Wings, 1975. L–R: Joe English, Denny Laine, Linda McCartney, Jimmy McCulloch, and Paul McCartney.
|Also known as||Suzy and the Red Stripes
The Country Hams
|Labels||Apple, Capitol, Parlophone, Columbia|
Wings, also known as Paul McCartney and Wings, were an Anglo-American rock band formed in 1971 by former Beatle Paul McCartney with his wife Linda on keyboards, session drummer Denny Seiwell, and former Moody Blues guitarist Denny Laine. Wings were noted for frequent personnel changes as well as commercial success, going through three lead guitarists and four drummers. However, the core trio of the McCartneys and Laine remained intact throughout the group's existence and McCartney continued playing bass and other assorted instruments, just as he had done with The Beatles.
Created following the McCartneys' 1971 album Ram, the band's first two albums, Wild Life and Red Rose Speedway (the latter featuring guitarist Henry McCullough), were viewed as artistic disappointments beside Paul McCartney's work with the Beatles. After the release of the title track of the James Bond movie Live and Let Die, McCullough and Seiwell resigned from the band. The McCartneys and Laine then released 1973's Band on the Run, a commercial and critical success that spawned two top ten singles in "Jet" and the title track. Following that album, the band recruited guitarist Jimmy McCulloch and drummer Geoff Britton, only for Britton to quit shortly afterwards and be replaced by Joe English. With the new line-up, Wings released Venus and Mars, which included the US number one single "Listen to What the Man Said", and undertook a highly successful world tour over 1975–76. Intended as more of a group effort, Wings at the Speed of Sound was issued midway through the tour and featured the hit singles "Silly Love Songs" and "Let 'Em In".
In 1977, the band earned their only UK number one single, with "Mull of Kintyre", which became the then-best selling UK single in history. Wings experienced another line-up shuffle, however, with both McCulloch and English departing before the release of the group's 1978 album London Town. The McCartneys and Laine again added new members, recruiting guitarist Laurence Juber and drummer Steve Holley. The resulting album, Back to the Egg, was a relative flop, with its singles under-performing and the critical reception negative. During the supporting tour, Paul McCartney was arrested in Japan for cannabis possession, putting the band on hold. Despite a final US number one, the live version of McCartney's solo single "Coming Up", Wings broke up permanently in 1981.
1970–71: Pre line-up
After the Beatles' break-up in 1970, McCartney recorded two albums: McCartney (1970), credited to himself, and Ram (1971), with wife Linda. He had insisted from the beginning of their marriage that Linda should be involved in his musical projects, notwithstanding her lack of previous experience as a musician, so that they did not have to be apart when he was on tour. Ram was recorded in New York City, where McCartney auditioned a number of drummers and guitarists, selecting Seiwell and guitarist David Spinozza. When Spinozza became unavailable due to other session commitments, Hugh McCracken was enlisted to take his place.
1971–73: First line-up
After the release of Ram, McCartney decided to form a new group and asked Seiwell and McCracken to join. Seiwell accepted, but McCracken declined, so McCartney invited Denny Laine, whom he had known since the early 1960s, to join. Laine, who was working on a solo album at the time, got a phone call from McCartney enquiring if he would like to work with him, as McCartney said: "I'd known him in the past and I just rang him and asked him, 'What are you doing?' He said, 'Nothing', so I said, 'Right. Come on then!'" Laine then dropped plans for his album there and then. In August 1971, Seiwell and Laine joined Paul and Linda McCartney to record Paul's third post-Beatles album for Apple Records. The result was Wild Life, released 7 December. It was the first project to credit Wings as the artist. The band name is said to have come to McCartney as he was praying in the hospital while Linda was giving birth to their second child together, Stella, on 13 September 1971. Paul McCartney recalled in the film Wingspan that the birth of Stella was "a bit of a drama"; there were complications at the birth and that both Linda and the baby almost died. He was praying fervently and the image of wings came to his mind. He decided to name his new band "Wings".
In an attempt to capture the spontaneity of live performances, five of Wild Life's eight songs were first takes by the band. The album included a cover of Mickey & Sylvia's "Love Is Strange". Like Ram, Wild Life left music critics cold, a response that typified the anti-McCartney sentiments that prevailed among the music press following the Beatles' break-up. In their 1975 book The Beatles: An Illustrated Record, Roy Carr and Tony Tyler called Wild Life "rushed, defensive, badly timed, and over-publicized", and wrote that it showed McCartney's songwriting "at an absolute nadir just when he needed a little respect". Wings similarly struggled to gain artistic credibility, particularly during the early 1970s, with critics, fans and McCartney's musical peers alike ridiculing the inclusion of Linda as a keyboard player and backing vocalist.
On 24 January 1972, McCartney added to the Wings line-up guitarist Henry McCullough, after he had tried out for the band. The new line-up immediately mounted an impromptu tour of UK universities (with the group driving around in a van), followed by a tour of small European venues. Although this was the first tour including an ex-Beatle after the Beatles broke up, Wings played no Beatles numbers during the tour, to show that it was a new band in its own right.
In February 1972, Wings released a single called "Give Ireland Back to the Irish", a response to the events of Bloody Sunday. The song was banned by the BBC for its anti-Unionist political stance and only mentioned in chart rundowns on BBC Radio 1 as "a record by Wings". Despite limited airplay, it reached number 16 in the UK, as well as number 1 in both the Republic of Ireland and Spain. Wings released a children's song, "Mary Had a Little Lamb", as its next single, which reached the top 10 in the UK. Although some critics interpreted it as a sarcastic reaction to the ban on "Give Ireland Back to the Irish", it was in fact a serious effort by McCartney to record a song for children. Wings followed it with December 1972's "Hi, Hi, Hi", which was again banned by the BBC, this time for its alleged drug and sexual references. The B-side, "C Moon", was played instead. The single peaked at number 5 in the UK.
The band were renamed "Paul McCartney and Wings" for the 1973 album Red Rose Speedway, which yielded their first US number 1 hit, "My Love". The album included two tracks left over from the Ram sessions and was originally intended as a two-record set. After producer Glyn Johns had walked out on the project, however, McCartney conceded to EMI's opinion that the material was "substandard" and cut it down to a single disc. Among the unreleased songs from the seven-month sessions was the Linda composition "Seaside Woman", which was finally issued in 1977, credited to "Suzy and the Red Stripes".
Near the end of the Red Rose Speedway sessions, in October 1972, Wings recorded the theme song to the James Bond film Live and Let Die, which reunited McCartney with Beatles producer/arranger George Martin. Issued as a non-album single in mid-1973, "Live and Let Die" became a worldwide hit and has remained a highlight of McCartney's post-Wings concert performances (often accompanied by pyrotechnics). That same year, McCartney and Wings filmed a TV special, the critically maligned James Paul McCartney, which featured footage of the group performing in outdoor settings and in front of a studio audience.
After a successful British tour in May–June 1973, Wings went into rehearsals for their next album. McCullough and Seiwell abruptly left the band in August, however, at the end of rehearsals. Both musicians were disenchanted with the group's musical direction and Linda's inclusion; McCullough also objected to McCartney's domineering attitude towards him as a guitar player, while Seiwell had long felt aggrieved at the lack of a formalised financial arrangement and his status as a lowly paid sideman.
With the band reduced to a trio, the McCartneys and Laine cut what turned out to be Wings' most successful album, Band on the Run, at EMI's primitive eight-track recording studio in Lagos, Nigeria. The album went to number 1 in both the US and UK and spawned three hit singles: the rockers "Jet" and "Helen Wheels" (originally included only on the US version of the album) and the title track – a suite of movements recalling side two of Abbey Road. It also included "Let Me Roll It", which was seen as an affectionate impersonation of John Lennon's vocal style, and "No Words", the first Wings song on which Laine received a co-writing credit beside the McCartneys. Band on the Run enjoyed a highly favourable response from music critics and restored McCartney's tarnished post-Beatles image.
1974–78: Second line-up
After Band on the Run, Jimmy McCulloch, former lead guitarist in Thunderclap Newman and Stone the Crows, joined the band. The first Wings project with McCulloch was McGear, a 1974 collaboration between Paul and his younger brother Mike McGear, with session musician Gerry Conway playing drums. Warner Bros. Records chose not to play up the "Wings" angle in its marketing for McGear, and the album sold poorly. However, the sessions also generated a single credited to McGear's group the Scaffold, "Liverpool Lou", which became a top-10 hit in the UK. Shortly thereafter, Geoff Britton joined Wings on drums, and the first recording session with this full line-up was held in Nashville, where the band stayed at the farm of songwriter Curly Putman Jr. The trip was immortalised in the 1974 non-album single "Junior's Farm", backed with a straight country track entitled "Sally G", the group's last release on Apple Records. In a rare occurrence, both sides of the single separately reached the Billboard Top 20 in the US. During these sessions, Wings (with guest musicians Chet Atkins and Floyd Cramer) also recorded a single that was attributed to "the Country Hams" entitled "Walking in the Park with Eloise", a song written years before by Paul's father James.
Wings began recording sessions for its next album in London in November 1974, then moved to New Orleans to complete Venus and Mars (1975), the first release from the group on Capitol Records. The album topped the charts and contained the US number 1 single "Listen to What the Man Said", which also featured Dave Mason, formerly of Traffic, on guitar and Tom Scott on saxophone. When the Venus and Mars recording sessions moved to New Orleans, Britton quit Wings and was replaced by Joe English who won the job at a secret audition before McCartney. In late 1975 Wings embarked on the Wings Over the World tour, following a postponement to allow McCulloch to recuperate from a hand fracture. Starting in Bristol, the tour took them to Australia (November), Europe (March 1976), the US (May/June), and Europe again (September), before ending in a four-night grand finale at London's Wembley Empire Pool. For this tour, added to Wings' stage act was a horn section consisting of Tony Dorsey, Howie Casey, Thaddeus Richard and Steve Howard, on saxes, brass and percussion.
In between sections of the tour, Wings recorded Wings at the Speed of Sound, which was released at the end of March 1976, just prior to the US leg of the world tour. It represented a departure from the previous Wings template in that each of the five members of the band (including English) sang lead on at least one song. However, the two singles, "Silly Love Songs" and "Let 'Em In" (the former a US number one), were both sung by Paul. Four of the album tracks were played in the 1976 portion of the tour, which also included five Beatles songs. One of the Seattle concerts from the American leg of the 1975–76 world tour was filmed and later released as the concert feature Rockshow (1980). The tour's American leg, which also included Madison Square Garden in New York City and Boston Garden in Massachusetts, spawned a triple live album, Wings over America (1976), which became the fifth consecutive Wings album to reach number 1 in the US. From this album came a single release of the live version of "Maybe I'm Amazed" originally from the McCartney album. The single's flipside was "Soily", a previously unreleased rocker that was often used as a closer for the concerts.
After the tour, and following the release of "Maybe I'm Amazed" in early 1977, Wings took a break. Later in the year, the band started recording their next album in the Virgin Islands, but the sessions were interrupted by Linda's pregnancy and then by the departures of both McCulloch and English. McCulloch, who joined the Small Faces, had difficulty handling the rock 'n' roll lifestyle, ultimately dying of a heroin overdose in 1979. English joined Chuck Leavell's band Sea Level and later founded the Christian-oriented Joe English Band.
Undeterred by their departure, Wings released the already-completed McCartney–Laine ballad "Mull of Kintyre", an ode to the Scottish coastal region where McCartney had made his home in the early 1970s. Its broad appeal was maximised by a pre-Christmas release. It became an international hit, dominating the charts in Britain (where it was Wings' only number 1 single), Australia and many other countries over the Christmas/New Year period. Ultimately, it became the first single to exceed sales of 2 million in the UK, eclipsing the previous all-time best-seller (the Beatles' "She Loves You"), and remains one of the biggest selling UK singles of all time. However, it was not a success in the US, where the B-side "Girls School" received most of the airplay but barely reached the top 40.
The core trio of Wings then released the album London Town in 1978. Though only the remaining trio are pictured on the sleeve, much of the album included McCulloch and English, having been recorded before their departures. It was a commercial success, although it became the first Wings album since Wild Life not to reach number 1 in the US (peaking at number 2). London Town featured a markedly softer-rock, synth-based sound than previous Wings albums. "With a Little Luck" reached number 1 in the US and number 5 in the UK, but "I've Had Enough" and "London Town" were commercial disappointments in both countries.
1978–81: Third line-up
|Some of this section's listed sources may not be reliable. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Later in 1978, lead guitarist Laurence Juber and drummer Steve Holley joined the band, restoring Wings to touring strength. In 1979, McCartney signed a new record contract, leaving Capitol, the company he had been with in the US and Canada since he was a Beatle, and joining Columbia Records, while remaining with Parlophone in the rest of the world. Influenced by the punk and new wave scenes, Wings abandoned its mellow touch and hired Chris Thomas to help in the production process. The result was a somewhat less polished sound. This new version of Wings released the disco-oriented single "Goodnight Tonight", backed by "Daytime Nighttime Suffering", which reached the top 5 in both the US and UK. However, the subsequent album Back to the Egg was not favourably received by critics and although it went platinum in the US, sales were disappointing in comparison to its immediate predecessors. It contained the Grammy-winning song "Rockestra Theme", the result of an October 1978 superstar session with members of Wings, the Who, Led Zeppelin, and Pink Floyd, among others. Three singles, "Old Siam, Sir" (UK only), "Getting Closer", and "Arrow Through Me" (US only), were culled from the album, but performed poorly on the charts. During much of 1979, Wings were inactive as McCartney worked on a new solo album (McCartney II) without the band.
In November and December 1979, Wings toured the UK, once again adding the horns and brass section consisting of Tony Dorsey, Howie Casey, Thaddeus Richard, and Steve Howard. This tour climaxed with a massive "Rockestra" all-star collection of musicians in London in aid of UNICEF and Kampuchean refugees. Also during this tour, a live version of the McCartney II track "Coming Up" was recorded in Glasgow and became Wings' sixth US number one hit the following year.
Paul McCartney and his family arrived in Japan on 16 January 1980 for the planned eleven-date Wings' concert tour of Japan (due to visit Budokan Hall, Tokyo from 21 to 24 January 1980; Aichi-Ken, Taiiku-Kan, Nagoya on 25 & 26; Festival Hall, Osaka on 28; Osaka Furitsu-Kan, Osaka on 29; Budokan Hall, Tokyo from 31 January to 2 February 1980). McCartney was arrested immediately upon arriving at New Tokyo Airport for possession of 219 grams (7.7 ounces) of marijuana (with a street value of 600,000 yen) hidden in Paul's luggage. The arrest put the tour in jeopardy and Wings' music was immediately banned from all television and radio stations across Japan. Wings' Japanese promoters claimed that almost 100,000 tickets for the concerts had been sold, representing a possible loss of well over 100 million yen. The promoters had no option but to cancel all of the tour dates the day after McCartney's arrest. The other band members of Wings, except Linda, left Japan and returned to England on 21 January 1980. McCartney spent ten days in jail before being (unexpectedly) released without charge on 25 January 1980 and deported.
After returning to England, McCartney decided to release his solo album McCartney II and plans for a US tour were dropped. Meanwhile, Denny Laine released the single "Japanese Tears" and formed the short-lived Denny Laine Band with Steve Holley and released a solo album Japanese Tears that December. In October 1980, McCartney began work on his next album, Tug of War, with Beatles producer George Martin. For this album, Martin and McCartney decided to record with a variety of guest musicians instead of Wings. Wings reconvened in January 1981 to work on the Cold Cuts album of previously unreleased songs, and Denny Laine continued to participate in the Tug of War recording sessions in Montserrat in February, but on 27 April 1981, Laine announced he was leaving Wings due to McCartney's reluctance to tour in the wake of John Lennon's murder.
Suzy and the Red Stripes
Suzy and the Red Stripes was a pseudonym used by the group for the release of the Linda McCartney and Wings single "Seaside Woman" in 1977. It was the only release by Wings under that name and was written and sung by Linda McCartney. Linda said that the "Suzy and the Red Stripes" pseudonym came about because she had been called "Suzi" in Jamaica because of "a fantastic reggae version of 'Suzi Q'", and Red Stripe is Jamaica's leading brand of beer.
In March 1997, Denny Laine, Lawrence Juber and Steve Holley did an impromptu "Wings" reunion at a Beatlefest convention in East Rutherford, New Jersey. This was not a planned event, and no further reunions were intended. However, ten years later, in July 2007, Laine, Juber and Denny Seiwell reunited for one show at a Beatlefest convention in Las Vegas. Among other songs, they performed "Band on the Run", "Mull of Kintyre" and "Go Now". According to one report, Laine said that the three were discussing plans for a reunion tour. Laine and Seiwell appeared again at The Fest For Beatles Fans in Secaucus, New Jersey, in March 2010 and were joined by Juber at the Fest in Chicago in August 2010.
Laine, Juber and Seiwell performed together at the Fest for Beatles Fans in Los Angeles, California, in October 2014; the setlist included "Hi Hi Hi", "Live and Let Die" and "Rockestra Theme".
Wings had 12 top 10 singles (including one number 1) in the UK and 14 top 10 singles (including six number 1's) in the US. All 23 singles released by Wings reached the US top 40, and one double-sided single, "Junior's Farm"/"Sally G", reached the top 40 with each side. Of the nine albums released by Wings, all went top 10 in either the UK or the US, with five consecutive albums topping the US charts. Paul McCartney was unquestionably Wings' leader and star, but Denny Laine, Jimmy McCulloch, Laurence Juber, and Linda McCartney all wrote songs for the group, and Laine, McCulloch, English, and Linda McCartney all performed lead vocals. Nevertheless, all of the band's songs that were released as singles were at least co-composed by Paul McCartney, with the exceptions of "Seaside Woman" and "Walking in the Park with Eloise," both of which were released under pseudonyms.
The success of Wings was a vindication for McCartney (although at least one commentator felt that McCartney really did not need the vindication). His early, homemade solo output, which often featured simpler songs and less lavish production than the Beatles received from George Martin, was often dismissed by critics as "lightweight" next to the more serious nature of his former bandmates' solo output. Moreover, McCartney's singles experienced more uneven chart performance than those of his former bandmates in the years immediately following the breakup of the Beatles. But by the mid-1970s, the solo careers of the other three former Beatles were in varying degrees of decline, with John Lennon putting his career on hold in 1975 for the first five years of his son Sean's life. A year later, George Harrison had all but retired from live performances, with his new releases failing to match the success of his initial solo output. Ringo Starr was living in Los Angeles and was writing and recording successfully, but as a solo artist had not been performing onstage other than rare guest appearances (and would not tour until many years later, in 1989). Meanwhile, Wings continued to tour regularly and to enjoy hit singles and albums the world over. By 1980, Lennon was envious enough of McCartney's continuing success to make his re-emergence on the music scene that year. During its 10-year life, Wings had only one fewer number 1 single in the US than Lennon, Harrison, and Starr combined in their entire post-Beatle careers.
One of the controversies regarding Wings was whether the other members represented nothing more than sidemen backing up a solo McCartney. In an interview, Laurence Juber, Wings' third lead guitarist, said, "I was a sideman, but the job assignment very much included considering myself a part of the band. . . . In all its incarnations Wings sounded like a band, not like a solo McCartney project and I think that reflects well not only on Paul’s ability to share in the creative process, but also on the importance of Denny and Linda’s contributions, too. The other players brought their own personalities to the scene."
In addition to its own output, Wings recorded several songs that were released through various outlets both before and after the band's break-up. Denny Laine's 1977 solo album Holly Days was a joint effort by Laine with Paul and Linda McCartney; three songs on Laine's 1980 solo album Japanese Tears were performed by Wings with Laine on lead vocals; Laine also contributed to several songs on Paul McCartney's 1982 and 1983 solo albums Tug of War and Pipes of Peace, respectively. Juber's instrumental "Maisie"—which was backed by members of Wings—appeared on his solo album Standard Time. The McCartneys and Laine contributed backing vocals to George Harrison's 1981 tribute to John Lennon, "All Those Years Ago". Linda McCartney continued to tour and record with her husband up until her death in 1998, after which a compilation of her songs entitled Wide Prairie was released that featured seven Wings songs written or co-written by her. Wings also backed Paul's brother Mike McGear on the McGear album, as well as McGear's band the Scaffold on the single "Liverpool Lou" and its B-side "Ten Years After on Strawberry Jam". Paul McCartney also used three unreleased Wings songs as B-sides of his solo singles several years after Wings' break-up.
Wings' 1977 single "Mull of Kintyre"/"Girls School" is still the biggest-selling non-charity single in the UK (although Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody" sold more, its sales include a reissue in aid of the Terrence Higgins Trust), and it ranked fourth in the official list of all-time best selling singles in the UK issued in 2002.
In 2001, Wingspan: Hits and History was released, a project spanning an album and a television special retrospective. In June 2007, Apple's higher-quality iTunes Plus was released, featuring albums from EMI. Among the albums included were the nine original albums from Wings. As of 4 June 2007, Band on the Run was the third most downloaded album from iTunes Plus.
During its ten-year lifespan, Wings underwent numerous personnel changes, including twice being reduced to its core McCartney–McCartney–Laine trio.
- Wild Life (1971)
- Red Rose Speedway (1973)
- Band on the Run (1973)
- Venus and Mars (1975)
- Wings at the Speed of Sound (1976)
- London Town (1978)
- Back to the Egg (1979)
- Wings University Tour – 11 shows in the UK, 1972
- Wings Over Europe Tour – 25 shows, 1972
- Wings 1973 UK Tour – 21 shows, 1973
- Wings Over the World tour – 66 shows, 1975–1976
- Wings UK Tour 1979 – 20 shows, 1979
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Music Week Award
|1977||Music Week's top single||"Mull of Kintyre"||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
|1976||Gold LP For successful sales of their albums in Yugoslavia||McCartney, Ram, Wild Life, Red Rose Speedway, Band on the Run, Venus and Mars, Wings at the Speed of Sound||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
|2010||The BRITs Hits 30||"Live and Let Die"||Paul McCartney & Wings||Nominated|
|1974||Favorite Pop/Rock Band/Duo/Group||"Live and Let Die"||Paul McCartney & Wings||Nominated|
|1974||Best Original Song||"Live and Let Die"||George Martin, Paul McCartney, Linda McCartney||Nominated|
|2012||over 4 million performances||"Live and Let Die"||Paul McCartney||Won|
|1979||Most successful and honoured composer and musician in popular music history||-||Paul McCartney||Won|
|2010||A Classic Album||Band on the Run||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
|1976||Top Male Vocalist of the Year||Paul McCartney||Won|
|1974||Best bass guitarist||Paul McCartney||Won|
|1976||Best bass guitarist||Paul McCartney||Won|
Capitol Radio music Awards
|1977||The Best Single||"Mull of Kintyre"||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
|Best Live Show in London||1976 Wembley performances||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
Daily Mirror Readers Awards
|1977||The Best Male Group Singer||Paul McCartney||Won|
|Best Rock Group/Best Pop Group||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
|1979||Outstanding Music Personality||Paul McCartney||Won|
|1975||Best Selling single ever||"Mull of Kintyre"||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
|1980||Outstanding Services to British Music||-||Paul McCartney||Won|
Juno Awards (Canadian Music awards) and Nominations
|1975||International Album of the Year||Band on the Run||Paul McCartney & Wings||Won|
|Best Selling Single||"Band on the Run"||Paul McCartney & Wings||Nominated|
|1976||International Album of the Year||Venus and Mars||Paul McCartney & Wings||Nominated|
|1977||International Album of the Year||Wings over America||Paul McCartney & Wings||Nominated|
Grammy Awards and Nominations
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Wings – Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (31 March 1978). "London Town – Paul McCartney, Wings : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Lewisohn, Mark (2002). Wingspan. Little, Brown and Company (New York). ISBN 0-316-86032-8.
- Miles, Barry; Badman, Keith, eds. (2001). The Beatles Diary After the Break-Up: 1970–2001 (reprint ed.). London: Music Sales Group. ISBN 978-0-7119-8307-6.
- Perone, James E. (2012). The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations. ABC-CLIO. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-313-37907-9.
- Sounes, Howard. Fab: An Intimate Life of Paul McCartney (2010): 285–87
- Wright, Jeb. Denny Seiwell of Wings. Interview, Classic Rock Revisited website. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Wild Life – Paul McCartney, Wings : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Woffinden, Bob (1981). The Beatles Apart. London: Proteus. pp. 47, 62–63. ISBN 0-906071-89-5.
- Madinger, Chip; Easter, Mark (2000). Eight Arms to Hold You: The Solo Beatles Compendium. Chesterfield, MO: 44.1 Productions. p. 151. ISBN 0-615-11724-4.
- Frontani, Michael (2009). "The Solo Years". In Womack, Kenneth (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Beatles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 164–65. ISBN 978-0-521-68976-2.
- Ingham, Chris (2005). "Introduction: Ten Years After". In Hunt, Chris (ed.). NME Originals: Beatles – The Solo Years 1970–1980. London: IPC Ignite!. p. 14.
- Carr, Roy, and Tyler, Tony. The Beatles: An Illustrated Record. New York: Harmony Books, a subsidiary of Crown Publishing Group, 1975. ISBN 0-517-52045-1.
- Doggett, Peter (2011). You Never Give Me Your Money: The Beatles After the Breakup. New York, NY: It Books. pp. 177, 194–95, 208. ISBN 978-0-06-177418-8.
- Schaffner, Nicholas (1978). The Beatles Forever. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 156. ISBN 0-07-055087-5.
- Rodriguez, Robert (2010). Fab Four FAQ 2.0: The Beatles' Solo Years, 1970–1980. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. pp. 43, 95–96, 180. ISBN 978-1-4165-9093-4.
- "How On Earth Do You Follow The Beatles? Paul McCartney On Wings". Uncut.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- However, McCartney played a solo version of "Let It Be", on piano, at Nottingham. Paul McCartney biography(2003). MPL Communications. Retrieved: 11 December 2006.
- BBC Radio Leeds interview Retrieved: 21 November 2006
- The seven ages of Paul McCartney, BBC News, 17 June 2006. Retrieved on 6 November 2006.
- "Official Charts: Paul McCartney". The Official UK Charts Company. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Garbarini, Vic (1980). The McCartney Interview [interview LP], Columbia Records.
- Mulligan, Kate Siobhan (2010). The Beatles: A Musical Biography. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-313-37686-3.
- "Red Rose Speedway – Paul McCartney, Wings: Awards". allmusic.com. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Benitez, Vincent P. (2010). The Words and Music of Paul McCartney: The Solo Years. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-313-34969-0.
- Sounes, Howard (2010). Fab: An Intimate Life of Paul McCartney. London: HarperCollins. pp. 302–03. ISBN 978-0-00-723705-0.
- Doggett, Peter (2011). You Never Give Me Your Money: The Beatles After the Breakup. New York, NY: It Books. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-06-177418-8.
- Madinger, Chip; Easter, Mark (2000). Eight Arms to Hold You: The Solo Beatles Compendium. Chesterfield, MO: 44.1 Productions. pp. 180–81. ISBN 0-615-11724-4.
- Emerick, Geoff, with Howard Massey. Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of the Beatles. Gotham; 2006. p. 337. ISBN 978-1-59240-269-4
- Clayson, Alan (2003). Paul McCartney. London: Sanctuary. p. 167. ISBN 1-86074-486-9.
- Rodriguez, Robert (2010). Fab Four FAQ 2.0: The Beatles' Solo Years, 1970–1980. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-4165-9093-4.
- Sounes, Howard (2010). Fab: An Intimate Life of Paul McCartney. London: HarperCollins. pp. 308–10. ISBN 978-0-00-723705-0.
- Rodriguez, Robert (2010). Fab Four FAQ 2.0: The Beatles' Solo Years, 1970–1980. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-4165-9093-4.
- Madinger, Chip; Easter, Mark (2000). Eight Arms to Hold You: The Solo Beatles Compendium. Chesterfield, MO: 44.1 Productions. p. 189. ISBN 0-615-11724-4.
- Frontani, Michael (2009). "The Solo Years". In Womack, Kenneth (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Beatles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–67. ISBN 978-0-521-68976-2.
- Ghosh, Palash (16 July 2013). "Band On The Run: 40 Years Ago, Paul McCartney Saved His Career With An Album Made Under Duress In Nigeria". International Business Times. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Bailey, Jerry. "Paul and Linda Try the Gentle Life", The Tennessean, 18 July 1974. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
- Joe English biography at Drummer Academy.com.
- "Wings Over America". paulmccartney.com. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- McGee, Garry (2003). Band on the Run: A History of Paul McCartney and Wings. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-87833-304-2.
- Calkin, Graham. "Paul McCartney – Maybe I'm Amazed". Jpgr.co.uk. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Joel Whitburn Presents the Billboard Albums, 6th edition. ISBN 0-89820-166-7
- "The Wings Japanese Tour That Wasn't (Wings' 1980 Japan Tour) (by James Bjorkman)". paulmccartney.filminspector.com. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Paul McCartney is arrested in Japan for marijuana possession". beatlesbible.com. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- Wasserman, Harry. "Paul's Pot-Bust Shocker Makes Him A Jailhouse Rocker". High Times, July 1980. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
- Green, Paul. "Martin/McCartney 'Tug' Team Scores" Billboard 26 February 1983: 60
- Terrill, Marshall (15 October 2010). "Ex-Wings guitarist, Laurence Juber, talks about having Paul McCartney as a boss". daytrippin.com. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- (AP) "Wings clipped". The Leader-Post 30 April 1981: D2
- Gambaccini, Paul "The RS Interview: Paul McCartney". Rolling Stone, 31 January 1974. Retrieved 14 May 2007.
- 1997 "Wings" photo page by Michael Cimino Archives.
- "Wings Alumni to Take Flight", ClassicRockCentral.com, 10 July 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
- The Fest for Beatles Fans " Blog Archive " Denny Laine & others added to NY METRO Lineup. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
- Bronson, Fred. "Silly Love Songs", from The Billboard Book of Number One Hits; p. 436; Billboard Books, 2003. ISBN 978-0-8230-7677-2. Retrieved on 3 June 2009.
- Rosen, Robert. Nowhere Man: The Final Days of John Lennon. 2001, pp. 135–36. ISBN 978-0-932551-51-1.
- Terrill, Marshall (15 October 2010). "Exclusive: Ex-Wings guitarist, Laurence Juber, talks about having Paul McCartney as a boss". Daytrippin' Magazine. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Thompson, Dave. "Holly Days – Denny Laine : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Morgan-Gann, Theo. The UK's Top 10 Best Selling Singles, ukcharts.20m.com. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- UK All-Time Best Selling Singles, Listology. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- Harry 2002, pp. 845–851: Wings tours details; Lewisohn 2002, pp. 170–171: Wings tours dates.
- "Grammy Awards Won by Paul McCartney". Grammy.com. Retrieved 3 October 2007.
- "List of 48th Annual Grammy Award Winners". CBS News. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2007.