Winn Parish, Louisiana

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Winn Parish, Louisiana
Parish of Winn
Winn Parish Courthouse in Winnfield
Winn Parish Courthouse in Winnfield
Location within the U.S. state of Louisiana
Location within the U.S. state of Louisiana
Louisiana's location within the US
Louisiana's location within the US
Country United States
State Louisiana
RegionNorth Louisiana
FoundedFebruary 24, 1852
Named forWalter Winn or Winfield Scott
Parish seat (and largest city)Winnfield
Area
 • Total2,480 km2 (957 sq mi)
 • Land2,500 km2 (950 sq mi)
 • Water17 km2 (6.7 sq mi)
 • percentage2 km2 (0.7 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total15,313
 • Estimate 
(2018)
14,134
 • Density6.2/km2 (16/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
Area code318
Congressional district5th
Winn Parish Enterprise newspaper office in Winnfield
The Evergreen Missionary Baptist Church and Cemetery, with a green roof and large bell, is located off U.S. Highway 71 in northwestern Winn Parish south of Saline Bayou. Country churches of this kind are common in North Louisiana.
Saline Bayou
Backwater flooding in Winn Parish led temporarily in June 2015 to a detour around U.S. Highway 71 at St. Maurice, Louisiana.

Winn Parish is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,313.[1] Its seat is Winnfield.[2] The parish was founded in 1852.[3] It is last in alphabetical order of Louisiana's sixty-four parishes.

Winn is separated from Natchitoches Parish along U.S. Highway 71 by Saline Bayou, the first blackwater protected waterway in the American South.

History[edit]

Winn Parish was established in 1852 from lands which had belonged to the parishes of Catahoula, Natchitoches, and Rapides.[3]

During the Civil War, David Pierson, a young attorney, was elected to represent the parish at the Secession Convention called in January 1861 in Baton Rouge by Governor Thomas Overton Moore. Pierson voted against secession and refused, along with several others, to change his "no" vote at the end of the process when asked to do so to make the final tally unanimous.[citation needed]

That these conscripts refused to fight for the Confederacy is understandable considering that Union support was higher in north Louisiana, and especially high in Winn Parish.[4] The Confederate States Army defeated a Union detachment sent to destroy a salt works in the parish. Winn Parish contributed to the $80,000 raised to build fortifications on the nearby Red River.[5]

After the war, bandits roamed the Natchez Trace or Harrisonburg Road that ran through the lower part of the parish. Among the worst were the West and Kimbrell clan. For seven years they preyed especially on travelers and migrants passing through the area.[6]

In April 1873, white Democrats forming a militia from Winn Parish joined with ex-Confederate veterans from Rapides and Grant parishes against Republican blacks in the Colfax massacre in neighboring Grant Parish.[7][8] They attacked freedmen defending the parish courthouse and two Republican officeholders in the aftermath to the disputed gubernatorial election of 1872. Among the 80–150 blacks killed were at least 50 who had surrendered; a total of three white men were killed in the confrontation.[9][10][11][12]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 957 square miles (2,480 km2), of which 950 square miles (2,500 km2) is land and 6.7 square miles (17 km2) (0.7%) is water.[13]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent parishes[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18606,876
18704,954−28.0%
18805,84618.0%
18907,08221.1%
19009,64836.2%
191018,35790.3%
192016,119−12.2%
193014,766−8.4%
194016,92314.6%
195016,119−4.8%
196016,034−0.5%
197016,3692.1%
198017,2535.4%
199016,269−5.7%
200016,8943.8%
201015,313−9.4%
2018 (est.)14,134[14]−7.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[15]
1790–1960[16] 1900–1990[17]
1990–2000[18] 2010–2013[1]

2020 census[edit]

Winn Parish racial composition[19]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 8,498 61.78%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 3,518 25.58%
Native American 77 0.56%
Asian 172 1.25%
Pacific Islander 16 0.12%
Other/Mixed 451 3.28%
Hispanic or Latino 1,023 7.44%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 13,755 people, 5,483 households, and 3,661 families residing in the parish.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[20] of 2000, there were 16,894 people, 5,930 households, and 4,234 families residing in the parish. The population density was 18 people per square mile (7/km2). There were 7,502 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile (3/km2). The racial makeup of the parish was 66.27% White, 32.03% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 0.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.9% were of American, 7.2% Irish and 4.9% English ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 5,930 households, out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 15.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.60% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the parish the population was spread out, with 24.80% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, and 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 110.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.20 males.

The median income for a household in the parish was $25,462, and the median income for a family was $31,513. Males had a median income of $29,094 versus $17,939 for females. The per capita income for the parish was $11,794. About 17.00% of families and 21.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.40% of those under age 18 and 24.20% of those age 65 or over.


Education[edit]

Winn Parish School Board operates local public schools in all of the county.[21]

New Winn Parish Library[edit]

Corrections[edit]

Winn Correctional Center is in an unincorporated section of Winn Parish. Corrections Corporation of America, under contract with Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections, once operated the prison.[22]

National Guard[edit]

"A" Company of the Louisiana National Guard 199th Forward Support Battalion was previously located in Winnfield, Louisiana. The unit deployed twice to Iraq as part of the 256TH IBCT in 2004-5 and 2010. The unit's Winnfield Armory was closed.[citation needed]

Communities[edit]

Map of Winn Parish, with municipal labels and districts

City[edit]

  • Winnfield (parish seat and largest municipality)

Town[edit]

Villages[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Hospital[edit]

Politics[edit]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[24]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 74.2% 4,619 24.8% 1,543 1.0% 63
2016 72.3% 4,608 25.8% 1,644 1.9% 120
2012 69.5% 4,541 29.4% 1,919 1.1% 74
2008 68.4% 4,632 30.2% 2,047 1.4% 93
2004 67.1% 4,366 31.6% 2,056 1.3% 85
2000 63.3% 4,028 34.1% 2,167 2.6% 166
1996 37.6% 2,803 50.6% 3,779 11.8% 881
1992 38.8% 2,932 46.9% 3,537 14.3% 1,080
1988 59.0% 4,165 38.3% 2,699 2.7% 193
1984 63.9% 4,934 34.1% 2,633 2.1% 160
1980 52.3% 3,944 45.2% 3,411 2.6% 192
1976 46.6% 3,209 51.4% 3,543 2.0% 137
1972 70.4% 4,235 24.8% 1,490 4.8% 291
1968 16.7% 1,050 19.5% 1,230 63.8% 4,015
1964 78.5% 4,366 21.5% 1,193
1960 44.9% 1,839 27.1% 1,108 28.1% 1,149
1956 49.6% 1,736 35.0% 1,225 15.5% 542
1952 46.5% 1,915 53.5% 2,206
1948 11.4% 333 32.1% 940 56.6% 1,657
1944 38.6% 881 61.4% 1,403
1940 13.0% 382 87.0% 2,552
1936 9.6% 254 90.4% 2,393
1932 1.6% 36 96.7% 2,172 1.7% 38
1928 31.5% 533 68.5% 1,161
1924 13.1% 120 86.9% 797
1920 19.7% 291 65.2% 963 15.1% 223
1916 5.5% 50 94.6% 868
1912 2.5% 26 57.8% 600 39.8% 413

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Winn Parish". Center for Cultural and Eco-Tourism. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
  4. ^ King, William Henry, 1828–1903. (2006). No pardons to ask, nor apologies to make : the journal of William Henry King, Gray's 28th Louisiana Infantry Regiment. Joiner, Gary D., Joiner, Marilyn S., Cardin, Clifton D. (Clifton Dale), 1957– (1st ed.). Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-461-4. OCLC 61204291.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN 0-8071-0834-0, pp. 164, 310
  6. ^ LeJeune, Keagan (2016). Legendary Louisiana Outlaws: The Villains and Heroes of Folk Justice. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 9780807162590.
  7. ^ Keith, Leeanna, The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, & The Death of Reconstruction, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
  8. ^ Lane, Charles (2008). The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction. New York: Henry Holt & Company.
  9. ^ Buddy Jordan obituary, Alexandria Daily Town Talk, February 23, 2012
  10. ^ Louisiana Secretary of State, General election returns, November 17, 2007
  11. ^ ""Former Sheriff of Winn Parish Found Guilty: Federal Jury Convicts A. D. "Bodie" Little of Drug Charges Tonight," February 24, 2012" (PDF). justice.gov. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  12. ^ "Tom Kelly, "Third Sheriff Jordan elected in Winn Parish," 2011". thepineywoods.com. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
  13. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  14. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  15. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  16. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  17. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  18. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  19. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  20. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  21. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Winn Parish, LA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 31, 2022. - Text list
  22. ^ "Winn Corr. Center Archived 2008-09-15 at the Wayback Machine." Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections. Accessed September 14, 2008.
  23. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Packton
  24. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  25. ^ "Abrams, Morris Newton". Louisiana Hoistorical Association, A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography (lahistory.org). Archived from the original on November 10, 2010. Retrieved December 24, 2010.
  26. ^ Brock, Eric J. "William Edenborn". Find A Grave Memorial. www.findagrave.com. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  27. ^ Ron Manley. "Terry Ray Reeves". findagrave.com. Retrieved May 17, 2015.

Coordinates: 31°57′N 92°38′W / 31.95°N 92.64°W / 31.95; -92.64