Wineville Chicken Coop Murders
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|Wineville Chicken Coop Murders|
March 10, 1928|
January 11, 1929
No. of participants
The Wineville Chicken Coop Murders—also known as the Wineville Chicken Murders—were a series of abductions and murders of young boys that occurred in the city of Los Angeles and in Riverside County, California, between 1926 and 1928. The case received national attention.
- 1 Murders
- 2 Imprisonment and hanging
- 3 Involved persons
- 3.1 Northcott family tree
- 3.2 Gordon Stewart Northcott (November 9, 1906 – October 2, 1930)
- 3.3 Christine Collins (December 14, 1888 – December 8, 1964)
- 3.4 Sanford Clark (March 1, 1913 – June 20, 1991)
- 3.5 Walter Collins (September 23, 1918 – March 15, 1928)
- 3.6 Lewis and Nelson Winslow
- 3.7 Arthur J. Hutchins Jr., the imposter
- 3.8 Rev. Gustav Briegleb
- 3.9 The boy who came forward
- 4 Popular culture
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
Gordon Stewart Northcott was born in Bladworth, Saskatchewan and raised in British Columbia. He moved to Los Angeles with his parents in 1924. In 1926, Northcott (age 19), asked his father to purchase a plot of land in Wineville, California, where he built a chicken ranch and a house with the help of his father (who was in the construction business) and his nephew, Sanford Clark. It was this pretext that Northcott used to bring Clark from Bladworth to the U.S. (with the permission of the boy's parents). After arriving at his Wineville, California farm (located in present-day Jurupa Valley), Northcott began to beat and sexually abuse his nephew, Sanford Clark.
In August 1928, Sanford's older sister, 19-year-old Jessie Clark, visited Sanford, who was 15 at the time, in Wineville. She was concerned about his welfare. At that time, Sanford told her that he feared for his life. One night while Northcott was asleep, Jessie learned from Sanford that Northcott had killed four boys at his ranch. Jessie returned to Canada about one week after the discovery.
Once in Canada, Jessie informed the American consul there about Northcott's crimes. The American consul then wrote a letter to the Los Angeles Police Department, detailing Jessie Clark's sworn complaint. Because there was initially some concern over an immigration issue, the Los Angeles Police Department contacted the United States Immigration Service to determine facts relative to Jessie's complaint.
On August 31, 1928, two United States Immigration Service inspectors, Judson F. Shaw and George W. Scallorn, visited Northcott's chicken ranch in Wineville. They found 15-year-old Sanford Clark at the ranch and took him into custody.
Northcott had seen the agents driving up the long road to his ranch. Before fleeing into the treeline, he told Clark to stall the agents, or else he would shoot him from the treeline with a rifle. During the next two hours while Clark stalled, Northcott kept on running. Finally, when Clark felt that the agents could protect him, he told them that Northcott had fled into the trees which lined the edge of his chicken ranch property.
Northcott and his mother, Sarah Louise, fled to Canada but were arrested near Vernon, British Columbia on September 19, 1928. Sanford Clark testified at the sentencing of Sarah Louise Northcott that his uncle, Gordon Northcott, had kidnapped, molested, beaten, and killed three young boys with help from his mother and Clark himself. Sanford Clark also testified about the murder of a fourth boy, a Mexican, where Northcott had forced Clark to help dispose of the head by burning it in a fire pit and then crushing the skull.
Sanford Clark said that quicklime was used to dispose of the remains and that the bodies (of Lewis and Nelson Winslow and of Walter Collins) were buried on the Wineville chicken ranch.
Body parts found
Authorities found three shallow graves exactly where Clark had stated they were at Wineville. It was found, however, that these graves did not contain complete bodies but only parts of bodies. During testimony from both Sanford Clark and his sister Jessie, it was learned that the bodies had been dug up by Gordon Northcott and his mother, Sarah Louise Northcott, on the evening of August 4, 1928, a few weeks before Sanford was taken into protective custody. Northcott and his mother had taken the bodies out to a desert area, where they were most likely burned in the night. The complete bodies were never recovered.
This evidence found in the graves consisted of "51 parts of human anatomy ... those silent bits of evidence, of human bones and blood, have spoken and corroborated the testimony of living witnesses". This evidence enabled the State of California to conclude that Walter Collins, the two Winslow brothers, and the Mexican boy had all been murdered.
The body parts that were found, coupled with the testimony of Sanford Clark, resulted in a death sentence for Gordon Northcott and a life sentence for his mother, Sarah Louise Northcott.
Wineville changed its name to Mira Loma on November 1, 1930, due in large part to the negative publicity surrounding the murders. The new city of Eastvale, California, took parts of the area of Mira Loma in 2010; and the new city of Jurupa Valley took parts of Mira Loma in 2011. Wineville Avenue, Wineville Road, Wineville Park and other geographic references provide reminders of the community's former name.
Imprisonment and hanging
Canadian police arrested Gordon Stewart Northcott and his mother on September 19, 1928. Due to errors in the extradition paperwork, they were not returned to Los Angeles until November 30, 1928.
While Sarah Northcott and her son, Gordon, were being held in British Columbia awaiting extradition to California, Sarah confessed to the murders, including that of nine-year-old Walter Collins. But before being extradited to California, she retracted her confession, as did Gordon Northcott, who had confessed to killing more than five boys.
After Sarah and her son had been extradited from British Columbia to California, she once again confessed and pleaded guilty to killing Walter Collins. She was not put on trial; upon her plea of guilty, Superior Court Judge Morton sentenced her to life imprisonment on December 31, 1928, sparing her the death penalty because she was a woman. During her sentencing hearing, she claimed that her son was innocent and made a variety of bizarre claims about his parentage, including that he was an illegitimate son of an English nobleman, that she was Gordon's grandmother, and that he was the result of incest between her husband, Cyrus George Northcott, and their daughter. She also stated that as a child, Gordon was sexually abused by the entire family. She served her sentence at Tehachapi State Prison and was paroled after less than 12 years. She died in 1944.
Gordon Northcott was implicated in the murder of Walter Collins, but because his mother had already confessed to murdering Collins and had been sentenced for it, the state chose to not prosecute Gordon Northcott in that murder.
It was speculated that Gordon may have killed as many as 20 boys, but the State of California could not produce evidence to support that speculation. Ultimately, the state only brought an indictment against Gordon for the murder of an unidentified Mexican boy (known as the "Headless Mexican") and for the murder of the brothers Lewis and Nelson Winslow (aged 12 and 10, respectively). The brothers had been reported missing from Pomona on May 16, 1928.
In early 1929, Gordon Northcott's trial was held before Judge George R. Freeman in Riverside County, California. The jury heard that he kidnapped, molested, tortured, and murdered the Winslow brothers and the "headless Mexican" in 1928. On February 8, 1929, the 27-day trial ended with Gordon being convicted of those murders.
Northcott family tree
|1928 Northcott Farm Site|
|Sarah Louise Cawthrope Northcott||Cyrus George Northcott|
|John Clark||Winifred Northcott Clark||Gordon Stewart Northcott|
(November 9, 1906 – October 2, 1930)
|Jessie Clark||June McInnes Clark||Sanford Wesley Clark|
(March 1, 1913 – June 20, 1991)
|Kenneth Clark||Eddie Clark|
|Jerry Clark||Robert Clark|
Gordon Stewart Northcott (November 9, 1906 – October 2, 1930)
Gordon Stewart Northcott|
November 9, 1906
Bladworth, Saskatchewan, Canada
San Quentin State Prison in San Quentin, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Hanging|
|Criminal penalty||Death (February 13, 1929)|
|Conviction(s)||Child abductions, child rapes and molestations, torture, child murders (February 8, 1929)|
|Victims||3 (confirmed), 1 (implicated)|
Span of crimes
|September 19, 1928|
Gordon Stewart Northcott was born in Bladworth, Saskatchewan, Canada, and raised in British Columbia. He moved to Los Angeles, California with his parents in 1924. Northcott asked his father to purchase a plot of land in Wineville, California. On this land, Gordon built a chicken ranch and a house with the help of his father (who was in the construction business) and his nephew, Sanford. It was this pretext (building a chicken ranch at Wineville) that Northcott used to bring Sanford from Bladworth to the United States.
While residing at his chicken ranch, Northcott abducted an undetermined number of boys and molested them. Typically, after molesting them, he would drive the victims home and let them go. Four of them, however, he murdered at the ranch.
Ultimately, Northcott was tried and convicted of murdering the two Winslow boys and a teenage Mexican boy. He had shot and then decapitated the Mexican boy, who was his first murder victim.
Northcott also participated in the murder of a boy named Walter Collins. A few days after abducting Walter Collins, Northcott received a phone-call from his mother, Sarah Louise Northcott, informing him that she was on her way to see him at the ranch in Wineville and that she was going to stay for a few days. The drive from her home in Los Angeles to Wineville was only about an hour. By then, Northcott had already held and molested Walter for several days. During his mother's visit, Walter was kept in a chicken coop.
Sarah Louise became suspicious of the chicken coop and of Northcott's desire to keep her away from it. At some time during her visit to the ranch, she discovered Walter in the chicken coop. According to Sanford Clark's testimony, she told her son that Walter could identify him. (Northcott had once worked at a supermarket where Walter had shopped for his mother, Christine Collins.)
Since Walter could identify him, she told her son that Walter knew too much and would have to be silenced permanently. Sanford Clark testified that Louise decided that all three of them should participate in murdering Walter. That way, none of them (Northcott, Sarah, and Sanford) could implicate the two others without placing themselves at risk. Northcott suggested using a gun, but Louise feared that a gunshot would alert the neighbors. Louise chose the blunt end of an axe to bludgeon Walter in the head as he lay sleeping on a cot in one of the chicken coops. After striking a few first blows Northcott and Clark joined in.
The two Winslow brothers were killed in the same way.
Christine Collins (December 14, 1888 – December 8, 1964)
Sanford Clark (March 1, 1913 – June 20, 1991)
Sanford's older sister, Jessie, became suspicious of the letters Sanford was forced to send home from Northcott's ranch. These letters assured the family that Sanford was well.
Jessie traveled to the ranch in Wineville and stayed there for several days. She became terrified of Northcott, left the ranch, and returned to Canada. There she told the American consul about the crimes that had occurred at Wineville.
Sanford was not tried for murder because Assistant District Attorney Loyal C. Kelley believed very strongly that he was innocent. He said that Sanford had been a victim of Northcott's death threats and sexual abuse and was not a willing participant in the crimes committed at the chicken ranch.
Kelley told Sanford that he had secured an entirely unique settlement of Sanford's legal situation by having him taken to the nearby Whittier State School, where an experimental program for delinquent youths was underway. He assured Sanford that the Whittier school was unique because of its compassionate mission of genuine rehabilitation.
Sanford was sentenced to five years at the Whittier State School (later renamed the Fred C. Nelles Youth Correctional Facility). His sentence was later commuted to 23 months because the trustees of the school believed that he "had impressed the Trustees with his temperament, job skills and his personal desire to live a productive life during his nearly two years there."
Walter Collins (September 23, 1918 – March 15, 1928)
Initially, his mother, Christine Collins, and the police believed that enemies of Walter Collins Sr. had abducted Walter. Walter Collins Sr. had been convicted of eight armed robberies and was an inmate of Folsom State Prison.
Walter Collins' disappearance received nationwide attention and the Los Angeles Police Department followed up hundreds of leads without success. The police faced negative publicity and increasing public pressure to solve the case.[unreliable source?]
Five months after Walter's disappearance, a boy claiming to be Walter was found in DeKalb, Illinois. Letters and photographs were exchanged before Walter's mother, Christine Collins, paid for the boy to be brought to Los Angeles. A public reunion was organized by the police, who hoped to negate the bad publicity they had received for their failure to solve this case and others. The police also hoped that the uplifting story would deflect attention from a series of corruption scandals that had sullied the department's reputation. At the reunion, Christine stated that the boy was not her son, Walter. She was told by the officer in charge of the case, police Captain J.J. Jones, to take the boy home to "try him out for a couple of weeks." Christine agreed to do this.[additional citation(s) needed][unreliable source?]
Three weeks later, Christine returned to see Captain Jones and persisted in her claim that the boy was not Walter. Even though she had dental records proving it, Jones had her committed to the psychiatric ward at Los Angeles County Hospital under a "Code 12" — a term used to jail or commit someone who was deemed difficult or inconvenient.
During Christine's incarceration, Jones questioned the boy, who admitted to being 12-year-old Arthur Hutchins Jr., a runaway from Illinois but originally from Iowa. A drifter at a roadside café in Illinois had told Hutchins of his resemblance to the missing Walter, so Hutchins came up with a plan to impersonate him. His motive was to get to Hollywood so that he could meet his favorite actor, Tom Mix.[additional citation(s) needed][unreliable source?]
On September 13, 1930, Christine won a lawsuit against Jones and was awarded $10,800 (approximately $154,000 USD in 2014), which Jones never paid. The last newspaper account of Christine is from 1941, when she attempted to collect a $15,562 judgment against Captain Jones (who was by then retired) in the Superior Court.
Christine became hopeful that her son Walter might still be alive after her first interview with Gordon Stewart Northcott. She asked Northcott if he had killed her son, and after listening to his repeated lies, confessions, and recantations, she concluded that Northcott was insane. Because Northcott did not seem to know whether he had even met Walter, much less killed him, she clung to the hope that he was still alive.
Northcott sent Christine a telegram shortly before his execution, saying he had lied when he denied that Walter was among his victims. He promised to tell the truth, if she came in person to hear it. Just a few hours before the execution, Christine visited him. But upon her arrival, Northcott balked. "I don't want to see you," he said when she confronted him. "I don't know anything about it. I'm innocent."
A news account said, "The distraught woman was outraged by Northcott's conduct. . .but was also comforted by it. Northcott's ambiguous replies and his seeming refusal to remember such details as Walter's clothing and the color of his eyes gave her continued hope that her son still lived."
Lewis and Nelson Winslow
Lewis, aged 12, and Nelson, aged 10, were the sons of Mr. Nelson Winslow Sr. and Mrs. Winslow. They were abducted on May 16, 1928, from Pomona, California on their way home from a Yacht Club meeting. Northcott was convicted of kidnapping and killing them.
Mr. Winslow led a lynch mob to the Riverside County jail where Northcott was temporarily being held with the intent of hanging Northcott after the completion of his trial, but before his sentencing. Police convinced the mob to disband.
Arthur J. Hutchins Jr., the imposter
In 1933, Arthur J. Hutchins Jr. wrote about how and why he impersonated the missing boy, Walter Collins. Hutchins' biological mother had died in 1925 when he was 9 years old, and he had been living with his stepmother, Violet Hutchins.
Hutchins pretended to be Walter Collins to get as far away as possible from his stepmother. After living on the road for a month, he arrived in DeKalb, Illinois. When police brought him in, they began to ask him questions about Walter Collins. Originally, he stated that he did not know about Walter but changed his story when he saw a chance of getting to California.
He died of a blood clot in 1954 at the age of 38, leaving behind a wife and a young daughter, Carol.
In 2008 Carol Hutchins said, "My dad was full of adventure. In my mind, he could do no wrong."
Rev. Gustav Briegleb
He took up many important causes in the City of Los Angeles in the 1920s and 1930s, most notably the poor handling of the Walter Collins kidnapping case in 1928. He fought to have Christine Collins released from a mental hospital after she was committed there in retaliation for disagreeing with the Los Angeles Police Department's version of events.
He died at the age of 61.
The boy who came forward
In 1935, five years after Northcott's execution, a boy and his parents came forward and spoke to authorities. Seven years earlier, the boy had gone missing, and the parents reported his disappearance to the police. At the time of the boy's disappearance, authorities speculated that he might have been a murder victim at Wineville.
However, Sanford Clark never told authorities that a boy had escaped from the chicken coop. The historical record and Sanford Clark's own testimony indicate that only three boys were ever held in the chicken coop. These were Walter Collins and the two Winslow brothers, all of whom were murdered.
This section includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- The 2008 film Changeling, starring John Malkovich, and Angelina Jolie, is partly based on the Wineville Chicken Coop Murders. The film centers around Christine Collins with her struggles against the LAPD and her search to find Walter.
- "The Big Imposter" — episode #104 of the radio series Dragnet — was based upon these events. It aired on June 7, 1951. When the series was moved to television, the radio script was made into a teleplay. It aired on December 4, 1952.
- One of the plotlines of American Horror Story: Hotel centers around the murders.
- "Body Farm" — Episode 12 of Season 3 of the Investigation Discovery television show Evil Kin — focuses on the Wineville Chicken Coop Murders. The episode explores a variety of the case's details, including early warning signs regarding Northcott's pedophilia, Northcott's abusive relationship with Sanford, Sanford's rescue by means of Jessie, and Louise's obsessive affection for Northcott. It aired on October 6, 2015.
- Johnson, Kim Jarrell (2006). Jurupa. Arcadia Publishing. p. 67. ISBN 0-7385-3082-4.
- Kurz, John (1988-12-15). "Mira Loma History, Riverside County, California: Wineville Chicken Murders". Rubidoux Historical Society. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, p.88
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, p. 43
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, p. 81
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, p. 224.
- "Jurupa Valley History: Mira Loma History". Riverside County Planning Department. 2006. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- Rasmussen, Cecilia (October 31, 2004). "During the 1920s, Boys Became the Prey of a Brutal Killer". Los Angeles Times. Tronc. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
- "Northcott Murders: James Jeffrey Paul's Research Materials". Riverside Public Library. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
- "Murder Farm' Fugitive Held: Young Northcott Arrested by Canadian Police Mother Also Believed to be in Their Custody Blood Found on Suspects' Ranch Called Human". Los Angeles Times. 1928-09-20. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- "Error in Extradition Papers to Delay Northcott's Return: Officers Go On To See Suspect State Aides Discover Flaws in Legal Documents Burying Alive Charge Laid to Sanford Clark Examination Continues of "Death Farm" Clews". Los Angeles Times. 1928-09-26. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- "Youth's Nerves At High Tension: Northcott Embarrassed on Debarking from Train Request for Picture Brings Defiant Refusal Prisoner Lodged in Cell That Housed Hickman". Los Angeles Times. 1928-11-30. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- Blair, Elizabeth (October 24, 2008). "Behind 'Changeling,' A Tale Too Strange For Fiction". NPR. Washington, DC. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
- "NORTHCOTT SLEW FIVE, 'CONFESSION' ADMITS; California officer States Alleged Chicken Ranch Murderer Told of Killing Youths". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. December 4, 1928. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
- Webb, William (2013). 'Til Murder Do Us Part: 15 Couples Who Killed (Volume 2). New York City: Absolute Crime Books.
- "Ring". Time magazine. New York City. February 11, 1929. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
In Riverside, Calif., Gordon Stewart Northcott, while on trial for abusing and murdering three boys, heard his mother testify that she was not his mother, but his grandmother.
- "San Joaquin Valley; Northcott Plea in Vain. No Hope for Woman's Parole for Many Years to Come, Chairman Says". Los Angeles Times. 1936-02-14. p. 9. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- "Mother of Gordon Northcott, Wineville Boy Slayer, Paroled". Los Angeles Times. 1940-05-22. p. A1.
- "Mrs. Northcott Reported in East; Whereabouts of Ax Murderess Under Parole Disclosed". Los Angeles Times. 1941-01-09. p. 1A.
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, p. 141
- "Northcott Convicted of Slaying Three Boys; His Last Dramatic Plea Fails to Move Jury". New York Times. 1929-02-07. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
- Wetsch, Elisabeth (1995). "Chicken Murders". Serial Killer Crime Index. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- "Northcott put in Doomed Row: Slayer Becomes No. 46,597 at San Quentin Meeting With "Mother" May be Arranged Later Youth "Wisecracks" About Forthcoming Hanging". Los Angeles Times. 1929-02-13. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- Gribben, Mark (2007-02-27). "Poetic Justice". The Malefactor's Register. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- "Sarah Northcott" (1 photograph: b&w jpeg). Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. 1928. Retrieved 2010-05-09. "Sarah Northcott, Gordon's mother, held in Canada and jointly accused with her son of murder."
- "Cyrus G. Northcott" (1 photograph: b&w jpeg). Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. 1928. Retrieved 2010-05-09. "Cyrus G. Northcott, father of the suspect and asserted owner of the farm, was grilled by police in September 1928 and denied any knowledge of the crimes."
- "Winifred Clark" (1 photograph: b&w jpeg). Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. 1928. Retrieved 2010-05-09. "Gordon Stewart Northcott's older sister, Mrs. Winifred Clark, who had arrived at the farm and discovered the truth. She returned safely to Calgary."
- "Northcott leaving jail" (1 photograph: b&w jpeg). Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. 1929. Retrieved 2010-05-09. "Northcott signing out in the 'big book' at the Los Angeles County Jail as he departed for Riverside to go on trial as the slayer of the Winslow brothers. Soon after, his mother revealed that he is actually the son of her daughter, Mrs. Winifred Clark."
- "Jessie Clark" (1 photograph: b&w jpeg). Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. 1928. Retrieved 2010-05-09. "Jessie Clark, 19-year-old Saskatoon, Canada, girl who said, 'Gordon said he burned four boys on a pyre.'"
- "Sanford Clark" (1 photograph: b&w jpeg). Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. 1928. Retrieved 2010-05-09. "Sanford Clark, 15, who asserted four boys were slain on a 'murder farm' by Stewart Northcott, 21. He is shown looking over photos of missing boys. He claimed Walter Collins was a victim and picked his photo out of 30 but could not identify a boy found and returned as Walter Collins."
- Flacco, Anthony, The Road Out of Hell
- Paul, James Jeffrey (September 2008). Nothing Is Strange with You: The Life and Crimes of Gordon Stewart Northcott. Xlibris. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-4363-6627-4. Grave marker for Sanford Clark and his wife June, veteran's section of Woodlawn Cemetery, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.[self-published source]
- Anthony Flacco, The Road Out of Hell, p. 208
- Anthony Flacco, The Road Out of Hell, p. 221
- Anthony Flacco, The Road Out of Hell, pp. 226, 228
- Gonzales, Ruby (2008-12-21). "Clark, chief witness in '20s child murders led exemplary life". Whittier Daily News. Retrieved 2008-12-21.
- "City of Saskatoon Woodlawn Cemetery Alphabetical Listing (C)". Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- "New Kidnapping Clew Furnished in Hunt for Missing Collins Boy: Glendale Man Helps Police". Los Angeles Times. Times-Mirror Company. 1928-04-04. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
- Harnisch, Larry (2009-02-06). "Walter Collins in an undated prison photo". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
- Harnisch, Larry (1926-11-16). "Robbery 1st Degree, 8 Counts, Consecutively (Violation of Section 211a of the Penal Code)". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
- Harnisch, Larry (1928-04-06). "Police suspect kidnapping is retaliation against boy's father, a Folsom inmate". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
- Sacha Howells (2008-11-07). "Spoilers: Changeling – The Real Story Behind Eastwood's Movie". film.com. RealNetworks. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- "'Changeling' production notes" (Microsoft Word document). universalpicturesawards.com. Universal Pictures. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- "Hoax Discussed in Collins Suit: Hutchens Boy's Deception Subject of Argument Witnesses Tell of Seeming Truth of His Story Capt. Jones Lays Damage Action to Politics". Los Angeles Times. 1929-07-13. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
- "Hutchens' confession". photograph: b&w. Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. 1928. Retrieved 2008-09-14. "The written confession of the boy who finally revealed he was Arthur Hutchens, Jr., not Walter Collins, then later told juvenile authorities he was not Billy Fields. He was later identified as Arthur Hutchens."
- "Enigma Boy Identified:Youth Impersonating Walter Collins Now Declared to be Arthur Hutchens, Jr., of Iowa". Los Angeles Times. 1928-09-21. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- "Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- "Suit to Renew Old Judgment Recalls Northcott Murders: Mother of Supposed Victim Who Was Imprisoned as Insane in Imposter Mixup Tries to Collect Damages". Los Angeles Times. 1941-01-29. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, pp. 131–132
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, pp. 239–240
- "Northcott in Terror: Mob's Jail Visit Arouses Fear". Los Angeles Times. 1929-02-11. Retrieved 2009-07-13. Reprinted in The Los Angeles Times, The Daily Mirror: Changeling – Part IX, 2008-11-05.
- Jones, Oliver (2008-11-14). "Inside Story: How a Boy Became the Changeling Impostor". People. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Walker, Joe (2008-11-15). "Rev Gustav Briegleb". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- Harnisch, Larry (2008-12-27). "Voices – Christine Collins, November 6, 1930: The Christine Collins letters". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-05-07. Republished letter dated 1930-11-06 from Dr. Gustav A. Briegleb to Mr. Charles L. Neumiler, President, State Prison Board, Represa, California.
- Paul, James Jeffrey, Nothing Is Strange with You, p. 252
- Foundas, Scott (2007-12-19). "Clint Eastwood: The Set Whisperer – Shooting quietly on the Changeling set". LA Weekly. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
- Duffy, Clinton T. (1962). 88 Men and 2 Women. Doubleday.
- Flacco, Anthony; Jerry Clark (November 2009). The Road Out of Hell: Sanford Clark and the True Story of the Wineville Murders. Union Square Press. ISBN 978-1-4027-6869-9.
- Jenkins, Philip (2004). Moral Panic: Changing Concepts of the Child Molester in Modern America. Yale University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-300-10963-6.
- Jenkins, Philip (1994). Using Murder: The Social Construction of Serial Homicide. Aldine Transaction. p. 184. ISBN 0-202-30525-2.
- Leon, Chrysanthi Settlage (August 2011). Sex Fiends, Perverts, and Pedophiles: Understanding Sex Crime Policy in America. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-5326-2.
- Paul, James Jeffrey (September 2008). Nothing Is Strange with You: The Life and Crimes of Gordon Stewart Northcott. Xlibris. ISBN 978-1-4363-6627-4.
- Rasmussen, Cecilia (October 1998). L. A. Unconventional: The Men & Women Who Did L. A. Their Way. Los Angeles Times. ISBN 978-1-883792-23-7.
- Northcott A collection of 121 photographs associated with the Wineville case in the Los Angeles Public Library.
- Riverside Public Library, Northcott Murders: James Jeffrey Paul's Research Materials. A collection of materials donated by James Jeffrey Paul, which were used in the research for his book, Nothing is Strange with You: The Life and Crimes of Gordon Stewart Northcott.
- Wineville Chicken Coop Murders at Crime Museum
- Rev. Gustav Briegleb at Findagrave.com
- Gordon Stewart Northcott at Findagrave.com