Winooski 44

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The Winooski 44 were a group of Vermont citizens in the United States who were given permission by the Senator's staff to occupy a hallway outside Senator Robert Stafford's office in March 1984.

The group of citizens had attempted, for months, to organize a public forum, in Burlington, and invited Senator Stafford to be present. They all had personal experiences in Central America, which they wanted to share with the Senator, a leading Republican, and his Vermont constituency. The group wanted to influence Senator Stafford so he would change his vote to approve the US Government's policy of selling arms to Nicaraguan contras. The sit-in lasted for three days in March 1984.[1] Twenty-six were tried on trespassing charges in November 1984, and were permitted to present a "necessity" defense, and all were acquitted.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

Witnesses for the defense included historian and activist Howard Zinn and former Attorney General Ramsey Clark.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ United Press International (November 18, 1984). "Activists Acquitted". The Bulletin (Bend). Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  2. ^ Howard Zinn (2003). A People's History of the United States: 1492 - present. Harper Collins. p. 613. ISBN 9780060528423. winooski forty-four.
  3. ^ "VT. GROUP PLANNING TO PROTEST US POLICY". The Boston Globe. March 31, 1985. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  4. ^ "'NECESSITY DEFENSE' WINS ACQUITTAL FOR 26 PEACE ACTIVISTS AFTER SIT-IN". The Miami Herald. November 18, 1984. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  5. ^ "News Rewind: November 15, 2004". WCAX-TV. November 15, 2004. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  6. ^ Ben Bradley (ed). Por Amor Al Pueblo: Not Guilty! - The Trial of the Winooski 44 (1986) (ISBN 978-0-9617504-0-4)
  7. ^ Associated Press (November 29, 1984). "Trespassing Case Turns Into A Legal Landmark". Argus-Press. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  8. ^ Jack McCullough (February 2, 2010). "Howard Zinn in Vermont". Green Mountain Daily. Retrieved February 8, 2010.