to prevent massive ransomware attack". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- "Customer Guidance for WannaCrypt attacks". Microsoft. Retrieved 13 May 2017.