Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise

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Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise
Royal Space Force Poster.jpg
Japanese theatrical release poster
Japanese王立宇宙軍 オネアミスの翼
HepburnŌritsu Uchūgun: Oneamisu no Tsubasa
Directed byHiroyuki Yamaga
Produced byHirohiko Sueyoshi
Hiroaki Inoue
Written byHiroyuki Yamaga
StarringLeo Morimoto
Mitsuki Yayoi
Music byRyuichi Sakamoto
Yuji Nomi
Koji Ueno
Haruo Kubota
CinematographyHiroshi Isagawa
Edited byHarutoshi Ogata
Production
company
Distributed byToho Towa
Release date
  • 14 March 1987 (1987-03-14)
Running time
119 minutes
CountryJapan
LanguageJapanese
Budget¥800 milion
Box office¥347 million

Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise (王立宇宙軍 オネアミスの翼, Ōritsu Uchūgun: Oneamisu no Tsubasa) is a 1987 Japanese animated science fiction film that marked the cinematic feature debut of Gainax. It was written and directed by Hiroyuki Yamaga. The film was released on 14 March 1987 and grossed only modestly in the box office.[1] Since then, it has received very positive reviews.[2][3][4][5]

A sequel was intended to be released set 50 years later, but due to lack of funds, Gainax abandoned it part way through production; former president of Gainax Toshio Okada cited a fundamental dissatisfaction with the script and plot.[6] However, it was announced in March 2013 that the sequel is in production once again.[7]

Plot[edit]

On an alternate Earth, an industrial civilization is flourishing amid an impending war between two bordering nations: the Kingdom of Honneamise and "The Republic".

Shirotsugh Lhadatt is an unmotivated young man who has drifted into his nation's lackadaisical space program. After the death of a fellow astronaut, he nurtures a close acquaintance with a young religious woman named Riquinni Nonderaiko. Seeing Lhadatt as a prime example of what mankind is capable of, and understanding the godliness and ground-breaking nature of his work, she inspires him to become the first man in space.

His training as an astronaut parallels his coming of age, and he and the rest of the members of the space project overcome technological difficulties, doubt, the machinations of their political masters, and a botched assassination attempt by the enemy nation. Amidst the debacle, Lhadatt becomes worn out by the overbearing publicity, prompting him to stay with Riquinni for a while; he then comes close to raping her one night while catching her undressing, causing a temporary rift between them that is later mended, thanks to Riquinni's kindness.

These events culminate in the eventual space launch, which is taking place in a demilitarized zone, with the government's hope that the launch of the rocket will provoke the enemy nation into war. As planned, the Republic military launches an invasion, resulting in fighter planes dueling high above an armored advance towards a defensive trench network.

Despite calls to pull out, Lhadatt — already in the space capsule and determined to finish what he started — convinces the frightened and vulnerable ground crew to complete the launch. The spectacular launch stuns both sides into inaction as Lhadatt goes into orbit. As his capsule orbits the earth, Lhadatt prays for humanity's forgiveness.

In a symbolic moment, Lhadatt's capsule is suddenly bathed in sunlight, and a montage of his own life and his world's history and achievements are shown. Meanwhile, on the planet's surface, Riquinni witnesses the first snow fall and gazes into the sky.

Cast[edit]

Character Japanese English dub
Shirotsugh Lhadatt Leo Morimoto David A. Thomas
Riquinni Nonderaiko Mitsuki Yayoi Patricia Ja Lee
Manna Nonderaiko Aya Murata Wendee Lee
Marty Tohn Kazuyuki Sogabe Bryan Cranston
General Khaidenn Minoru Uchida Steve Bulen
Dr. Gnomm Chikao Ōtsuka Michael Forest
Kharock Masato Hirano Tom Konkle
Yanalan Bin Shimada
Darigan Hiroshi Izawa Stephen Apostolina
Domorhot Hirotaka Suzuoki Jan Rabson
Tchallichammi Kouji Totani Christopher de Groot
Majaho Masahiro Anzai Tony Pope
Nekkerout Yoshito Yasuhara Dan Woren
Prof. Ronta Ryūji Saikachi Kevin Seymour

Development[edit]

Royal Space Force developed out of an anime proposal presented in September 1984 to Shigeru Watanabe of Bandai[8] by Hiroyuki Yamaga and Toshio Okada of Daicon Film, an amateur film studio active in the early 1980s associated with science fiction fandom in the Kansai region and students at the Osaka University of Arts.[9] The Daicon Film staff had met Watanabe earlier through their associated fan merchandise company General Products, during his involvement with product planning for Bandai’s “Real Hobby Series” figurines,[10] a position that during 1982-83 had led Watanabe into developing Mamoru Oshii’s Dallos, a project that would become the first OVA in the anime industry, released through Bandai’s then-new home video label Emotion.[11]

Yamaga and Okada's proposal gave the outline of an anime entitled Royal Space Force that would be produced as the project of a new, professional studio to be named Gainax.[12] The proposal listed five initial core staff for the anime.[13] Four had been previously associated with Daicon Film: Yamaga was to be the anime's concept creator and director and Okada its producer; Yoshiyuki Sadamoto was to be its chief character designer and Hideaki Anno its chief mechanical designer. The fifth, Kenichi Sonoda, listed in the proposal as responsible for the anime's mechanical design model sheets (settei), had previously assisted with product development at General Products.[14][15]

Subheaded, “Project Intentions: A New Wave in a Time of Lost Collaborative Illusions,”[16] the presentation began with a self-analysis of “recent animation culture from the perspective of young people.”[17] Yamaga, who at the time of the Royal Space Force proposal was 22 years old, had at age 20 been director on episode 9 of the original Macross TV series and had directed the opening anime films for Japan's 1981 and 1983 national science conventions, Daicon III and IV,[18] which through their sale to fans on home video were themselves regarded as informal precursors of the OVA concept.[19]

Okada and Yamaga argued that what prevented the anime industry from advancing beyond its current level was that it had fallen into a feedback loop with its audience, producing for them a “content cul-de-sac" of cute and flashy anime that had the effect of only further reinforcing the more negative and introverted (nekura) tendencies of many fans,[20] without making a real attempt to connect with them in a more fundamental and personal way. The proposal described Royal Space Force as “a project to make anime fans reaffirm reality.”[21] Gainax asserted that that the problem was not unique to anime fans, who were only "the most representative example" of the increasing tendency of people not to experience reality directly, but as mediated through "the informational world"..."We live in a society mired in a perpetual state of information overload. And the feeling of being overwhelmed by the underwhelming isn’t something limited to just young people, but everyone"..."However, this doesn’t mean that people want to live alone and without contact, but instead they want to establish a balance with the 'outside' that is psychologically comfortable for them."[22] Yamaga and Okada believed that this sensibility among some fans explained why anime often combined plots that "symbolize modern politics or society" with characters whose age and appearance was "completely incongruent with reality."[23]

"In modern society, which is so information-oriented, it becomes more and more difficult even for sensational works to really connect with people, and even so, those works get forgotten quickly. Moreover, this flood of superficial information has dissolved those values and dreams people could stand upon, especially among the young, who are left frustrated and anxious. It could be said that this is the root cause of the Peter Pan syndrome, that says, 'I don’t want to be an adult'...If you look at the psychology of anime fans today, they do interact with society, and they’re trying to get along well in that society, but unfortunately, they don’t have the ability. So as compensatory behavior, they relinquish themselves to mecha and cute young girls. However, because these are things that don’t really exist—meaning, there’s no interaction in reality happening between those things and the anime fans—they soon get frustrated, and then seek out the next [anime] that will stimulate them...If you look into this situation, what these people really want, deep down, is to get along well with reality. And what we propose is to deliver the kind of project that will make people look again at the society around them and reassess it for themselves; where they will think, ‘I shouldn’t give up yet on reality.’”[24][25]

The Royal Space Force plan proposed to use the creative techniques of anime for a radically different aim, to make "the exact opposite of the ‘cool,’ castle-in-the-sky anime that is so prevalent these days…It’s on our earth now, in this world of ours now, that we feel it’s time for a project that will declare there’s still something valuable and meaningful in this world."[26][27]

One of the "image sketch" paintings by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto and Mahiro Maeda that accompanied the original proposal for Royal Space Force.

"It is essential to pay close attention to the smallest design details of this world. It’s because it is a completely different world that it must feel like reality. If you ask why such an approach—when the goal is to get anime fans to reaffirm their reality—it’s because if you were to set this anime in our actual world to begin with, that’s a place which right now they see as grubby and unappealing. By setting it in a completely different world, it becomes like a foreign film that attracts the attention of the audience. The objects of attraction are not mecha and cute girls, but ordinary customs and fashions. If normal things now look impressive and interesting because they’ve been seen in a different world, then we’ll have achieved what we set out to do in the plan; we’ll be able to express, 'Reality is much more interesting than you thought.'"[28]

The September 1984 proposal for Royal Space Force was unusual for an anime pitch in that it described the setting and story, but never named the main characters.[29] The written proposal was accompanied by a set of over 30 “image sketches” depicting the world to be designed for the anime, painted in watercolor by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto and Mahiro Maeda.[30] Maeda, a high school classmate of Takami Akai, had attended Tokyo Zokei University with Sadamoto; Maeda and Sadamoto had also worked on the Macross TV series, and both were subsequently recruited by Daicon Film.[31] That same month, Watanabe brought the pitch to Bandai company president Makoto Yamashina, who himself represented a younger corporate generation;[32]Yamashina's response to reading Gainax's proposal was, "I'm not sure what this is all about, but that's exactly why I like it."[33] Royal Space Force was initially planned as an OVA project, with a budget variously reported at 20[34] or 40[35] million yen; however, resistance elsewhere within Bandai to entering the filmmaking business resulted in the requirement that Gainax first submit a short "pilot film" version of Royal Space Force as a demo to determine if the project would be saleable.[36]

Pilot Film[edit]

Work on the pilot film began in December of 1984[37]as Yamaga and Okada moved from Osaka to Tokyo to set up Gainax's first studio in a rented space in the Takadanobaba neighborhood of Shinjuku.[38] That same month, Gainax was officially registered as a corporation in Sakai City, Osaka; founding Gainax board member Yasuhiro Takeda has remarked that the original plan was to disband Gainax as soon as Royal Space Force was completed; it was intended at first only as a temporary corporate entity needed to hold production funds from Bandai during the making of the anime.[39]

The Royal Space Force pilot film was made by the same principal staff of Yamaga, Okada, Sadamoto, Anno, and Sonoda listed in the initial proposal, with the addition of Maeda as main personnel on layouts and settei; Sadamoto, Maeda, and Anno served as well among a crew of ten key animators that included Hiroyuki Kitakubo, Yuji Moriyama, Fumio Iida, and Masayuki.[40] A further addition to the staff was co-producer Hiroaki Inoue, recruited as a founding member of Gainax by Okada. Inoue was active in the same Kansai-area science fiction fandom associated with Daicon Film, but had already been in the anime industry for several years, beginning at Tezuka Productions.[41] Takeda noted that while a number of the other Royal Space Force personnel had worked on professional anime projects, none possessed Inoue's supervisory experience, or the contacts he had built in the process.[42] Inoue would leave Gainax after their 1988-89 Gunbuster, but continued in the industry and would later co-produce Satoshi Kon's 1997 debut film Perfect Blue.[43]

In April of 1985, Okada and Yamaga formally presented the finished pilot film to a board meeting at Bandai, together with a new set of concept paintings by Sadamoto. The four-minute pilot film began with a 40-second prelude sequence of still shots of Shirotsugh's early life accompanied by audio in Russian depicting a troubled Soviet space mission, followed by a shot of a rocket booster stage separating animated by Anno,[44] leading into the main portion of the pilot, which depicts the story's basic narrative through a progression of animated scenes without dialogue or sound effects, set to the overture of Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.[45] Okada addressed the board with a speech described as impassioned,[46] speaking for an hour on Gainax's analysis of the anime industry, future market trends, and the desire of the young for "a work called Royal Space Force."[47] Bandai gave interim approval to Royal Space Force as their company's first independent video production; however, the decision to make the project as a theatrical film would be subject to review at the end of 1985, once Gainax had produced a complete storyboard and settei.[48]

In a 2005 column for Anime Style, editor and scriptwriter Yuichiro Oguro recalled seeing a video copy of the pilot film secretly circulating after its completion around the anime industry, where there was interest based on Sadamoto and Maeda's reputations as "the genius boys of Tokyo Zokei University." Oguro noted as differences from the later finished movie the pilot film's younger appearance of Shirotsugh and more bishōjo style of Riquinni, whose behavior in the pilot put him in mind of a Miyazaki heroine, as did the composition of the film itself.[49] Yamaga, in a 2007 interview for the Blu-ray/DVD edition release, confirmed this impression about the pilot film and speculated on its consequences:

The more "Ghiblish" look of Riquinni in the 1985 Royal Space Force pilot film; the character was depicted with an appearance and behavior noticeably different from the actual 1987 movie.

"It's clearly different from the complete version, and by using the modern saying, it's very Ghiblish...Among the ambitious animators of those days, there was some sort of consensus that 'if we can create an animated movie that adults can watch, with decent content "for children" which director Hayao Miyazaki has, it will be a hit for sure.' The pilot version was also created under that consensus unconsciously. However, I figured it's not good to do so, and my movie making started from completely denying that consensus. Of course, if we had created this movie with the concept of the world similar to the pilot version, it would've had a balanced and stable style, and not only for staff, but also for sponsors, motion picture companies, and the media...it would have been easier to grasp and express. But if we had done that, I don't think that any of the Gainax works after that would've been successful at all."[50]

Production[edit]

Following the presentation of the pilot film, Gainax transferred their operations in May of 1985 to a location in the Higashi-cho neighborhood of Kichijoji[51] that offered twice the space of the Takadanobaba studio. The existing staff gathered in friends and acquaintances to help visualize the setting of Royal Space Force.[52] Among those joining the crew at this time were two of the film’s most prolific world designers: Takashi Watabe, whose designs would include the train station, rocket factory, and Royal Space Force lecture hall[53] and Yoichi Takizawa, whose contributions included the rocket launch gantry, capsule simulator, and engine test facility.[54]

Yamaga decided that the vision of the alternate world depicted in the pilot film did not have the kind of different realism he was hoping to achieve in the completed work. Rather than use the design work of the pilot as a foundation for the full-length anime, it was decided to "destroy" the world of the pilot film and start over again, creating a new series of "image board" paintings to visualize the look of Royal Space Force. The total worldbuilding process went on for roughly a year, and was described as a converse process between Yamaga and the gradually assembled team of designers; expressing his ideas into concrete terms, but also bringing their concrete skills to bear toward the expression of abstract ideas.[55] Yamaga reflected in 2007 that this reciprocal process influenced his writing on the film: “My style is not ‘I have a story I created, so you help me make it.’ Creators come first, and this is a story I created thinking what story those creators would shine at the most.”[56]

Yamaga returned to his hometown of Niigata to begin to write the screenplay and draw up storyboards, using a coffeehouse in which to work, taking glances out the window.[57] The opening scene of Royal Space Force, narrated by an older Shirotsugh considering his past, depicts a younger Shiro witnessing the takeoff of a jet from an aircraft carrier; the look of the scene is directly inspired by the winter damp and gloom of Niigata’s coastline along the Sea of Japan.[58] Yamaga envisioned the fictional Honneamise kingdom where most of the events of Royal Space Force took place to have the scientific level of the 1950s combined with the atmosphere of America and Europe in the 1930s, but with characters who moved to a modern rhythm. The inspiration he sought to express in anime from Niigata was not the literal look of the city, but rather a sense of the size and feel of the city and its envrions, including its urban geography; the relationships between its old and new parts, and between its denser core and more open spaces.[59]

Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery seen by Royal Space Force staff on August 27, 1985. Yamaga spoke of the impression of tremedous light and sound he received from witnessing the event.[60]

In August of 1985, six members of the Royal Space Force crew, Yamaga, Okada, Inoue, Sadamoto, and Anno from Gainax, accompanied by Shigeru Watanabe from Bandai, traveled to the United States for a research trip, studying postmodern architecture in New York City, aerospace history at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.,[61] and witnessing a launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery at Kennedy Space Center in Florida.[62] Yamaga made revisions to the script during the American research tour.[63] While staying in the US, the group was surprised and amused to see an English-dubbed version of Macross showing on their hotel room TV, a series which Yamaga, Anno, and Sadamoto had all worked upon; the scenes were from a rerun of Robotech, which had completed its initial run on American television earlier that summer.[64]

After the completion in December 1985 of Daicon Film’s final project, Orochi Strikes Again, its director Takami Akai and special effects director Shinji Higuchi moved to Tokyo to join the production of Royal Space Force as two of its four assistant directors, alongside Fumio Iida and Shoichi Masuo.[65] Higuchi would make the first scene actually animated and shot in Royal Space Force, depicting a newsreel of Shirotsugh arriving in the capital city; its look was achieved by filming the cels using the same 8mm camera that Daicon had used for its amateur productions.[66] At age 20, Higuchi was the very youngest of the main crew.[67] Akai and Yamaga noted that his previous creative experience had been in live-action special effects films rather than anime; he did not “think like an animator,” and would therefore bring unorthodox and interesting ideas and techniques to the project.[68]

The newsreel scene was located near the beginning of the storyboard’s “C part.”[69] The third out of the anime’s four roughly equal half-hour divisions, the C part began with the scene of Riquinni working in the field, and concluded with the assassination attempt.[70] Royal Space Force followed the practice, adapted from TV episodes, of breaking the storyboard up into lettered parts; although intended to denote the parts before and after a mid-show commercial break, the practice was also used in theatrical works for convenience in production.[71] As 1985 drew to a close, Bandai had still not formally committed to Royal Space Force as a feature-length film release, as a distributor for the movie had not yet been secured.[72] Gainax was also late in completing the storyboard. However, the C part was nearly finished, and the decision was made to start production there, on the reasoning also that the sober tone of many C part scenes required precision in expression; as there was no release date yet, it was better to work on them while the schedule was still relatively loose.[73]


Release[edit]

The initial advertising campaign in 1987 was structured to make the film seem like Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. Executive producer Toshio Okada said in a 1995 interview, “Toho/Towa was the distributor of The Wings of Honneamise, and they didn’t have any know-how, or sense of strategy to deal with the film…And they were thinking that this film must be another Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, because Nausicaä was the last ‘big anime hit.’ But when they finally saw Wings, they realized it was not another Nausicaä [PANICKED SCREAM] and they thought, ‘Okay, okay…we’ll make it Nausicaä in the publicity campaign!”[74] Assistant director Takami Akai likewise stated on the 2000 DVD release, “The PR department didn't really seem to understand the film. They have a tendency to make a new release interesting by making it appear similar to a film that was previously a hit."[75] Writer/director Hiroyuki Yamaga remarked that, "There was no precedent in advertising a film like ours at the time. When they are asked what type of a film it is, they can only compare it to something like Nausicaä. It's actually completely different. But Nausicaä at least served as a reference when we were asked to describe our film. If it wasn't for that precedent, there would have been no reference point at all. We could never have explained why it was animated or why it was a theatrical release, or much of anything about it."[76] Jonathan Clements, in a 2013 history of the anime industry, devotes three pages to the issues surrounding the distribution and exhibition of Wings in Japan, remarking, "the promotions unit did everything in their power to make Honneamise appeal to precisely the same audience as Nausicaä, even if that meant misleading advertising."[77]

The world premiere of the film was held in the United States on February 19, 1987, when it screened at Mann's Chinese Theater in Hollywood. The event, covered by the Japanese news media, was intended to help build publicity for the film's March 14 release to theaters in Japan.[78] The version of the film shown at the world premiere was an English dub prepared for the occasion with the title Star Quest.[79] The Star Quest dub was remarked upon for its differences from the original film; in particular its use of “Americanized” names for the characters and changes to their motivations: as examples, in Star Quest, Riquinni, now known as “Diane,” opposes the space project from the beginning, whereas Shirotsugh, now known as “Randy,” is more positive toward it[80] while the superiors of General Khaidenn, now known as “General Dixon,” wish to use the rocket launch not as a provocation for war, but as a peace overture.[81] Toshio Okada, who had attended the world premiere event together with writer/director Hiroyuki Yamaga,[82] “concluded that a market did indeed exist in America for well-dubbed and subtitled animation,” and after discussions with Bandai prepared a subtitled 16 mm film version of the film to be shown at the 1988 Worldcon in New Orleans, with the subsequent aim of making a “budget-priced videotape version” available in the United States.[83]

In 1994, a new English dub of the film was made by Manga Entertainment using its original 1987 Japanese theatrical release title, The Wings of Honneamise: Royal Space Force. Previously active releasing anime in the United Kingdom, the dub of Honneamise was Manga's debut project upon entering the US anime market.[84] The new English dub showed in over 20 movie theaters during 1994-95 in a 35 mm film version distributed by Tara Releasing[85][86] and in June 1995 the film was released by Manga Entertainment in separate dubbed and subtitled VHS versions[87] followed in January 1997 by a bilingual closed-captioned laserdisc release by Manga Entertainment and Pioneer LDCA.[88]

The 2000 release by Manga Entertainment on DVD, which features commentary by Hiroyuki Yamaga and Takami Akai, was severely criticized for its poor quality.[89][90][91][92] Bandai Visual released a Blu-ray/HD DVD version during its 20th anniversary, 11 September 2007, drawing on the remastered 1997 DVD release in Japan. However, it lacks the commentary. It is now out of print. Maiden Japan re-released the movie separately on Blu-ray and DVD on 15 October 2013.[93]

The film's initial release in the United Kingdom on VHS in 1995 by Manga Entertainment was cut to remove the attempted rape scene, in order to receive a PG certificate from the BBFC.[94] Anime Limited distributed and released the film on Blu-ray and DVD on 23 March 2015 in the United Kingdom, passed 15 uncut.[95]

Critical response[edit]

Cover art of the 2007 HD DVD release by Bandai Visual

Honneamise ranked high in major annual retrospectives awarded by the Japanese anime press. The film won the Japan Anime Award for best anime release of 1987, chosen by an industry jury and sponsored by a consortium of magazines including Animedia, OUT, My Anime, The Anime, and Animec.[96] In the Anime Grand Prix fan poll rankings, sponsored by Animage magazine, Honneamise made two of the year's top ten lists: voted #4 anime release of 1987, with Shirotsugh Lhadatt as #9 male character,[97] in addition to receiving an Animage Award presented that year by the magazine to the film itself.[98][99] In 1988, Honneamise won the Seiun Award, Japan's oldest prize for science fiction, for Best Dramatic Presentation of the previous year.[100]

Tetsuo Daitoku, editor of the anime magazine OUT, reviewed Royal Space Force for Japan's oldest film journal, Kinema Jumpo, in their March 15, 1987 issue.[101] Daitoku wrote that he began watching the movie wondering why the young creative staff on the movie, “a new kind of people in anime,” had chosen to use the “well-worn subject” of space travel, which had already been the focus of such iconic works as Space Battleship Yamato, not to mention live-action films such as The Right Stuff. Daitoku however found the question in his mind being removed “little by little” as the film progressed: “Mankind has indeed gone beyond the terrestrial, and has landed on another world physically, but did their conscience and mentality also go beyond the terrestrial?”[102] He felt the movie acknowledged the issue and therefore took it as “necessary to observe the history and civilization of mankind from [a point] where the whole Earth can be seen…Wings of Honneamise has this kind of motif at its very bottom. It is obvious from the scenes where they look at the real history of mankind, not from the different world [of space] that is shown at the end of the film.” By “taking full advantage of the unique medium of animation,” the creators “observe civilization objectively first and then disassemble it to eventually restructure it”...“creating the different world by newly creating everything,” down to the spoons, in the example Daitoku gives. “Stories that feature cool machines, robots, and attractive characters, with the plot unfolding while drifting through space, already reached their peak in a sense with the [1984] Macross movie. Rather than trying to go beyond Macross, I think the creators of this film believed that they could find a new horizon for anime by creating a different world in a way that draws the story closer to Earth again.”[103]

Critical reaction to the English-dubbed version of the film during its 1994-95 theatrical release was greatly divided, with reviews differing widely on the film's plot, themes, direction, and designs. The San Jose Mercury News's Stephen Whitty gave a one-star review, writing that the film offered “nothing really original…nothing’s ever really at stake; there’s never a resolution because there’s never any conflict to begin with…And there’s also the same misogyny that ruins so much ‘adult’ animation.” Whitty also perceived “self-loathing stereotypes” in the character designs: “The only characters who look remotely Japanese are comical or villainous; the hero and heroine have Caucasian features and big, cute, Hello Kitty eyes.”[104] A very similar perception was advanced by LA Village View's Sean O’Neill: “nearly all the good guys look white, with big, round, Walter Keane-style eyes, while the villains are sinister Asians, straight out of a WWII-era American movie. Is this an example of Japanese self-loathing, or does it simply underscore the international prevalence of Western standards of beauty?”[105] The Dallas Morning News's Scott Bowles had a more fundamental disagreement with the film's approach as an anime, comparing it to attempts to “commercialize punk music” that instead “stripped the music of its anger, vitality and interest…face it, anime, and the manga (Japanese comic books) that inspire them are pretty scurrilous pop art forms. Filled with perfectly sculpted heroes, large-breasted and often naked women and lots and lots of violence, they’re forms best appreciated by 13-year old boys. And in trying to appeal to a broader audience, writer/director Hiroyuki Yamaga has smoothed out anime’s rough edges so much that what he’s left with is about as interesting as a Formica counter top,” recommending instead that audiences see “a far more representative anime, Fist of the North StarFist has few of the pretensions of Wings and it’s driven along with an energy its better-dressed cousin never attains.”[106]

More favorable contemporary reviews tended to regard the film as unconventional while nevertheless recommending the movie. The Fort Worth Star-Telegram's Andy Grieser wrote that the film “blends provocative ideas and visual beauty…The world of Wings is a bawdy, claustrophobic Sodom reminiscent of the hybrid Japanese-American city in 1982’s Blade Runner.”[107] F.X. Feeney wrote in LA Weekly, “These strange, outsize pieces fuse and add a feeling of depth that cartoon narratives often don’t obtain…Technical brilliance aside, what gives The Wings of Honneamise its slow-building power is the love story—a mysterious and credible one.”[108] Richard Harrington in The Washington Post viewed its two-hour length as “a bit windy” but also asserted, “Hiroyuki Yamaga's The Wings of Honneamise is a spectacular example of Japanimation, ambitious and daring in its seamless melding of color, depth and detail.”[109] Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three stars out of four, writing: “One of the pleasures of the film is simply enjoying Yamaga's visual imagination, as in a montage at the end, which shows the planet's suffering and turmoil,” and remarked on his “offbeat dramatic style”...“If you’re curious about anime, The Wings of Honneamise, playing for one week at the Music Box, is a good place to start.”[110] Chris Jones of The Daily Texan gave it four stars out of five; while describing the film as “really strange,” Jones nevertheless urged readers to see the movie, writing, “I really liked this film more than any other animation I’ve seen and more than most other ‘real’ films. Depth and intelligence are written into it in more ways than words can describe.”[111] In the United Kingdom, Jonathan Romney, writing in The Guardian, regarded the movie as the standout of an anime festival at London’s National Film Theatre: “One film in the season, though, proves that anime can be complex and lyrical as well as exciting. Hiroyuki Yamaga’s Wings of Honneamise…Creaky dubbing notwithstanding, it beats recent Disney offerings hands down.”[112]

Following its initial English-language release in the mid-‘90s, later retrospectives on anime have had a positive view of Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise. In a 1999 issue of Time, former Film Comment editor-in-chief Richard Corliss wrote an outline on the history of anime, listing under the year 1987 the remark, “The Wings of Honneamise is released, making anime officially an art form.”[113] In the 2006 edition of The Anime Encyclopedia, Jonathan Clements and Helen McCarthy characterized the film as “one of the shining examples of how cerebral and intelligent anime can be.”[114] Simon Richmond, in 2009's The Rough Guide to Anime, wrote that the film's “reputation has grown over time to the point where it is justly heralded as a classic of the medium.”[115] whereas in 2014's Anime, Colin Odell and Michelle Le Blanc described the movie as “an example of science-fantasy anime as art-film narrative, combined with a coming-of-age drama that is intelligent and thought-provoking.”[116] In a 2017 Paste listing of the 100 best anime movies of all time, Adult Swim senior vice president and on-air creative director Jason DeMarco ranked the film at #11, remarking, “If The Wings of Honnêamise is a 'noble failure,' it’s the sort of failure many filmmakers would kill to have on their résumé.”[117]

Sequel[edit]

In March 1992, Gainax had begun planning and production of an anime movie called Uru in Blue (蒼きウル, Aoki Uru), which was to be a sequel to Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise set 50 years later (so as to be easier to pitch to investors[118]) which, like the original film, would follow a group of fighter pilots. Production would eventually cease in July 1993: a full-length anime movie was just beyond Gainax's financial ability – many of its core businesses were shutting down or producing minimal amounts of money:

"General Products had closed shop. We'd pulled out of Wonder Festival [a "flea market for garage kits"] and garage kit making altogether. We weren't taking on any subcontracting work for anime production. We did continue to make PC games – Akai had seen to that – but there wasn't a lot of work tossed our way. With mere pennies coming in, we were having a hard enough time just paying everyone's salaries. Finally the order came down for us to halt production on Aoki Uru. We were simply incapable of taking the project any further."[119]

With the failure of the project, Hideaki Anno, who had been slated from the beginning to direct Aoki Uru, was freed up. Legendarily, he would soon agree to a collaboration between King Records and Gainax while drinking with Toshimichi Ōtsuki, a representative at King;[120] with King Records guaranteeing a time slot, Anno set about making the anime. Unsurprisingly, elements of Aoki Uru were incorporated into the nascent Neon Genesis Evangelion:

"One of the key themes in Aoki Uru had been "not running away." In the story, the main character is faced with the daunting task of saving the heroine … He ran away from something in the past, so he decides that this time he will stand his ground. The same theme was carried over into Evangelion, but I think it was something more than just transposing one show's theme onto another …"[121]

Gainax has periodically attempted to restart Aoki Uru, such as releasing a 1998 CD with storyboards, a script, and several hundred pieces of art,[122] and a 2000 release of a mod to Microsoft Flight Simulator.[123]

At the 2013 Tokyo Anime Fair, Gainax announced that they are finally producing the Blue Uru film with Honneamise veterans Hiroyuki Yamaga as the director and screenwriter and Yoshiyuki Sadamoto as the character designer, but without Hideaki Anno's involvement in the project (given his present work completing the Rebuild of Evangelion for Studio Khara).[7]

In 2014 Gainax President Hiroyuki Yamaga announced at Anime Festival Asia in Singapore more details about Uru in Blue. Instead of the typical Japanese production committee, the sequel will be produced by Uru in Blue LLP, a Limited liability partnership composed of various investors and partners. This LLP is based in Singapore, and they are currently seeking investors. The projected budget is US$40 million, and Yasuhiro Takeda will be a producer. Hiroyuki Yamaga is writing and directing the project with designs by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto. Both had worked together in the same roles in the original 1987 Royal Space Force.[124]

A preview short for Uru in Blue called "Overture" was planned to be released worldwide in 2015. The project team members were also meeting production companies for potential collaboration in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, and the Middle East, aiming to release the final anime worldwide in 2018.[124]

In 2018, Gainax left the project, and Gaina took over production. Gaina has slated the film for a 2022 release.[125]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Wings of Honnêamise is considered one of the top 10 films of 1987 by Japanese film critics and a bittersweet, introspective tale of an incompetent space program staffed by slacker astronauts who are despised by society at large. It was made by an iconoclastic band of talented twentysomethings who called themselves Gainax. The name is a self-mocking contraction of a Japanese word for great with the English word max." "Heads Up, Mickey: Anime may be Japan's first really big cultural export", Issue 3.04 - Apr 1995, Wired Magazine
  2. ^ "1987 The Wings of Honneamise is released, making anime officially an artform." Richard Corliss, 'Amazing Anime', Time magazine; 22 Nov 1999. Vol. 154, Iss. 21; pg. 94
  3. ^ "What emerged on the other side is arguably one of the finest films ever to come out of Japan." Jeff Kleits 2008
  4. ^ "The Wings of Honneamise (preceded by 'Royal Space Force' in the US) is one of those landmark films that everyone should see at least once. Released in 1987, a year before Akira landed, Honneamise is every bit as impressive both artistically and in concept." http://www.dvdtimes.co.uk/content.php?contentid=3544
  5. ^ "Countless lists have this movie in the top 10 anime of all time. This movie is always sold out almost as soon as it hits the shelves. There is a reason for this. People love this movie. It is a thought provoking, deeply philosophical, and well written film..." http://www.dvdvisionjapan.com/wing.html
  6. ^ Horn, Carl G. (1996). "Speaking Once as They Return: Gainax's Neon Genesis Evangelion". AMPlus. Pioneer was at one point to finance a sequel to Honneamise, written by Yamaga and directed by Anno, yet the project fell through because, Okada relates, Yamaga's heart wasn't in what he was writing; his script was becoming a parody.
  7. ^ a b "Gainax Makes Blue Uru Film with Honneamise Yamaga, Sadamoto". Anime News Network. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  8. ^ Kazumi Matsushita, ed. (July 1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. Movic. p. 25. ISBN 978-4943966074.
  9. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005) [First published in Japan by Wani Books in 2002]. The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. ADV Manga. pp. 46–48. ISBN 1-4139-0234-0.
  10. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 188.
  11. ^ Brian Ruh (2014) [2004]. Stray Dog of Anime: The Films of Mamoru Oshii (Second ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-137-35567-6.
  12. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. pp. 90–91.
  13. ^ Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. Bandai. p. 48. ISBN 4-89189-377-X.
  14. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 188.
  15. ^ Okada recalled in 1995, "He made lots of designs for [Royal Space Force]. At first, he was supposed to be one of the main mechanical designers. But I couldn't use his mecha designs because they were too fantastic." Yamaga suggested he instead work on creating the movie's red-light district; Sonoda's designs for it appear in the finished film. Carl Gustav Horn (March 1996) [interview conducted in 1995 at Otakon]. "The Conscience of the Otaking: The Studio Gainax Saga in Four Parts, Part 2". Animerica. Vol. 4 no. 3. Viz Communications, Inc. p. 23.
  16. ^ 「本作品の企画意図 —共同幻想を喪失した時代の新しい波—」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 48.
  17. ^ 「現在のアニメーション文化を特に『ヤング』と呼ばれる若者の視点で見ると、いくつかの切り口が見つかります。」Gainax’s proposal referred to their generation both by wakamono, “young people,” and by yangu, the loanword used in such demographic contexts as the manga magazines Weekly Young Jump or Weekly Young Magazine. Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 48.
  18. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 23.
  19. ^ Clements, Jonathan (2013). Anime: A History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-84457-390-5.
  20. ^ Nekura (gloomy), a term popular in the 1980s, had connotations that would later be associated with the word otaku. Tamaki Saitō (2011) [First published in Japan by Chikuma Shobō in 2000]. Beautiful Fighting Girl. University of Minnesota Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0816654512.
  21. ^ 「アニメ•ファンに現実を再確認させる作品」Studio Hard, ed. (1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 49.
  22. ^ 「『情報過多』といわれる現代社会。若者に限らず誰もが『シラけて』います。。。が、人間というのは決して一人で生きていたいわけではなく、 外との接触で精神的なバランスを保つものなのです。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 48.
  23. ^ 「だからこそアニメ•ファンのなかには、或る面で最も現代の政治や社会を象徴する。。。や直接的な欲求を最も現実と切り離した状態として提示する」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 48.
  24. ^ 「高度に情報化された現代社会においては、どんなセンセーショナルな作品も感動を呼ぶことはむずかしく、すぐに色褪せてしまいます。しかも、皮相な情報の氾濫により、安心できる価値感や夢が打ち壊されてしまっており、特に若者は欲求不満と不安のただなかにいます。『大人になりたくない』というピーターパン•シンドロームも、そこから発生しているといえましょう。。。そこで現在のアニメファンの心理をもう一度振り返って考えてみてください。彼等は社会との接触を持ち、その中でうまくやっていきたいにもかかわらず不幸にもその能力を持たないため、 代償行為としてメカや女の子に興味を走らせていたわけです。 が、当然それらが現実のものではない、すなわち自分との関わり合いが無いものであるため、 より刺激的なものを性急に求めすぐ欲求不満を起こしてしまいます。。。そんな中で彼等が根本的に求めているのは、現実とうまく楽しくやっていく事、と言えるでしょう。そこで我々は身近な社会を再認識し『現実もまだまだ捨てたものじゃない』と考えられるような作品を提示しようと思います。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 48.
  25. ^ In a 2004 essay on Akihabara and the history of otaku culture, professor Kaichiro Morikawa wrote in similar terms: “…as shadows of reality descended upon the ‘future’ and ‘science,’ dreams of youth raced off into the realm of fantasy. Objects of fascination veered from science toward science fiction and on to SF anime, whose two leading lights have characteristically been ‘robots’ and bishōjo ‘nymphs.’” Morikawa, Kaichiro (September 10, 2004). Morikawa, Kaichiro (ed.). OTAKU: persona = space = city. The Japan Foundation. p. 22. ISBN 4-344-00897-9.
  26. ^ 「もちろんこれは今まで作られてきた、現実には極力抵抗しない『かっこいい』絵空事のアニメとは正反対のものです。。。この地球には、この世界には、まだまだ価値あることや意味あることが存在する、と宣言するような作品こそ、今、もっとも望まれるのではないでしょうか。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 48.
  27. ^ The phrase used in the proposal for “castle-in-the-sky” (esoragoto) is different from that in the title of Hayao Miyazaki’s Tenkū no Shiro Laputa (“Castle in the Sky”), whose production would partially overlap with that of Royal Space Force. Toshio Okada maintained that “during the production stage of [Royal Space Force] Miyazaki would often appear in the dead of night…and talk members of Gainax’s crew into leaving to work instead on his own movie.” Carl Gustav Horn (April 1996) [interview conducted in 1995 at Otakon]. "The Conscience of the Otaking: The Studio Gainax Saga in Four Parts, Part 3". Animerica. Vol. 4 no. 4. Viz Communications, Inc. p. 27.
  28. ^ 「世界設定には細心の注意必要です。この世界は全くの異世界であると同時に、現実そのものであらねばならないからです。なぜなら、現実を再認識させるためとはいえ、全く現実の通りの世界でストーリーを進めても、その現実というもの自体が彼等にとっては手垢がついた、魅力の無い世界と感しられるからです。それより、この作品の世界を全くの異世界として設定してしまい、まるで外国映画であるかのようにふるまった方が観客の注意をそちらに引きつけられるわけですし、その引きつける対象がメカや女の子でなく、ごく普通の風俗やファッシヨン(普通といっても考えぬかれた異世界ですから、充分興味深く、面白いわけです)であるのならば、企画意図はほば、達成したといえるのではないでしょうか。つまり、その手法をとれば『現実とは自分が今、思っているよりずっと面白い』という事が表現できるのではないでしょうか。」Studio Hard, ed. (1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 49.
  29. ^ 「あえて割愛させていただいた。唯一あるとすれば、主人公とヒロインに名前がないということくらいか。」Studio Hard, ed. (1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 49.
  30. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  31. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 187.
  32. ^ https://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/bandai-co-ltd
  33. ^ 「『何がなんだかわからないけど、何がなんだかわからないところがいい。』」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  34. ^ Clements, Jonathan (2013). Anime: A History. p. 174.
  35. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 90.
  36. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 91.
  37. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  38. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. pp. 92–93.
  39. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. pp. 91–92.
  40. ^ Shigeru Watanabe [planning] (1990). Ōritsu Uchūgun Oneamisu no Tsubasa Memorial Box (LaserDisc). A Wing of Honnëamise Royal Space Force Data File [liner notes], p. 22: Bandai Visual.
  41. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 184.
  42. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 90.
  43. ^ Andrew Osmond (2009). Satoshi Kon: The Illusionist. Stone Bridge Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-933330-74-7.
  44. ^ Ōritsu Uchūgun Oneamisu no Tsubasa Memorial Box (LaserDisc). A Wing of Honnëamise Royal Space Force Data File [liner notes], p. 21. 1990.
  45. ^ Studio Hard, ed. (1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 85.
  46. ^ 「重役会議で岡田は熱弁する。」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  47. ^ 「この日の為に何度も頭の中でセリフを考えて、メモを作り完璧を期した。まず、現在のアニメ界の状況分析から話を始めて、市場分析から市場予測へ。今、若者たちはどんな映画を求めているのかを。最終的に、だからこそ『王立宇宙軍』という作品が必要なのだということを1時間に渡りしゃべり続けた。」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  48. ^ 「企業として映像事業に進出する機会を欲していたバンダイは『王立宇宙軍』を第一回自主 製作作品に選んで、本編の制作は決定する。しかし、その決定は設定と絵コンテ作業までの暫定的決定であり、劇場用映画として正式決定は85年末に再び検討するということにある。」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  49. ^ 「映像に関しては、全体がまるで宮崎駿の作品のようにきっちりと構築されていた。。。パイロットフィルムでは、後のシロツグに相当する主人公は、完成した本編よりも幼い感じで、やや二枚目。リイクニにあたるヒロインは、完成した本編よりも美少女寄りのキャラクターだ。彼女が涙を散らして、何かを叫ぶカットがあり、それは宮崎作品のヒロインを連想させた。」Yuichiro Oguro (October 4, 2005). "365 Days of Anime Column #340: Ōritsu Uchūgun Pilot Film". Anime Style. Studio Male. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  50. ^ Ryusuke Hikawa (July 27, 2007). Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (Blu-ray/DVD). liner notes: Bandai Visual Co., Ltd. p. 5. ASIN B001EX9YSQ.
  51. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 96.
  52. ^ 「ガイナックスは同じ高田馬場の倍のスペースのスタジオに移転する。各人の友人知人関係からプロダクションデザインのスタッフが集められる。[王立宇宙軍]の作品世界観を決めた渡部隆《プロダクションデザイン》や滝沢洋一《プロダクションデザイン》たちが次々と参加する。」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  53. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 109.
  54. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. pp. 112–113.
  55. ^ 「プレゼンテーションの材料であるパイロットフィルムは魅惑な異世界が強調された。しかし、[王立宇宙軍]の作品世界観である現実より現実的な異世界を構築する材料ではない。パイロットフィルムで構築された異世界は破壊されて、再び[王立宇宙軍]の異世界がイメージボードによって構築される。画面構成を重視する[王立宇宙軍]は、山賀博之の抽象的なイメージをデザインがそれぞれの分野で具像的なボードにする作業で約1年を費す。逆にそれぞれの分野のデザイナーの具体的なボードを山賀が抽象的なイメージでまとめる作業でもある。」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  56. ^ Ryusuke Hikawa (July 27, 2007). Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (Blu-ray/DVD). liner notes: Bandai Visual Co., Ltd. p. 6. ASIN B001EX9YSQ.
  57. ^ 「脚本も絵コンテも全て新潟の喫茶店で窓の外を見ながら書いた。」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  58. ^ Takami Akai, Hiroyuki Yamaga (2000). Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (Director’s Commentary) (DVD). Manga Entertainment. Event occurs at 00:35.
  59. ^ 「山賀は故郷の新潟でシナリオの執筆を開始する。山賀は語る。『この作品が狙っているイメージは、科学は1950年代、世界の雰囲気は1930年代前後のアメリカやヨーロッポ、登場人物と動きのリズムは現代という感じです。オネアミス自体が地方都市という感じで、実は僕の故郷である新潟をベースにして考えてあるんです。新潟といっても絵的なイメージではなく、街の規模や雰囲気という意味。街の作りや古い部分と新しい部分の同居ぶり、街の使われ方、荒野とも空地ともつかめ無人地帯と街の継がり方とか、新潟の街でオネアミスの雰囲気を(スタッフに)掴んで貰った。。。』」Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 25.
  60. ^ 「 スペースシャトル打ち上げの見学である。『感想は、すさまじい光と音。これにつきます』と山賀は語る。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 52.
  61. ^ Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. pp. 50, 52.
  62. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 27.
  63. ^ 「 渡米中に加筆、修整を加えたシナリオをたずさえて……。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 52.
  64. ^ Carl Gustav Horn (April 1996) [interview conducted in 1995 at Otakon]. "The Conscience of the Otaking: The Studio Gainax Saga in Four Parts, Part 2". Animerica. Vol. 4 no. 3. Viz Communications, Inc. p. 22.
  65. ^ Yasuhiro Takeda (2005). The Notenki Memoirs: Studio Gainax and the Men Who Created Evangelion. p. 96.
  66. ^ Takami Akai, Hiroyuki Yamaga (2000). Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (Director’s Commentary) (DVD). Manga Entertainment. Event occurs at 53:05.
  67. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 200.
  68. ^ Takami Akai, Hiroyuki Yamaga (2000). Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (Director’s Commentary) (DVD). Manga Entertainment. Event occurs at 38:46.
  69. ^ The original storyboard used the style "C part," rather than "Part C" as might be more common in English. Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. p. 118.
  70. ^ Matsushita, ed. (1987). Ōritsu Uchūgun Seisaku Kirokushū. pp. 118, 149.
  71. ^ 「TVシリーズは、30 分物の場合中CMを境にし、前半をAパート、後半をBパートと呼称して作業上の便宜をはかっている。劇場作品には途中CMが入ることはないが、コンテの分割や作業上の便宜をはかるために、やはりいくつかのパートに別けられることが多い。本作品の場合も例外でなく、4つのパートに分かれている。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. pp. 52–53.
  72. ^ 「作業は進み、昭和60年末となった。しかし、バンダイが「王立」を正式に劇場用映画として始動させるかどうかの最終決定はまだでない。そのころバンダイでは、「王立」を成功させようとする人々が一丸となって配給会社捜し、最終検討を行っていた。ともかくも、製作作業を停めるわけにはいかない。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 52.
  73. ^ 「 絵コンテの方はかなり遅れていたが、幸いCパートの部分がほぼ完全で、作画もCパートから突人。最も最初にとりかかったのは、ニュースフィルムのシーン。。。作画をCパートから始めた理由は、絵コンテとの兼ねあいだけでない。まずCパートは地味なシーンが多く、地味であるが故に的確な作画と緻密な演技力が必要とされる。そのため比較的スケジュールの楽なうちにやっておこうと考えたためだ。」Studio Hard, ed. (March 1987). Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun Completed File. p. 52.
  74. ^ Carl Gustav Horn (May 1996) [Interview conducted in 1995 at Otakon; note all-caps "[PANICKED SCREAM]” and emphasized words were part of the sourced quotation.]. "The Conscience of the Otaking: The Studio Gainax Saga in Four Parts, Part 4". Animerica. Vol. 4 no. 5. Viz Communications, Inc. p. 9.
  75. ^ Takami Akai (assistant director) (2000). Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (Director’s Commentary) (DVD). Manga Entertainment. Event occurs at 40:40.
  76. ^ Hiroyuki Yamaga (writer/director) (2000). Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (Director’s Commentary) (DVD). Manga Entertainment. Event occurs at 41:22.
  77. ^ Clements, Jonathan (2013). Anime: A History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-84457-390-5. As one example, Okada cites...the 'insect incident', in which the artist Sadamoto Yoshiyuki was commissioned to draw an image of a giant spider-beetle attacking the city from the film. The insect in question only appeared in the film as a finger-length child's pet, although the advert gave the impression that it would grow into a house-sized behemoth equivalent to the giant ohmu in Nausicaä. Okada was incensed, not only at the apparent conspiracy to mislead audiences about his film, but that the producers would assent to wasting the time of Sadamoto, who spent three days on the commission.
  78. ^ Fred Patten (March–April 1987). "Japan's 'Star Quest' Premieres in U.S.". Animation News. Vol. 1 no. 2. p. 3.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  79. ^ Fred Patten (March–April 1987). "Japan's 'Star Quest' Premieres in U.S.". Animation News. Vol. 1 no. 2. p. 3.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  80. ^ Toren Smith (1987). "Wings of Oneamis". Anime-Zine. No. 2. Minstrel Press, Inc. pp. 28–29.
  81. ^ Michael Ebert; Toshifumi Yoshida; David Riddick; Robert Napton; Toren Smith (Spring 1987). "Wings of Oneamis". Animag. No. 3. p. 35.
  82. ^ Michael Ebert; Toshifumi Yoshida; David Riddick; Robert Napton; Toren Smith (Spring 1987). "Wings of Oneamis". Animag. No. 3. p. 33.
  83. ^ "Subtitled Wings of Oneamis". Animag. No. 4. 1988. p. 7.
  84. ^ Carl Gustav Horn (January 1995). "Winging its Way to a Theater Near You". Animerica. Vol. 3 no. 1. Viz Communications, Inc. p. 14.
  85. ^ Carl Gustav Horn (January 1995). "Winging its Way to a Theater Near You". Animerica. Vol. 3 no. 1. Viz Communications, Inc. p. 14.
  86. ^ Carl Gustav Horn (March 1995). "Wings of Honneamise Update". Animerica. Vol. 3 no. 3. Viz Communications, Inc. p. 60.
  87. ^ "Out of the Blue and Into the Black: The Wings of Honneamise". Animerica. Vol. 3 no. 6. Viz Communications, Inc. June 1995. p. 16.
  88. ^ "Animerica Radar". Animerica. Vol. 5 no. 1. Viz Communications, Inc. January 1997. p. 15.
  89. ^ "The Manga Entertainment DVD of Wings of Honneamise is widely reviled as a poster child for poor compression and authoring. From the horrific telecine to the double flagging, fake anamorphic and the ludicrous edge halos, many professionals I've shown it to couldn't believe it ever was released at all, as The VHS looks better in many cases." http://www.thedigitalbits.com/reviewshd/wingsjinbrd.html
  90. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20070808040401/http://www.inwards.com/woh/
  91. ^ "...the print Manga have sourced shows frequent signs of ageing. Dust, hairs, cigarette burns (as they are known in the industry) at reel changeovers, it is all here and all faults make frequent appearances. There really has been zero effort put into remastering this print which is a great shame, and the encoding is again quite poor, resulting in a picture that loses out on a lot of detail due to an overall softness (edging on blurriness) that kills the kind of clarity this film requires...but on the whole for fans this release is a definite disappointment." DVDTimes 2001
  92. ^ Brian Hanson stated simply that "the transfer looks like ass"
  93. ^ "Maiden Japan to Release Royal Space Force Film on DVD/BD in October". Anime News Network. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  94. ^ http://www.melonfarmers.co.uk/arbpanim.htm
  95. ^ https://www.amazon.co.uk/Wings-Honneamise-DVD-Bryan-Cranston/dp/B00M97DW48/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1422552663&sr=8-2&keywords=wings+of+honneamise
  96. ^ Founded in 1981, Animedia is Japan's second oldest remaining anime magazine after Animage, although it is perhaps better known for its spinoff magazine focusing on bishōjo characters, Megami. Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (DVD). Back cover: Manga Entertainment. 2000.
  97. ^ "Dai 10-kai Anime Grand Prix [10th Anime Grand Prix]". Animage. Tokuma Shoten. June 1988.
  98. ^ Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (DVD). Back cover: Manga Entertainment. 2000.
  99. ^ The Animage Award was a special recognition prize, formerly a part of the Anime Grand Prix; although usually awarded to an anime, it was also sometimes given to an industry figure. "Dai 10-kai Anime Grand Prix [10th Anime Grand Prix]". Animage. Tokuma Shoten. June 1988.
  100. ^ Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (DVD). Back cover: Manga Entertainment. 2000.
  101. ^ Note the review's title does not use isekai in its modern connotation of a story genre where the main character is someone transported to another world; here it simply refers to the idea of another, alternate world itself. Tetsuo Daitoku (March 15, 1987). "Isekai no Don Quixote wa datsu chikyū no yumewomiru ka? [The Don Quixote of Another World: Does He Dream of Going Beyond the Earth?]". Kinema Jumpo. No. 956. Kinema Jumpo Sha Co., Ltd. pp. 80–81.
  102. ^ Tetsuo Daitoku. "Isekai no Don Quixote wa datsu chikyū no yumewomiru ka?". Kinema Jumpo. No. 956. p. 80.
  103. ^ Tetsuo Daitoku. "Isekai no Don Quixote wa datsu chikyū no yumewomiru ka?". Kinema Jumpo. No. 956. p. 81. 「かっこいいメカやロボット、魅力的なキャラクターが登場し、宇宙を漂流しながら物語が展開していくという話は、ある意味では映画『マクロス』で一つの頂点に到達してしまっている。『マクロス』の先を進むことよりも、もう一度より地球に物語を引きつけた形で別の世界を創出するこどの方が、アニメ映画の新しい地平がひらけるのではないかという目論見はこの映画の創り手たちにあったと思うのである。」
  104. ^ Whitty, Stephen (December 2, 1994). "A journey to no place special". San Jose Mercury News. p. 9.
  105. ^ O’Neill, Sean (March 10–16, 1995). "Broken Wings Is Offensive". LA Village View. p. 18.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  106. ^ Bowles, Scott (November 28, 1994). "Animated 'Wings' looks good but isn't". Dallas Morning News. pp. 11C.
  107. ^ Grieser, Andy (June 24, 1995). "'Wings' of wonder video blends provocative ideas and visual beauty". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. p. 3.
  108. ^ Feeney, F.X. (March 10–16, 1995). "The Wings of Honneamise". LA Weekly. p. 55.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  109. ^ Harrington, Richard (December 23, 1994). "'Wings': Soaring Animation". The Washington Post. pp. D6.
  110. ^ Ebert, Roger (May 12, 1995). "The Wings Of Honneamise". rogerebert.com (originally published in the Chicago Sun-Times). Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  111. ^ Jones, Chris (April 3, 1995). "Japanimation flies high in 'Honneamise'". The Daily Texan. p. 5.
  112. ^ Romney, Jonathan (May 4, 1995). "Manga for all seasons: A festival at the NFT shows there is more to Japan's cult anime movies than misogyny and apocalyptic animation". The Guardian. pp. T15.
  113. ^ Corliss, Richard (November 22, 1999). "Amazing Anime". Time. p. 96.
  114. ^ Clements, Jonathan; Helen McCarthy (2006). The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917—Revised & Expanded Edition. Stone Bridge Press. p. 726-727. ISBN 978-1-611720-18-1.
  115. ^ Richmond, Simon (2009). The Rough Guide to Anime: Japan's finest from Ghibli to Gankutsuō. Rough Guides. p. 136. ISBN 978-1858282053.
  116. ^ Odell, Colin; Michelle Le Blanc (2014). Anime. Oldcastle Books. p. 87. ISBN 978-1842435861.
  117. ^ DeMarco, Jason (January 3, 2017). "The 100 Best Anime Movies of All Time". Paste. Paste Media Group. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
  118. ^ Takeda, Yasuhiro (2002). The Notenki memoirs: studio Gainax and the men who created Evangelion. ADV Manga. p. 155. ISBN 1-4139-0234-0.
  119. ^ pg 157–158 of Takeda 2002
  120. ^ "Anno knew a guy from King Records named Otsuki, and as the story goes, the two were out drinking one day when Otsuki suggested to Anno that they work on an anime television project together. Anno agreed on the spot, came back to the office and promptly announced it to everyone. Nobody even batted an eyelash. We just accepted it without further thought." pg 164 of Takeda 2002
  121. ^ pg 165 of Takeda 2002
  122. ^ "Lost Gainax Project Reborn".
  123. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20000511000150/http://www.gainax.co.jp/menu-e.html
  124. ^ a b "Gainax's Uru in Blue to Open Worldwide in 2018 with Short Next Spring". Anime News Network. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  125. ^ "Gaina Announces Uru in Blue Anime for 2022, New Top o Nerae 3 Anime Project". AnimeNewsNetwork. Retrieved September 7, 2018.

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