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Winston Churchill

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The Right Honourable
Sir Winston Churchill
KG OM CH TD PCc DL FRS RA
Sir Winston Churchill - 19086236948.jpg
Winston Churchill in the Canadian Parliament, December 1941 by Yousuf Karsh
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
26 October 1951 – 6 April 1955
Monarch
Deputy Anthony Eden
Preceded by Clement Attlee
Succeeded by Anthony Eden
In office
10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945
Monarch George VI
Deputy Clement Attlee
Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by Clement Attlee
Leadership positions
Leader of the Opposition
In office
26 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Clement Attlee
Preceded by Clement Attlee
Succeeded by Clement Attlee
Leader of the Conservative Party
In office
9 November 1940 – 6 April 1955
Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by Anthony Eden
Ministerial offices 1939–52
Minister of Defence
In office
28 October 1951 – 1 March 1952
Preceded by Manny Shinwell
Succeeded by Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis
In office
10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945
Preceded by Ernle Chatfield, 1st Baron Chatfield (Coordination of Defence)
Succeeded by Clement Attlee
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
3 September 1939 – 11 May 1940
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Preceded by James Stanhope, 7th Earl Stanhope
Succeeded by A. V. Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough
Ministerial offices 1908–29
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Philip Snowden
Succeeded by Philip Snowden
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
13 February 1921 – 19 October 1922
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner
Succeeded by Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire
Secretary of State for Air
In office
10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by William Weir, 1st Viscount Weir
Succeeded by Freddie Guest
Secretary of State for War
In office
10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner
Succeeded by Laming Worthington-Evans
Minister of Munitions
In office
17 July 1917 – 10 January 1919
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Christopher Addison
Succeeded by Andrew Weir, 1st Baron Inverforth
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
25 May 1915 – 25 November 1915
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Edwin Montagu
Succeeded by Herbert Samuel
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
24 October 1911 – 25 May 1915
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Reginald McKenna
Succeeded by Arthur Balfour
Home Secretary
In office
19 February 1910 – 24 October 1911
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by Herbert Gladstone
Succeeded by Reginald McKenna
President of the Board of Trade
In office
12 April 1908 – 14 February 1910
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by David Lloyd George
Succeeded by Sydney Buxton
Constituencies represented
Member of Parliament
for Woodford
In office
5 July 1945 – 15 October 1964
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Constituency abolished
Member of Parliament
for Epping
In office
29 October 1924 – 5 July 1945
Preceded by Leonard Lyle
Succeeded by Leah Manning
Member of Parliament
for Dundee
In office
24 April 1908 – 15 November 1922
Serving with Alexander Wilkie
Preceded by Edmund Robertson
Alexander Wilkie
Succeeded by Edwin Scrymgeour
E. D. Morel
Member of Parliament
for Manchester North West
In office
8 February 1906 – 24 April 1908
Preceded by William Houldsworth
Succeeded by William Joynson-Hicks
Member of Parliament
for Oldham
In office
24 October 1900 – 12 January 1906
Preceded by Walter Runciman
Succeeded by John Bright
Personal details
Born Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
(1874-11-30)30 November 1874
Woodstock, Oxfordshire, UK
Died 24 January 1965(1965-01-24) (aged 90)
Kensington, Co. London, UK
Cause of death Stroke
Resting place St Martin's Church, Bladon
Political party
Spouse(s) Clementine Hozier (m. 1908)
Children
Parents
Alma mater Royal Military College, Sandhurst
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch
Years of service
  • 1895–1900
  • 1915–1916
Rank Lieutenant-Colonel
Battles/wars

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PCc, DL, FRS, RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman, army officer, and writer. He served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As a Member of Parliament (MP), he represented five constituencies over the course of his career. As Prime Minister, Churchill led Britain to victory during the Second World War. He led the Conservative Party for fifteen years from 1940 to 1955.

Churchill was born into an aristocratic family, the son of an English politician and American socialite. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Moving into politics, before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of Asquith's Liberal government. During the war, Churchill departed from government following the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign. He briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as a battalion commander in the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Baldwin's Conservative government of 1924–1929, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy.

Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following Neville Chamberlain's resignation in May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His speeches and radio broadcasts helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult days of 1940–41 when the British Commonwealth and Empire stood almost alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. He led Britain as Prime Minister until after the German surrender in 1945. After the Conservative Party's defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition to the Labour Government. He publicly warned of an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. He was re-elected Prime Minister in the 1951 election. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a serious stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral.

Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom. As a writer, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, lifetime body of work. His highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.[1]

Contents

Early life

Childhood and schooling: 1874–1895

Blenheim Palace, Churchill's ancestral home and the place of his birth
Churchill, aged seven, in 1881

Churchill was born at his grandfather's home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874.[2][3] A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy.[4] His paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament (MP) for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.[5] His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873.[6] His mother, Jennie Churchill (née Jerome), was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance.[7] The couple had met in August 1873, and were engaged three days later, marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874.[8] The couple lived beyond their income and were frequently in debt.[9]

In 1877, John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, a city in British-controlled Ireland.[10] It was here that Jennie's second son, Jack, was born in 1880;[11] there has been speculation that Randolph was not his biological father.[12] Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were effectively estranged, during which she had many suitors.[13] Churchill had virtually no relationship with his father;[14] referring to his mother, Churchill later stated that "I loved her dearly - but at a distance."[15] His relationship with Jack would be warm, and they were close at various points in their lives.[12] In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess,[16] while he and his brother were cared for primarily by their nanny, Elizabeth Ann Everest;[17] Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her "Woomany".[18] In My Early Life he wrote: "She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived."[19]

Aged seven, he began boarding at St. George's School in Ascot, Berkshire; he hated it, did poorly academically, and regularly misbehaved.[20] Visits home were to Connaught Place in London, where his parents had settled,[21] while they also took him on his first foreign holiday, to Gastein in Austria-Hungary.[22] As a result of poor health, in September 1884 he moved to Brunswick School in Hove; there, his academic performance improved but he continued to misbehave.[23] He narrowly passed the entrance exam which allowed him to begin studies at the elite Harrow School in April 1888.[24] There, his academics remained high—he excelled particularly in history—but teachers complained that he was unpunctual and careless.[25] He wrote poetry and letters which were published in the school magazine, Harrovian,[26] and won a fencing competition.[27] His father insisted that he be prepared for a career in the military, and so Churchill's last three years at Harrow were spent in the army form.[28] He performed poorly in most of his exams.[29]

On a holiday to Bournemouth in January 1893, he fell and was knocked unconscious for three days.[30] In March he took a job at a cram school in Lexham Gardens, South Kensington,[30] before holidaying in Switzerland and Italy that summer.[31] He made three attempts to be admitted to the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, only succeeding on the third.[32] There, he was accepted as a cadet in the cavalry,[33] starting his education in September 1893.[29] In August 1894 he and his brother holidayed in Belgium,[34] and he spent free time in London, joining protests at the closing of the Empire Theatre, which he had frequented.[35] His Sandhurst education lasted for fifteen months; he graduated in December 1894.[29] He had done well at the academy, proving himself particularly good with horses.[36] Shortly after Churchill finished at Sandhurst, in January 1895, his father died of syphilis. The cause of death was concealed from Churchill, who believed that members of his family inevitably died young.[37][38]

Cuba, India, and Sudan: 1895–1899

Churchill in military uniform, 1895

In February 1895, Churchill was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Fourth Hussars regiment of the British Army, based at Aldershot.[39] This position earned him a wage of £150 a year, which was far outstripped by his expenditure.[29] In July, he rushed to Crouch Hill, North London to sit with Everest as she lay dying, subsequently organising her funeral.[40] Churchill was eager to witness military action and used his mother's influence to try and get him posted to a warzone.[41] In the autumn of 1895 he and Reginald Barnes travelled to Cuba to observe its war of independence; they joined Spanish troops attempting to suppress independence fighters and were caught up in several skirmishes.[42] In North America, he also spent time in New York City, staying with the wealthy politician Bourke Cockran at the latter's Fifth Avenue residence; Cockran profoundly influenced the young Churchill.[43] Churchill admired the United States, writing to his brother that it was "a very great country" and telling his mother "what an extraordinary people the Americans are!"[44]

With the Hussars, Churchill arrived in Bombay, British India, in October 1896.[45] They were soon transferred to Bangalore, where he shared a bungalow with Barnes.[46] Describing India as a "godless land of snobs and bores",[47] Churchill remained posted there for nineteen months, during the course of which he made three visits to Calcutta, expeditions to Hyderabad and the North West Frontier, and two visits back to Britain.[48] Believing himself poorly educated, he began a project of self-education,[49] reading the work of Plato, Adam Smith, Charles Darwin, and Henry Hallam.[50] Most influential for him were however Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Winwood Reade's The Martyrdom of Man, and the writings of Thomas Babington Macaulay.[51] Keenly interested in British parliamentary affairs,[52] in a private letter he declared himself "a Liberal in all but name", but added that he could never endorse the Liberal Party's support for Irish home rule.[53] Instead, he allied himself to the Tory democracy wing of the Conservative Party, and on a visit home gave his first public speech for the Conservative's Primrose League in Bath.[54] Reflecting a mix of reformist and conservative perspectives, he supported the promotion of secular, non-denominational education while opposing women's suffrage, referring to the Suffragettes as "a ridiculous movement".[55] Biographer Keith Robbins believes that Churchill's opinions were largely formed at this time.[56]

The Battle of Omdurman where Churchill took part in a cavalry charge

Churchill decided to join the Malakand Field Force led by Bindon Blood in its campaign against Mohmand rebels in the Swat Valley of Northwest India.[57] Blood agreed on the condition that Churchill be assigned as a journalist; to ensure this, he gained accreditation from The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph, for whom he wrote regular updates.[58] In letters to family, he described how both sides in the conflict slaughtered each other's wounded, although omitted any reference to such actions by British troops in his published reports.[59] He remained with the British troops for six weeks before returning to Bangalore in October 1897.[60] There, he wrote his first book, The Story of the Malakand Field Force, which was published by Longman to largely positive reviews.[61] He also wrote his only work of fiction, Savrola, a roman à clef set in an imagined Balkan kingdom. It was serialised in Macmillan's Magazine between May and December 1899 before appearing in book form.[62]

While staying in Bangalore in the first half of 1898, Churchill explored the possibility of joining Herbert Kitchener's military campaign in the Sudan.[63] Kitchener was initially reticent, claiming that Churchill was simply seeking publicity and medals.[63] After spending time in Calcutta, Meerut, and Peshawar, Churchill sailed back to England from Bombay in June.[64] There, he used his contacts—including a visit to the Prime Minister Lord Salisbury at 10 Downing Street—to get himself assigned to Kitchener's campaign.[65] He agreed that he would write a column describing the events for The Morning Post.[66] He sailed for Egypt, where he joined the 21st Lancers at Cairo before they headed south along the River Nile to take part in the Battle of Omdurman against the army of Sudanese leader Abdallahi ibn Muhammad.[67] Churchill was critical of Kitchener's actions during the war, particularly the latter's treatment of enemy wounded and his desecration of Muhammad Ahmad's tomb in Omdurman.[68] Following the battle, Churchill gave skin from his chest for a graft for an injured officer.[69] Back in England by October, Churchill wrote an account of the operation, published as The River War in November 1899.[70]

Attempts at a Parliamentary career and South Africa: 1899–1900

A young Winston Churchill on a lecture tour of the United States in 1900

Deciding that he wanted a parliamentary career, Churchill pursued political contacts and gave addresses at three Conservative Party meetings.[71] It was also at this point that he courted Pamela Plowden; although a relationship did not ensue, they remained lifelong friends.[72] In December he returned to India for three months, largely to indulge his love of the game polo.[72] While in Calcutta, he stayed for a week in the home of Viceroy George Nathaniel Curzon.[73] On the journey home, he spent two weeks at the Savoy Hotel in Cairo, where he was introduced to the Khedive Abbas II,[74] before arriving in England in April.[75] He refocused his attention on politics, addressing further Conservative meetings and networking at events such as a Rothschild's dinner party.[76] He was selected as one of the two Conservative parliamentary candidates at the June 1899 by-election in Oldham, Lancashire.[77] Although the Oldham seats had previously been held by the Conservatives, the election was a narrow Liberal victory.[78]

Anticipating the outbreak of the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics, Churchill sailed from Southampton to South Africa as a journalist writing for the Daily Mail and Morning Post.[79] From Cape Town, in October he travelled to the conflict zone near Ladysmith, then besieged by Boer troops, before spending time at Escourt before heading for Colenso.[80] After his train was derailed by Boer artillery shelling, he was captured as a prisoner of war and interned in a POW camp in Pretoria.[81] In December, Churchill and two other inmates escaped the prison over the latrine wall. Churchill stowed aboard a freight train and later hid within a mine, shielded by the sympathetic English mine owner. Wanted by the Boer authorities, he again hid aboard a freight train and travelled to safety in Portuguese East Africa.[82][83]

Sailing to Durban, Churchill found that his escape had attracted much publicity in Britain.[84] Rather than returning home, in January 1900 he was appointed a lieutenant in the South African Light Horse regiment, joining Redvers Buller's fight to relieve the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria.[85][86] In his writings during the campaign, he chastised British hatred for the Boer, calling for them to be treated with "generosity and tolerance" and urging a "speedy peace".[87] He was among the first British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. He and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards.[88][89] After the victory in Pretoria, he returned to Cape Town and sailed for Britain in July.[90] In May, while he had still been in South Africa, his Morning Post despatches had been published as London to Ladysmith via Pretoria, which sold well.[91]

Political career to the Second World War, 1900–39

Early years in Parliament

Churchill stood again for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election.[92] After winning the seat, he went on a speaking tour throughout Britain and the United States, raising £10,000 for himself (about £990,000 today).[93] From 1903 until 1905, Churchill was also engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a two-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim.[94]

In Parliament, he became associated with a faction of the Conservative Party led by Lord Hugh Cecil; the Hughligans. During his first parliamentary session, he opposed the government's military expenditure[95] and Joseph Chamberlain's proposal of extensive tariffs, which were intended to protect Britain's economic dominance. His own constituency effectively deselected him[how?], although he continued to sit for Oldham until the next general election. In the months leading up to his ultimate change of party from the Conservatives to the Liberals, Churchill made a number of evocative speeches against the principles of Protectionism; 'to think you can make a man richer by putting on a tax is like a man thinking that he can stand in a bucket and lift himself up by the handle.' [Winston Churchill, Speech to the Free Trade League, 19 February 1904.] As a result of his disagreement with leading members of the Conservative Party over tariff reform, he made the decision to cross the floor. After the Whitsun recess in 1904, he crossed the floor to sit as a member of the Liberal Party.[96]

As a Liberal, he continued to campaign for free trade. When the Liberals took office with Henry Campbell-Bannerman as prime minister, in December 1905, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, dealing mainly with South Africa after the Boer War. As Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1905–08, Churchill's primary focus was on settling the Transvaal Constitution, which was accepted by Parliament in 1907. This was essential for providing stability in South Africa. He campaigned in line with the Liberal Government to install responsible rather than representative government. This would alleviate pressure from the British government to control domestic affairs, including issues of race, in the Transvaal, delegating a greater proportion of power to the Boers themselves.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Following his deselection in the seat of Oldham, Churchill was invited to stand for Manchester North West. He won the seat at the 1906 general election with a majority of 1,214 and represented the seat for two years.[97] When Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by H. H. Asquith in 1908, Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade.[98]

Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; Churchill lost his seat but was soon back as a member for Dundee constituency. As President of the Board of Trade he joined newly appointed Chancellor Lloyd George in opposing First Lord of the Admiralty Reginald McKenna's proposed huge expenditure for the construction of Navy dreadnought warships, and in supporting the Liberal reforms.[99] In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Act 1909 setting up the first minimum wages in Britain.[100]

In 1909, he set up Labour Exchanges to help unemployed people find work.[101] He helped draft the first health and unemployment insurance legislation, the National Insurance Act 1911.[102] As a supporter of eugenics, he participated in the drafting of the Mental Deficiency Act 1913; however, the Act, in the form eventually passed, rejected his preferred method of sterilisation of the feeble-minded in favour of their confinement in institutions.[103]

Churchill in 1904

Churchill also assisted in passing the People's Budget,[104] becoming President of the Budget League, an organisation set up in response to the opposition's Budget Protest League.[105] The budget included the introduction of new taxes on the wealthy to allow for the creation of new social welfare programmes. After the budget bill was passed by the Commons in 1909 it was vetoed by the House of Lords. The Liberals then fought and won two general elections in January and December 1910 to gain a mandate for their reforms. The budget was passed after the first election, and after the second election the Parliament Act 1911, for which Churchill also campaigned, was passed. In 1910, he was promoted to Home Secretary. His term was controversial after his responses to the Cambrian Colliery dispute, the Siege of Sidney Street and the suffragettes. The People's Budget attempted to introduce a heavy tax on land value, inspired by the economist and philosopher Henry George.[106]

In 1909, Churchill made several speeches with strong Georgist rhetoric,[107] stating that land ownership is at the source of all monopoly.[108] Furthermore, Churchill emphasises the difference between productive investment in capital (which he supports) and land speculation which gains an unearned income and has only negative consequences to society at large ("an evil").[109]

In 1910, a number of coal miners in the Rhondda Valley began what has come to be known as the Tonypandy Riot.[99] The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops be sent in to help police quell the rioting. Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff, but blocked their deployment. On 9 November, The Times criticised this decision. In spite of this, the rumour persists that Churchill had ordered troops to attack, and his reputation in Wales and in Labour circles never recovered.[110]

Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911

In early January 1911, Churchill made a controversial visit to the Siege of Sidney Street in London. There is some uncertainty as to whether he attempted to give operational commands, and his presence attracted much criticism. After an inquest, Arthur Balfour remarked, "he [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing, but what was the right honourable gentleman doing?"[111] Biographer Roy Jenkins suggests that he went simply because "he could not resist going to see the fun himself" and that he did not issue commands.[112] A Metropolitan police history of the event, however, states that it was "a very rare case of a Home Secretary taking police operational command decisions."[113]

The police had the miscreants—Latvian anarchists wanted for murder—surrounded in a house, the Scots Guards from the Tower of London were called in. The house caught fire and Churchill prevented the fire brigade from dousing the flames so that the men inside were burned to death. "I thought it better to let the house burn down rather than spend good British lives in rescuing those ferocious rascals."[114]

Churchill's proposed solution to the suffragette issue was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Asquith and women's suffrage remained unresolved until after the First World War.[115]

Territorial Service and advancement

In 1900, he retired from the regular army, and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry, where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January 1902.[116] In that same year, he was initiated into Freemasonry at Studholme Lodge #1591, London, and raised to the Third Degree on 25 March 1902.[117][118] In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars.[119] In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers, where he remained until retiring in 1924 as a Major.[119]

Western Front

Winston Churchill commanding the 6th Battalion, the Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1916. Archibald Sinclair sits to the left

After his resignation from the government in 1915, Churchill returned to the British Army full-time, attempting to obtain an appointment as brigade commander, but settling for command of a battalion. After some time gaining front-line experience as a Major with the 2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards, he was appointed temporary Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers (part of the 9th (Scottish) Division), on 1 January 1916. Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. During his period of command, his battalion was stationed at Ploegsteert but did not take part in any set battle. Although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many Western Front actions, he exposed himself to danger by making excursions to the front line or into No Man's Land.[120]

First Lord of the Admiralty (1911–15)

In October 1911, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and continued in the post into the First World War. While serving in this position, he put strong emphasis on modernisation and was also in favour of using aeroplanes in combat. He undertook flying lessons himself.[121] He launched a programme to replace coal power with oil power. When he assumed his position, oil was already being used on submarines and destroyers, but most ships were still coal-powered, though oil was sprayed on the coals to boost maximum speed. Churchill began this programme by ordering that the upcoming Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were to be built with oil-fired engines. He established a Royal Commission chaired by Admiral Sir John Fisher, which confirmed the benefits of oil over coal in three classified reports, and judged that ample supplies of oil existed, but recommended that oil reserves be maintained in the event of war. The delegation then travelled to the Persian Gulf, and the government, largely through Churchill's advice, eventually invested in the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, bought most of its stock, and negotiated a secret contract for a 20-year supply.[122][123]

First World War and the Post-War Coalition

On 5 October 1914, Churchill went to Antwerp, which the Belgian government proposed to evacuate. The Royal Marine Brigade was on its way there and at Churchill's urgings the 1st and 2nd Naval Brigades were also committed. He returned on 7 October, but Antwerp fell on 10 October. 2,500 British men, many of them barely trained, were taken prisoner or interned in the neutral Netherlands. At the time he was attacked for squandering resources.[124] Churchill maintained that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp on 3 October) and that this time enabled the Allies to secure Calais and Dunkirk.[125]

Churchill was involved with the development of the tank, which was financed from the Navy budget.[126] In February 1915 he appointed the Landships Committee, which oversaw the design and production of the first British tanks.[126] However, he was also one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings in the Dardanelles.[127] He took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when H. H. Asquith formed an all-party coalition government in late May 1915, the Conservatives demanded his demotion as the price for entry.[128]

For several months Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However, on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, feeling his energies were not being used.[129] Although remaining a member of parliament, on 5 January 1916 he was given the temporary British Army rank of lieutenant colonel[130] and served for several months on the Western Front, commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.[131][132] While in command at Ploegsteert he personally made 36 forays into no man's land.[132]

In March 1916, Churchill returned to England after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons.[133] Future prime minister David Lloyd George acidly commented: "You will one day discover that the state of mind revealed in (your) letter is the reason why you do not win trust even where you command admiration. In every line of it, national interests are completely overshadowed by your personal concern."[134]

In July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. He was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, a principle that allowed the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that "there would be no great European war for the next five or ten years".[135] (Later as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1928, Churchill would persuade the Cabinet to make the rule self-perpetuating, leading to further reductions in Britain's armed services.)

Churchill meets female workers at Georgetown's filling works near Glasgow, October 1918

A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".[136] He secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of Labour. In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine.

He was instrumental in having para-military forces (Black and Tans and Auxiliaries) intervene in the Irish War of Independence.[137] He became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Churchill was involved in the lengthy negotiations of the treaty and, to protect British maritime interests, he engineered part of the Irish Free State agreement to include three Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy.[138] In 1938, however, under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement, the bases were returned to Ireland.

In 1919, Churchill sanctioned the use of tear gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq.[139] Though the British did consider the use of non-lethal poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, it was not used, as conventional bombing was considered effective.[139]

In 1919, Britain and the United States signed a treaty of alliance with France which the United States Senate refused to ratify, thus making the proposed Anglo-Franco-American alliance stillborn.[140] In July 1921, Churchill argued at the Imperial conference of Dominion prime ministers that despite the rejection by the American Senate of the alliance with France that Britain should still sign a military alliance with France to guarantee post-war security.[140] Churchill further argued that at the Paris peace conference the Americans and the British had successfully pressured the French from their plans to annex the Rhineland in exchange for the military alliance, thus creating a moral commitment for an alliance with France as the French had given up the demand for the Rhineland in exchange for an Anglo-American security guarantee that they did not get.[140] Churchill's idea about an Anglo-French alliance was rejected at the conference as British public opinion and even more so Dominion public opinion was against the idea of the "continental commitment".[141]

In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government, following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming November 1922 general election. Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendectomy. This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division which continued to beset the Liberal Party. He came fourth in the poll for Dundee, losing to prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee "without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix".[97]

On 4 May 1923, Churchill spoke in favour of the French occupation of the Ruhr, which was extremely unpopular in Britain saying: "We must not allow any particular phrase of French policy to estrange us from the great French nation. We must not turn our backs on our friends from the past".[141]

In 1923, Churchill acted as a paid consultant for Burmah Oil (now BP plc) to lobby the British government to allow Burmah to have exclusive rights to Persian (Iranian) oil resources, which were successfully granted.[142]

He stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester.

Constitutionalist

Portrait of Churchill by Ambrose McEvoy (1878–1927)

In January 1924, the first Labour Government had taken office amid fears of threats to the Constitution. Churchill was noted at the time for being particularly hostile to socialism. He believed that the Labour Party as a socialist party, did not fully support the existing British Constitution. In March 1924, aged 49, he sought election at the Westminster Abbey by-election, 1924. He had originally sought the backing of the local Unionist association which happened to be called the Westminster Abbey Constitutional Association, so he adopted the term 'Constitutionalist' to describe himself during the by-election campaign.[143] Despite support from Beaverbrook and Rothermere newspapers, he lost by 43 votes.

After the by-election Churchill continued to use the term and talked about setting up a Constitutionalist Party, though any formal plans that Churchill may have had were shelved with the calling of another general election. Churchill and 11 others decided to use the label Constitutionalist rather than Liberal or Unionist.[144][145] He was returned at Epping against a Liberal and with the support of the Unionists. After the election the seven Constitutionalist candidates, including Churchill, who were elected did not act or vote as a group. When Churchill accepted the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Unionist government, the description 'Constitutionalist' never became more than a label adopted by individual parliamentary candidates in the early 1920s.[146]

Rejoining the Conservative Party

Chancellor of the Exchequer (1924–29)

He formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that "anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat."[97][147]

Churchill as Chancellor of the Exchequer oversaw Britain's disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike of 1926.[148]

His decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, Sir Otto Niemeyer and the board of the Bank of England. This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925 (£1=$4.86) would lead to a world depression. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as 'sound economics' although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.[149]

Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life; in discussions at the time with former Chancellor Reginald McKenna, Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting 'dear money' policy was economically bad. In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political—a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed.[150] In his speech on the Bill he said "I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality."[151]

The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry, already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil. As basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to 10 percent in costs to the industry. In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners position rather than that of the mine owners.[152]

With Churchill's support Baldwin proposed a subsidy to the industry while a Royal Commission under Herbert Samuel prepared a further report. The Samuel Commission solved nothing and the miners' dispute led to the General Strike of 1926. Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the British Gazette.[153] Churchill was one of the more hawkish members of the Cabinet and recommended that the route of food convoys from the docks into London should be guarded by tanks, armoured cars and hidden machine guns. This was rejected by the Cabinet.[154] Exaggerated accounts of Churchill's belligerency during the strike soon began to circulate. Immediately afterwards the New Statesman claimed that Churchill had been leader of a "war party" in the Cabinet and had wished to use military force against the strikers. He consulted the Attorney-General Sir Douglas Hogg, who advised that although he had a good case for Criminal libel, it would be inadvisable to have confidential Cabinet discussions aired in open court. Churchill agreed to let the matter drop.[155]

Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Churchill's budget measures. These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets,[156] and as paring the Armed Forces, and especially the Royal Navy, too heavily.[157]

Political isolation

Churchill wrote a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in the mid-1930s

The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 general election. Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs. Over the next two years, Churchill became estranged from Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule, by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people whose character was seen as dubious. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was at the low-point in his career, in a period known as "the wilderness years".[158]

He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, works including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after the Second World War),[158] Great Contemporaries and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches. He was one of the best paid writers of his time.[158] His political views, set forth in his 1930 Romanes Lecture and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays "Thoughts and Adventures") involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic 'sub parliament'.[159]

Indian independence

Churchill opposed Gandhi's peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1920s and 30s, arguing that the Round Table Conference "was a frightful prospect".[160] Churchill brooked no moderation. "The truth is", he declared in 1930, "that Gandhi-ism and everything it stands for will have to be grappled with and crushed."[161] In response to Gandhi's movement, Churchill proclaimed in 1920 that Gandhi should be bound hand and foot and crushed with an elephant ridden by the viceroy.[162][163][164] Later reports indicate that Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on a hunger strike.[165]

In speeches and press articles in this period, he forecast widespread unemployment in Britain and civil strife in India should independence be granted.[166] The Viceroy, Lord Irwin, who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government, engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government's policy that India should be granted Dominion Status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference.[167]

At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association, specially convened so that Churchill could explain his position, he said "It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace ... to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor."[168][169] He called the Indian National Congress leaders "Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism".[170]

Two incidents damaged Churchill's reputation within the Conservative Party in this period. Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The first was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. In a safe Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by Ernest Petter, an independent Conservative. Petter was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Although arranged before the by-election was set,[171] Churchill's speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the press baron's campaign against Baldwin. Baldwin's position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won, and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.[172]

The second issue was a claim by Churchill that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill, and in doing so had breached Parliamentary privilege. He had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which, after investigations in which Churchill gave evidence, reported to the House that there had been no breach.[173] The report was debated on 13 June 1934. Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division.[174]

Quit India Movement launched by Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during the Second World War, demanding an end to British rule of India.

Churchill permanently broke with Stanley Baldwin over Indian independence and never again held any office while Baldwin was prime minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life (1930).[175] There has been debate over Churchill's culpability in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Indians during the Bengal famine of 1943 where London ate India's bread while India starved, some commentators point to the disruption of the traditional marketing system and maladministration at the provincial level as a cause with Churchill saying that the famine was the Indians own fault for "breeding like rabbits".[176][177][178][179][180][181]

Arthur Herman, author of Churchill and Gandhi, contends, 'The real cause was the fall of Burma to the Japanese, which cut off India's main supply of rice imports when domestic sources fell short ... [though] it is true that Churchill opposed diverting food supplies and transports from other theatres to India to cover the shortfall: this was wartime.'[182] In response to an urgent request by the Secretary of State for India (Leo Amery) and Viceroy of India (Wavell), to release food stocks for India, Churchill responded with a telegram to Wavell asking, if food was so scarce, "why Gandhi hadn't died yet".[183] In July 1940, newly in office, he reportedly welcomed reports of the emerging conflict between the Muslim League and the Indian Congress, hoping "it would be bitter and bloody".[161]

German and Italian rearmament and conflicts in Manchuria and Abyssinia

In the 1920s, Churchill supported the idea of a "reconciliation" between Germany and France with Britain serving as the "honest broker" for the reconciliation".[141] Beginning in 1931, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany's rearmament.[184]

In 1931, Churchill said: "It is not in the immediate interest of European peace that the French Army should be seriously weakened. It is not in British interests to antagonize France".[141] He later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany.[185] However Lord Lloyd was the first to so agitate.[186]

In 1932, Churchill accepted the presidency of the newly founded New Commonwealth Society, a peace organisation which he described in 1937 as "one of the few peace societies that advocates the use of force, if possible overwhelming force, to support public international law".[187]

Churchill's attitude towards the fascist dictators was ambiguous. After the First World War defeat of Germany, a new danger occupied conservatives' political consciousness—the spread of communism. A newspaper article penned by Churchill and published on 4 February 1920, had warned that "civilisation" was threatened by the Bolsheviks, a movement which he linked through historical precedence to Jewish conspiracy.[188] He wrote in part:

This movement among Jews is not new ... but a "world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilisation and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality."[189]

In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria: "I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state ... On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China, four or five provinces of which are being tortured under communist rule."[190] In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a communist front, and Franco's army as the "Anti-red movement."[191] He supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued up until 1937 to praise Benito Mussolini.[192] He regarded Mussolini's regime as a bulwark against the perceived threat of communist revolution, going as far (in 1933) as to call Mussolini the "Roman genius ... the greatest lawgiver among men." However, he stressed that the UK must stick with its tradition of Parliamentary democracy, not adopt fascism.[193]

Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Churchill said, "I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism."[194] In a 1935 essay, "Hitler and his Choice", which was republished in his 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred and cruelty, might yet "go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong to the forefront of the European family circle."[195] His first major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence; his second, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These three topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of The Focus, which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking "the defence of freedom and peace."[196] The Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936.

Germany and rearmament, 1936

Churchill, holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, returned to a divided Britain. The Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.[197] Churchill's speech on 9 March was measured, and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive. But within weeks Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip.[198] A. J. P. Taylor later called this "an appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul."[199] At the time insiders were less worried: Duff Cooper was opposed to Churchill's appointment, while General Ellison wrote that he had "only one comment, and that is "Thank God we are preserved from Winston Churchill"".[200]

On 22 May 1936, Churchill was present at a meeting of Old Guard Conservatives (the group, not all of them present on that occasion, included Austen Chamberlain, Geoffrey Lloyd, Leopold Amery and Robert Horne) at Lord Winterton's house at Shillinglee Park, to push for greater rearmament. This meeting prompted Baldwin to comment that it was "the time of year when midges came out of dirty ditches". Neville Chamberlain was also taking a growing interest in foreign affairs, and in June, as part of a power-bid at the expense of the young and pro-League of Nations Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, he demanded an end to sanctions against Italy ("the very midsummer of madness").[201][202]

In June 1936, Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives to see Baldwin, Inskip and Halifax. There had been demands for a Secret Session of the House and the senior ministers agreed to meet the deputation rather than listen to a potential four-hour speech by Churchill.[201][202] He had tried to have delegates from the other two parties and later wrote, "If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action."[203] Robert Rhodes James writes that this is "not quite the impression" given by the documentary record of the meetings of 28–29 July, and another meeting in November. Churchill's figures for the size of the Luftwaffe, leaked to him by Ralph Wigram at the Foreign Office, were less accurate than those of the Air Ministry and he believed that the Germans were preparing to unleash thermite bombs "the size of an orange" on London. Ministers stressed that Hitler's intentions were unclear, and the importance of maximising Britain's long-term economic strength through exports, whereas Churchill wanted 25–30 percent of British industry to be brought under state control for purposes of rearmament. Baldwin argued that the important thing had been to win the election to get "a perfectly free hand" for rearmament. The meeting ended with Baldwin agreeing with Churchill that rearmament was vital to deter Germany.[201][202]

On 12 November, Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate, after giving some specific instances of Germany's war preparedness, he said "The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind. So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency. And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat."[204] Robert Rhodes James called this one of Churchill's most brilliant speeches during this period, Baldwin's reply sounding weak and disturbing the House. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[205]

Abdication crisis

In June 1936, Walter Monckton told Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson's existing marriage as a 'safeguard'.[206]

In November, he declined Lord Salisbury's invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Liberal Party leader Archibald Sinclair met with Baldwin, were told officially of the King's intention, and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry's advice. Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Churchill's reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.[207]

The Abdication crisis became public, coming to a head in the first two weeks of December 1936. At this time, Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks, he made a declaration 'on the spur of the moment' asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet.[208] Later that night Churchill saw the draft of the King's proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King's solicitor about it. On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision.[209] On 7 December, he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members, he left.[210]

Churchill's reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some such as Alistair Cooke saw him as trying to build a King's Party.[211] Others like Harold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Churchill's support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[212] Churchill himself later wrote "I was myself so smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was at last ended."[213] Historians are divided about Churchill's motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A. J. P. Taylor see it as being an attempt to 'overthrow the government of feeble men'.[214] Others, such as R.R. James, view Churchill's motives as honourable and disinterested, in that he felt deeply for the King.[215]

Return from exile

Churchill later sought to portray himself as an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While it is true that he had a small following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s, he was given privileged information by some elements within the Government, particularly by disaffected civil servants in the War Ministry and Foreign Office. The "Churchill group" in the latter half of the decade consisted of only himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy;[216][217] one meeting of anti-Chamberlain forces decided that Churchill would make a good Minister of Supply.[218]

Even during the time Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. From 1932, Churchill's neighbour, Major Desmond Morton, with Ramsay MacDonald's approval, gave Churchill information on German air power.[219] From 1930 onward Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations. Lord Swinton, as Secretary of State for Air, and with Baldwin's approval, in 1934 gave Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information.

Swinton did so, knowing Churchill would remain a critic of the government, but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay.[220] Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Adolf Hitler[221] and in private letters to Lloyd George (13 August) and Lord Moyne (11 September) just before the Munich Agreement, he wrote that the government was faced with a choice between "war and shame" and that having chosen shame would later get war on less favourable terms.[222][223][224]

Return to the Admiralty

On 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany following the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, the same position he had held during the first part of the First World War. As such he was a member of Chamberlain's small War Cabinet.[225][226][227]

In this position, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called "Phoney War", when the only noticeable action was at sea and the USSR's attack on Finland. Churchill planned to penetrate the Baltic with a naval force. This was soon changed to a plan involving the mining of Norwegian waters to stop iron ore shipments from Narvik and provoke Germany into attacking Norway, where it could be defeated by the Royal Navy.[228] However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the start of the mining plan, Operation Wilfred, was delayed until 8 April 1940, a day before the successful German invasion of Norway.[229]

First term as prime minister (1940–45)

"We shall never surrender"

Churchill wears a helmet during an air raid warning in the Battle of Britain in 1940

On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of prime minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons. Although the prime minister does not traditionally advise the King on the former's successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as constitutional monarch, George VI asked Churchill to be prime minister. Churchill's first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.[230]

In June 1940, to encourage the neutral Irish state to join with the Allies, Churchill indicated to the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera that the United Kingdom would push for Irish unity, but, apparently believing that Churchill could not or would not deliver, de Valera declined the offer.[231] The British did not inform the Government of Northern Ireland of the offer made to the Dublin government, and de Valera's rejection was not publicised until 1970.[232]

Churchill takes aim with a Sten submachine gun in June 1941. The man in the pin-striped suit and fedora to the right is his bodyguard, Walter H. Thompson.

Churchill was still unpopular among many Conservatives and the Establishment,[217][233] who opposed his replacing Chamberlain; the former prime minister remained party leader until dying in November.[234] Churchill probably could not have won a majority in any of the political parties in the House of Commons, and the House of Lords was completely silent when it learned of his appointment.[217] An American visitor reported in late 1940 that, "Everywhere I went in London people admired [Churchill's] energy, his courage, his singleness of purpose. People said they didn't know what Britain would do without him. He was obviously respected. But no one felt he would be Prime Minister after the war. He was simply the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain's enemies."[235]

An element of British public and political sentiment favoured a negotiated peace with Germany, among them Halifax as Foreign Secretary. Over three days in May (26–28 May 1940), there were repeated discussions within the War Cabinet of whether the UK should associate itself with French approaches to Mussolini to use his good offices with Hitler to seek a negotiated peace: they terminated in refusal to do so. Various interpretations are possible of this episode and of Churchill's argument that "it was idle to think that, if we tried to make peace now, we should get better terms than if we fought it out", but throughout Churchill seems to have opposed any immediate peace negotiations.[236] Although at times personally pessimistic about Britain's chances for victory—Churchill told Hastings Ismay on 12 June 1940 that "[y]ou and I will be dead in three months' time"[234]—his use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.[237]

Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Churchill stated in his "finest hour" speech to the House of Commons on 18 June, "I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin."[238] By refusing an armistice with Germany, Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942–45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of the Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe.

In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence, making him the most powerful wartime prime minister in British history.[217] He immediately put his friend and confidant, industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production and made his friend Frederick Lindemann the government's scientific advisor. It was Beaverbrook's business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering, which eventually made the difference in the war.[239]

Winston Churchill walks through the ruins of Coventry Cathedral with Alfred Robert Grindlay, 1941

The war energised Churchill, who was 65 years old when he became Prime Minister. An American journalist wrote in 1941: "The responsibilities which are his now must be greater than those carried by any other human being on earth. One would think such a weight would have a crushing effect upon him. Not at all. The last time I saw him, while the Battle of Britain was still raging, he looked twenty years younger than before the war began ... His uplifted spirit is transmitted to the people".[233] Churchill's speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. His first as prime minister was the famous, "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat" speech. One historian has called its effect on Parliament as "electrifying". The House of Commons that had ignored him during the 1930s "was now listening, and cheering".[218] Churchill followed that closely with two other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the words:

... we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.[240]

The other:

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour'.[241]

Churchill visits the troops in Normandy, 1944

At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", which engendered the enduring nickname The Few for the RAF fighter pilots who won it.[242] He first spoke these famous words upon his exit from No. 11 Group's underground bunker at RAF Uxbridge, now known as the Battle of Britain Bunker on 16 August 1940. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor's Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Churchill stated:

This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.[243]

Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead. "Rhetorical power", wrote Churchill, "is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated." Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, Australian Prime Minister, said of Churchill during the Second World War: "His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way."[244] Another associate wrote: "He is ... the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas ... And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery."[245]

Mental and physical health

Winston Churchill giving his famous 'V' sign, May 1943.

Since the appearance in 1966 of Lord Moran's memoir of his years as Churchill's doctor, with its claim that "Black Dog" was the name Churchill gave to "the prolonged fits of depression from which he suffered",[246] many authors have suggested that throughout his life Churchill was a victim of, or at risk from, clinical depression. Formulated in this way, Churchill's mental health history contains unmistakable echoes of the seminal interpretation of Lord Moran's Black Dog revelations made by Dr Anthony Storr.[247]

In drawing so heavily on Moran for what he took to be the latter's totally reliable, first-hand clinical evidence of Churchill's lifelong struggle with "prolonged and recurrent depression" and its associated "despair", Storr produced a seemingly authoritative and persuasive diagnostic essay that, in the words of John Ramsden, "strongly influenced all later accounts."[248]

However, Storr was not aware that Moran, as Moran's biographer Professor Richard Lovell has shown and contrary to the impression created in Moran's book, kept no diary, in the dictionary sense of the word, during his years as Churchill's doctor. Nor was Storr aware that Moran's book as published was a much rewritten account which mixed together Moran's contemporaneous jottings with later material acquired from other sources.[249]

As Wilfred Attenborough demonstrated, the key Black Dog 'diary' entry for 14 August 1944 was an arbitrarily dated pastiche in which the explicit reference to Black Dog—the first of the few in the book (with an associated footnote definition of the term)—was taken, not from anything Churchill had said to Moran, but from much later claims made to Moran by Bracken in 1958.[250] Although seemingly unnoticed by Dr Storr and those he influenced, Moran later on in his book retracts his earlier suggestion, also derived from Brendan Bracken, that, towards the end of the Second World War, Churchill was succumbing to "the inborn melancholia of the Churchill blood"; also unnoticed by Storr et al., Moran, in his final chapter, states that Churchill, before the start of the First World War, "had managed to extirpate bouts of depression from his system".[251]

Despite the difficulties with Moran's book, the many illustrations it provides of a Churchill understandably plunged into temporary low mood by military defeats and other severely adverse developments constitute a compelling portrait of a great man reacting to, but not significantly impeded by, worry and overstrain, a compelling portrait that is entirely consistent with the portraits of others who worked closely with Churchill.[252] Churchill did not receive medication for depression—the amphetamine that Moran prescribed for special occasions, especially for big speeches from the autumn of 1953 onwards, was to combat the effects of Churchill's stroke of that year.[253]

Churchill in Québec City, Canada in 1943

Churchill himself seems, in a long life, to have written about Black Dog on one occasion only: the reference, a backward-looking one, occurs in a private handwritten letter to Clementine Churchill dated July 1911 which reports the successful treatment of a relative's depression by a doctor in Germany.[254] His ministerial circumstances at that date, the very limited treatments available for serious depression pre-1911, the fact of the relative's being "complete cured", and, not least, the evident deep interest Churchill took in the fact of the complete cure, can be shown to point to Churchill's pre-1911 Black Dog depression's having been a form of mild (i.e. non-psychotic) anxiety-depression,[255] as that term is defined by Professor Edward Shorter.[256]

Churchill's crossing of the Rhine river in Germany, during Operation Plunder on 25 March 1945

Moran himself leaned strongly in the direction of his patient's being "by nature very apprehensive";[257] close associates of Churchill have disputed the idea that apprehension was a defining feature of Churchill's temperament, although they readily concede that he was noticeably worried and anxious about some matters, especially in the buildup to important speeches in the House of Commons and elsewhere.[258] Churchill himself all but openly acknowledged in his book Painting as a Pastime that he was prey to the "worry and mental overstrain [experienced] by persons who, over prolonged periods, have to bear exceptional responsibilities and discharge duties upon a very large scale".[259] The fact that he found a remedy in painting and bricklaying is a strong indicator that the condition as he defined it did not amount to 'clinical depression', certainly not as that term was understood during the lifetimes of himself and Lord Moran.[260]

According to Lord Moran, during the war years Churchill sought solace in his tumbler of whisky and soda and his cigar. Churchill was also a very emotional man, unafraid to shed tears when appropriate. During some of his broadcast speeches it was noticed that he was trying to hold back the tears. Nevertheless, although the fall of Tobruk was, by Churchill's own account "one of the heaviest blows" he received during the war,[261] there seem to have been no tears. Certainly, the next day Moran found him animated and vigorous.[262] Field Marshal Alanbrooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, who had been present when President Roosevelt broke the news of the tragedy to Churchill, focused afterwards in his diary on the superbly well judged manner in which the President made his offer of immediate military assistance,[263] despite Alanbrooke's being ever ready to highlight what he perceived to be Churchill's contradictory motivations and flawed character during the war. For example, in his diary[264] entry for 10 September 1944:

... And the wonderful thing is that 3/4 of the population of the world imagine that Churchill is one of the Strategists of History, a second Marlborough, and the other 1/4 have no idea what a public menace he is and has been throughout this war! It is far better that the world should never know, and never suspect the feet of clay of this otherwise superhuman being. Without him England was lost for a certainty, with him England has been on the verge of disaster time and again ... Never have I admired and despised a man simultaneously to the same extent. Never have such opposite extremes been combined in the same human being.

Churchill's physical health became more fragile during the war, as shown by a mild heart attack he suffered in December 1941 at the White House and also in December 1943 when he contracted pneumonia. Despite this, he travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden.[265]

Relations with the United States

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943.
Winston Churchill fires an American M1 carbine during a visit to the US 2nd Armored Division on Salisbury Plain, 23 March 1944.

Churchill's good relationship with United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt—between 1939 and 1945 they exchanged an estimated 1700 letters and telegrams and met 11 times; Churchill estimated that they had 120 days of close personal contact[266]—helped secure vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes.[267]

It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-Lease was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. After Pearl Harbor was attacked, Churchill's first thought in anticipation of US help was, "We have won the war!"[268]

On 26 December 1941, Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, "What kind of people do they think we are?"[269] Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton's Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world's current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog."[270]

Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-Second World War European and Asian boundaries. These were discussed as early as 1943. At the Second Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and, together with Roosevelt, signed a less-harsh version of the original Morgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender "into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character."[271] Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by President Harry S. Truman, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at Potsdam. Churchill's strong relationship with Harry Truman was of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, "the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most."[272]

Relations with the Soviet Union

Huge portraits of Churchill and Stalin, Brisbane, Australia, 31 October 1941

When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-communist, famously stated "If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons", regarding his policy towards Stalin.[273] Soon, British supplies and tanks were being sent to help the Soviet Union.[274]

The Casablanca Conference, a meeting of Allied powers held in Casablanca, Morocco, on 14 January through 23 January 1943, produced what was to be known as the "Casablanca Declaration". In attendance were Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Charles de Gaulle. Joseph Stalin had bowed out, citing the need for his presence in the Soviet Union to attend to the Stalingrad crisis. It was in Casablanca that the Allies made a unified commitment to continue the war through to the "unconditional surrender" of the Axis powers. In private, however, Churchill did not fully subscribe to the doctrine of "unconditional surrender", and was taken by surprise when Franklin Roosevelt announced this to the world as Allied consensus.[275][276]

The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was prime minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin's wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.[277][278]

As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble ... A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions."[279][280] However, the resulting expulsions of Germans were carried out in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report[281] by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, over 2.1 million Germans dead or missing.[281] Churchill opposed the Soviet domination of Poland and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but was unable to prevent it at the conferences.[282]

Churchill at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, with a frail Roosevelt and Stalin beside him.

During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what.[283] The most significant of these meetings was held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed.[284] Churchill told Stalin:

Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don't let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty–fifty about Yugoslavia?[283]

Stalin agreed to this Percentages agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, five years after the account of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet Union denied that Stalin accepted the "imperialist proposal".[284]

One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the Allies would return all Soviet citizens that found themselves in the Allied zone to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the Soviet prisoners of war liberated by the Allies, but was also extended to all Eastern European refugees.[285] Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn called the Operation Keelhaul "the last secret" of the Second World War.[286] The operation decided the fate of up to two million post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe.[287]

Dresden bombings controversy

The destruction of Dresden, February 1945

Between 13–15 February 1945, British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees.[288] There were unknown numbers of refugees in Dresden, so historians Matthias Neutzner, Götz Bergander and Frederick Taylor have used historical sources and deductive reasoning to estimate that the number of refugees in the city and surrounding suburbs was around 200,000 or less on the first night of the bombing. Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Churchill stated in a top-secret telegram:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed ... I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.[289]

On reflection, under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff, and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal (Chief of the Air Staff) and Sir Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of RAF Bomber Command), among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one.[290][291] This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies ... We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort.[290][291]

Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to occur. German historian Jörg Friedrich claims that Churchill's decision was a "war crime",[292] and, writing in 2006, philosopher A.C. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF, presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime that undermines the Allies' contention that they fought a just war.[293]

On the other hand, it has been asserted that Churchill's involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. As historian and journalist Max Hastings wrote in an article subtitled "the Allied Bombing of Dresden": "I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis. Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany's military defeat." British historian Frederick Taylor asserts that "All sides bombed each other's cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That's roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids."[294]

End of the Second World War

Churchill waving the Victory sign to the crowd in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. Ernest Bevin stands to his right.

In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year. After being attacked on three fronts by the Allies, and in spite of Allied failures, such as Operation Market Garden, and German counter-attacks, including the Battle of the Bulge, Germany was eventually defeated. On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany's surrender. On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day.[295] On Victory in Europe Day, Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final cease fire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at one minute past midnight that night.[296][297]

Afterwards, Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: "This is your victory." The people shouted: "No, it is yours", and Churchill then conducted them in the singing of "Land of Hope and Glory". In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months.[98] The Japanese surrendered on 15 August 1945. As Europe celebrated peace at the end of six years of war, Churchill was concerned with the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted.[clarification needed][298] He concluded the UK and the US must anticipate the Red Army ignoring previously agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe, and prepare to "impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire."[298] According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.[298]

Syria crisis

Soon after VE day there came a dispute with Britain over French mandates Syria and Lebanon known as the Levant which quickly developed into a major diplomatic incident.[299] In May, de Gaulle sent more French troops to re-establish their presence provoking an outbreak of nationalism.[299] On 20 May, French troops opened fire on demonstrators in Damascus with artillery and dropped bombs from the air.[300] Finally, on 31 May, with the death toll exceeding a thousand Syrians, Churchill decided to act and sent de Gaulle an ultimatum saying, "In order to avoid a collision between British and French forces, we request you immediately to order French troops to cease fire and withdraw to their barracks".[301] This was ignored by both de Gaulle and the French forces and thus Churchill ordered British troops and armoured cars under General Bernard Paget to invade Syria from nearby Transjordan. The invasion went ahead and the British swiftly moved in cutting the French General Fernand Oliva-Roget's telephone line with his base at Beirut. Eventually, heavily outnumbered, Oliva-Roget ordered his men back to their bases near the coast who were then escorted by the British. A furious row then broke out between Britain and France.[300]

Churchill's relationship with de Gaulle was at this time rock bottom in spite of his efforts to preserve French interests at Yalta and a visit to Paris the previous year. In January he told a colleague that he believed that de Gaulle was "a great danger to peace and for Great Britain. After five years of experience, I am convinced that he is the worst enemy of France in her troubles ... he is one of the greatest dangers to European peace.... I am sure that in the long run no understanding will be reached with General de Gaulle".[301] In France, there were accusations that Britain had armed the demonstrators and de Gaulle raged against 'Churchill's ultimatum', saying that "the whole thing stank of oil".[299]

In opposition, 1945–51

Churchill at Potsdam Conference (July 1945)

Caretaker government and 1945 election

With a general election looming (there had been none for almost a decade), and with the Labour Ministers refusing to continue the wartime coalition, Churchill resigned as Prime Minister on 23 May. Later that day, he accepted the King's invitation to form a new government, known officially as the National Government, like the Conservative-dominated coalition of the 1930s, but in practice known as the Churchill caretaker ministry. The government contained Conservatives, National Liberals and a few non-party figures such as Sir John Anderson and Lord Woolton, but not Labour or Archibald Sinclair's Official Liberals. Although Churchill continued to carry out the functions of Prime Minister, including exchanging messages with the US administration about the upcoming Potsdam Conference, he was not formally reappointed until 28 May.[302]

Although polling day was 5 July, the results of the 1945 election did not become known until 26 July, owing to the need to collect the votes of those serving overseas. Clementine, who together with his daughter Mary had been at the count at Churchill's constituency in Essex (although unopposed by the major parties, Churchill had been returned with a much-reduced majority against an independent candidate) returned to meet her husband for lunch. To her suggestion that election defeat might be "a blessing in disguise" he retorted that "at the moment it seems very effectively disguised". That afternoon Churchill's doctor Lord Moran (so he later recorded in his book The Struggle for Survival) commiserated with him on the "ingratitude" of the British public, to which Churchill replied "I wouldn't call it that. They have had a very hard time". Having lost the election, despite enjoying much support amongst the British population, he resigned as Prime Minister that evening, this time handing over to a Labour Government.[303][304] Many reasons for his defeat have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.[305] Although the Conservative Party was unpopular, many electors appear to have wanted Churchill to continue as Prime Minister whatever the outcome, or to have wrongly believed that this would be possible.[306]

On the morning of 27 July, Churchill held a farewell Cabinet. On the way out of the Cabinet Room he told Eden "Thirty years of my life have been passed in this room. I shall never sit in it again. You will, but I shall not".[307] However, contrary to expectations, Churchill did not hand over the Conservative leadership to Anthony Eden, who became his deputy but who was disinclined to challenge his leadership. It would be another decade before Churchill finally did hand over the reins.[308]

Opposition leader

Churchill with American General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery at a meeting of NATO in October 1951, shortly before Churchill was to become prime minister for a second time

For six years he was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years Churchill continued to influence world affairs. During his 1946 trip[309] to the United States, Churchill famously lost a lot of money in a poker game with Harry Truman and his advisors.[310]

During this trip he gave his Iron Curtain speech about the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc. Speaking on 5 March 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he declared:

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.[311]

Churchill's doctor Lord Moran later (in his book The Struggle for Survival) recalled Churchill suggesting in 1946—the year before he put the idea (unsuccessfully) in a memo to President Truman—that the United States make a pre-emptive atomic bomb attack on Moscow while the Soviet Union did not yet possess nuclear weapons.[312][313]

In parliament on 5 June 1946, three days before the London Victory Parade, Churchill said he 'deeply' regretted that:

none of the Polish troops, and I must say this, who fought with us on a score of battlefields, who poured out their blood in the common cause, are not to be allowed to march in the Victory Parade... The fate of Poland seems to be unending tragedy and we who went to war all ill-prepared on her behalf watch with sorrow the strange outcome of our endeavours.[314]

Churchill told the Irish Ambassador to London in 1946, "I said a few words in parliament the other day about your country because I still hope for a united Ireland. You must get those fellows in the north in, though; you can't do it by force. There is not, and never was, any bitterness in my heart towards your country." He later said "You know I have had many invitations to visit Ulster but I have refused them all. I don't want to go there at all, I would much rather go to southern Ireland. Maybe I'll buy another horse with an entry in the Irish Derby."[315]

He continued to lead his party after losing the 1950 general election.

European unity

In the summer of 1930, inspired by the ideas being floated by Aristide Briand and by his recent tour of the US in the autumn of 1929, Churchill wrote an article lamenting the instability which had been caused by the independence of Poland and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary into petty states, and called for a "United States of Europe", although he wrote that Britain was "with Europe but not of it".[316]

Ideas about closer European union continued to circulate, driven by Paul-Henri Spaak, from 1942 onwards.[317] As early as March 1943 a Churchill speech on postwar reconstruction annoyed the US administration not only by not mentioning China as a great power but by proposing a purely European "Council of Europe". Harry Hopkins passed on President Roosevelt's concerns, warning Eden that it would "give free ammunition to (US) isolationists" who might propose an American "regional council". Churchill urged Eden, on a visit to the US at the time, to "listen politely" but give "no countenance" to Roosevelt's proposals for the US, UK, USSR and Chiang Kai-shek's China to act together to enforce "Global Collective Security" with the Japanese and French Empires taken into international trusteeship.[318]

Now out of office, Churchill gave a speech at Zurich on 19 September 1946 in which he called for "a kind of United States of Europe" centred around a Franco-German partnership, with Britain and the Commonwealth, and perhaps the US, as "friends and sponsors of the new Europe". The Times wrote of him "startling the world" with "outrageous propositions" and warned that there was as yet little appetite for such unity, and that he appeared to be assuming a permanent division between Eastern and Western Europe, and urged "more humdrum" economic agreements. Churchill's speech was praised by Leo Amery and by Count Coudenhove-Kalergi who wrote that it would galvanise governments into action.[319][320]

Churchill expressed similar sentiments at a meeting of the Primrose League at the Albert Hall on 18 May 1947. He declared "let Europe arise" but was "absolutely clear" that "we shall allow no wedge to be driven between Britain and the United States". Churchill's speeches helped to encourage the foundation of the Council of Europe.[320][321]

In June 1950, Churchill was strongly critical of the Attlee Government's failure to send British representatives to Paris (to discuss the Schuman Plan for setting up the European Coal and Steel Community), declaring that les absents ont toujours tort and calling it "a squalid attitude" which "derange(d) the balance of Europe", and risked Germany dominating the new grouping. He called for world unity through the UN (against the backdrop of the communist invasion of South Korea), while stressing that Britain was uniquely placed to exert leadership through her links to the Commonwealth, the US and Europe.[322] However, Churchill did not want Britain to actually join any federal grouping.[323][324][325] In September 1951 a declaration of the American, French and British foreign ministers welcomed the Schuman plan, stressing that it would revive economic growth and encourage the development of a democratic Germany, part of the Atlantic community.[326]

After returning as Prime Minister, Churchill issued a note for the Cabinet on 29 November 1951. He listed British Foreign Policy priorities as Commonwealth unity and consolidation, "fraternal association" of the English-speaking world (i.e. the Commonwealth and the US), then thirdly "United Europe, to which we are a closely—and specially-related ally and friend … (it is) only when plans for uniting Europe take a federal form that we cannot take part, because we cannot subordinate ourselves or the control of British policy to federal authorities".[327]

In 1956, after retiring as Prime Minister, Churchill went to Aachen to receive the Charlemagne Prize for his contribution to European Unity.[328] Churchill is today listed as one of the "Founding fathers of the European Union".[329]

In July 1962 Field-Marshal Montgomery told the press that the aged Churchill, whom he had just visited in hospital where he was being treated for a broken hip, was opposed to Macmillan's negotiations for Britain to enter the EEC (which would, in the event, be vetoed by the French President, General de Gaulle, the following January). Churchill told his granddaughter, Edwina, that Montgomery's behaviour in leaking a private conversation was "monstrous".[330]

Second term as prime minister (1951–55)

Return to government

Domestic policy

After the general election of October 1951, Churchill again became prime minister, and his second government lasted until his resignation in April 1955. He also held the office of Minister of Defence from October 1951 until 1 March 1952, when he handed the portfolio to Field Marshal Alexander.[331]

In domestic affairs, various reforms were introduced such as the Mines and Quarries Act 1954 and the Housing Repairs and Rents Act 1954. The former measure consolidated legislation dealing with the employment of young persons and women in mines and quarries, together with safety, health, and welfare. The latter measure extended previous housing Acts, and set out details in defining housing units as "unfit for human habitation."[332] pg. Tax allowances were raised, as well,[333] construction of council housing accelerated, and pensions and national assistance benefits were increased.[334] Controversially, however, charges for prescription medicines were introduced.[335]

Housing was an issue the Conservatives were widely recognised to have made their own, after the Churchill government of the early 1950s, with Harold Macmillan as Minister for Housing, gave housing construction far higher political priority than it had received under the Attlee administration (where housing had been attached to the portfolio of Health Minister Aneurin Bevan, whose attention was concentrated on his responsibilities for the National Health Service). Macmillan had accepted Churchill's challenge to meet the latter's ambitious public commitment to build 300,000 new homes a year, and achieved the target a year ahead of schedule.[336][337]

Colonial affairs

Crowd demonstrates against Britain in Cairo on 23 October 1951 as tension continued to mount in the dispute between Egypt and Britain over control of the Suez Canal and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

Kenya and Malaya

Churchill's domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion.[338] Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, "I will not preside over a dismemberment."[338]

This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency. In Malaya, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948. Once again, Churchill's government inherited a crisis, and Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not.[98][339] While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.[340]

Relations with the US and the quest for a summit

In the early 1950s Britain was still attempting to remain a third major power on the world stage. This was "the time when Britain stood up to the United States as strongly as she was ever to do in the postwar world".[341] However, Churchill devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and attempted to maintain the Special Relationship. He made four official transatlantic visits to America during his second term as prime minister.[342]

Churchill and Eden visited Washington in January 1952. The Truman Administration was supporting the plans for a European Defence Community (EDC), hoping that this would allow controlled West German rearmament and enable American troop reductions. Churchill affected to believe that the proposed EDC would not work, scoffing at the supposed difficulties of language. Churchill asked in vain for a US military commitment to support Britain's position in Egypt and Middle East (where the Truman Administration had recently pressured Attlee not to intervene against Mossadeq in Iran); this did not meet with American approval—the US expected British support to fight communism in Korea, but saw any US commitment to the Middle East as supporting British imperialism, and were unpersuaded that this would help prevent pro-Soviet regimes from coming to power.[343]

By early 1953, the Cabinet's Foreign Policy priority was Egypt and the nationalist, anti-imperialist Egyptian Revolution.[344]

After Stalin's death, Churchill, the last of the wartime Big Three, wrote to Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had just assumed office as US President, on 11 March proposing a summit meeting with the Soviets; Eisenhower wrote back pouring cold water on the suggestions as the Soviets might use it for propaganda.[345][346][347]

Some of Churchill's colleagues hoped that he might retire after the Queen's Coronation in May 1953. Eden wrote to his son on 10 April "W gets daily older & is apt to ... waste a great deal of time ... the outside world has little idea how difficult that becomes. Please make me retire before I am 80!" However, Eden's serious illness (he nearly died after a series of botched operations on his bile duct) allowed Churchill to take control of foreign affairs from April 1953.[346][348]

After further discouragement from President Eisenhower (this was the McCarthy era in the US, in which Secretary of State Dulles took a Manichean view of the Cold War), Churchill announced his plans in the House of Commons on 11 May. The US Embassy in London noted that this was a rare occasion on which Churchill did not mention Anglo-American solidarity in a speech. Ministers like Lord Salisbury (acting Foreign Secretary) and Nutting were concerned at the irritation caused to the Americans and the French, although Selwyn Lloyd supported Churchill's initiative, as did most Conservatives. In his diary a year later, Eden wrote of Churchill's actions with fury.[346][349]

Stroke and resignation

Churchill had suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in the south of France in the summer of 1949. By the time he formed his next government he was slowing down noticeably enough for George VI, as early as December 1951, to consider inviting Churchill to retire in the following year in favour of Anthony Eden,[350] but it is not recorded if the king made that approach before his own death in February 1952.

The strain of carrying the Premiership and Foreign Office contributed to his second stroke at 10 Downing Street after dinner on the evening of 23 June 1953. Despite being partially paralysed down one side, he presided over a Cabinet meeting the next morning without anybody noticing his incapacity. Thereafter his condition deteriorated, and it was thought that he might not survive the weekend. Had Eden been fit, Churchill's premiership would most likely have been over. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. He went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate, and by the end of June he astonished his doctors by being able, dripping with perspiration, to lift himself upright from his chair. He joked that news of his illness had chased the trial of the serial killer John Christie off the front pages.[351][352][353]

Churchill was still keen to pursue a meeting with the Soviets and was open to the idea of a reunified Germany. He refused to condemn the Soviet crushing of East Germany, commenting on 10 July 1953 that "The Russians were surprisingly patient about the disturbances in East Germany". He thought this might have been the reason for the removal of Beria.[354] Churchill returned to public life in October 1953 to make a speech at the Conservative Party conference at Margate.[353] In December 1953 Churchill met Eisenhower in Bermuda.[355]

Churchill was cross about friction between Eden and Dulles (June 1954). On the trip home from another Anglo-American conference, the diplomat Pierson Dixon compared US actions in Guatemala to Soviet policy in Korea and Greece, causing Churchill to retort that Guatemala was a "bloody place" he'd "never heard of". Churchill was still keen for a trip to Moscow, and threatened to resign, provoking a crisis in the Cabinet when Lord Salisbury threatened to resign if Churchill had his way. In the end the Soviets proposed a five power conference, which did not meet until after Churchill had retired. By the autumn Churchill was again postponing his resignation.[356][357]

Eden, now partly recovered from his operations, became a major figure on the world stage in 1954, helping to negotiate peace in Indo-China, an agreement with Egypt and to broker an agreement between the countries of Western Europe after the French rejection of the EDC.[358] Aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill at last retired as prime minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden. At the time of his departure, he was considered to have had the longest ministerial career in modern British politics.[359] Churchill suffered another mild stroke in December 1956.

Retirement and death (1955–65)

Churchill spent much of his retirement at his home Chartwell in Kent. He purchased it in 1922 after his daughter Mary was born.

Elizabeth II offered to create Churchill Duke of London, but this was declined as a result of the objections of his son Randolph, who would have inherited the title on his father's death.[360] He did, however, accept a knighthood as Garter Knight. After leaving the premiership, Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 general election. Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London, and became a habitué of high society on the French Riviera.[98][361]

Although publicly supportive, Churchill was privately scathing about Eden's Suez Invasion. His wife believed that he had made a number of visits to the US in the following years in an attempt to help repair Anglo-American relations.[362]

By the time of the 1959 general election Churchill seldom attended the House of Commons. Despite the Conservative landslide, his own majority fell by more than a thousand. It is widely believed that as his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose the battle he had supposedly fought for so long against the so-called "Black Dog" of depression. However, as was suggested in a previous section of this article, the nature, incidence and severity of Churchill's Black Dog is problematical. Anthony Montague Browne, Personal Secretary to Churchill during the latter's final ten years of life, wrote that he never heard Churchill make reference to Black Dog, and he vigorously contested the suggestion that the former prime minister, his health progressively ravaged by advanced old age, multiple strokes and other serious illness, was, independently of circumstances, afflicted also by inherent depression.[363]

There was speculation that Churchill may have had Alzheimer's disease in his last years, although others maintain that his reduced mental capacity was simply the cumulative result of the ten strokes and the increasing deafness he suffered from during the period 1949–1963.[364] In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States,[365] but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.[366]

Despite poor health, Churchill still tried to remain active in public life, and on St George's Day 1964, sent a message of congratulations to the surviving veterans of the 1918 Zeebrugge Raid who were attending a service of commemoration in Deal, Kent, where two casualties of the raid were buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery. On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke and died at his London home nine days later, aged 90, on the morning of Sunday, 24 January 1965, 70 years to the day after his own father's death.[366]

Funeral

Churchill's grave at St Martin's Church, Bladon

Churchill's funeral plan had been initiated in 1953, after he suffered a major stroke, under the name Operation Hope Not. The purpose was to commemorate Churchill "on a scale befitting his position in history", as Queen Elizabeth II declared.[367]

The funeral was the largest state funeral in world history up to that time, with representatives from 112 nations; only China did not send an emissary. In Europe, 350 million people, including 25 million in Britain, watched the funeral on television, and only the Republic of Ireland did not broadcast it live.[368]

By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state in Westminster Hall for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul's Cathedral on 30 January 1965.[369] One of the largest assemblages of statesmen in the world was gathered for the service. Unusually, the Queen attended the funeral because Churchill was the first commoner since William Gladstone to lie-in-State.[370] As Churchill's lead-lined coffin passed up the River Thames from Tower Pier to Festival Pier on the MV Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute.[371]

The Royal Artillery fired the 19-gun salute due a head of government, and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. The coffin was then taken the short distance to Waterloo station where it was loaded onto a specially prepared and painted carriage as part of the funeral train for its rail journey to Hanborough,[372] seven miles northwest of Oxford.

Sir Winston Churchill's funeral train passing Clapham Junction

The funeral train of Pullman coaches carrying his family mourners was hauled by Battle of Britain class steam locomotive No. 34051 Winston Churchill. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin's Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace. Churchill's funeral van—former Southern Railway van S2464S—is now part of a preservation project with the Swanage Railway, having been repatriated to the UK in 2007 from the US, to where it had been exported in 1965.[373]

Later in 1965 a memorial to Churchill, cut by the engraver Reynolds Stone, was placed in Westminster Abbey.[374]

Legacy and historical assessments

Throughout his career, Churchill's outspokenness earned him enemies.[69]

His reputation among the general public remains high: he was named in the top ten in a 2002 BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons of all time.[375] However, Churchill's legacy continues to stir intense debate amongst writers and historians.[1] According to Allen Packwood, director of the Churchill Archives Centre, even during his own lifetime Churchill was an "incredibly complex, contradictory and larger-than-life human being," who frequently wrestled with those contradictions.[376] Notably, his strongly held and outspoken views on race, Judaism and Islam have frequently been highlighted, quoted and strongly criticised.[377] However, historian Richard Toye has observed that in the context of the era, Churchill was not "particularly unique" in having strong opinions on race and the superiority of white peoples, even if many of his contemporaries did not subscribe to them. Though a firm supporter of the Zionist movement, Churchill retained casually anti-Semitic views in common with many of the British upper classes. While staunchly against the unions and holding Communist agitation responsible for the Labour movement during the 1920s, he supported social reform, if more in the spirit of Victorian paternalism.[376]

Artist, historian, and writer

Allies (1995) by Lawrence Holofcener, a sculptural group depicting Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill in New Bond Street, London

Churchill was an accomplished amateur artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915.[378] He found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression which he suffered throughout his life. As William Rees-Mogg has stated, "In his own life, he had to suffer the 'black dog' of depression. In his landscapes and still lives there is no sign of depression."[379] Churchill was persuaded and taught to paint by his artist friend, Paul Maze, whom he met during the First World War. Maze was a great influence on Churchill's painting and became a lifelong painting companion.[380]

Churchill's best known paintings are impressionist landscapes, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France, Egypt or Morocco.[379] Using the pseudonym "Charles Morin",[233] he continued his hobby throughout his life and painted hundreds of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell as well as private collections.[381] Most of his paintings are oil-based and feature landscapes, but he also did a number of interior scenes and portraits. In 1925 Lord Duveen, Kenneth Clark, and Oswald Birley selected his Winter Sunshine as the prize winner in a contest for anonymous amateur artists.[382]:46–47 Due to obvious time constraints, Churchill attempted only one painting during the Second World War. He completed the painting from the tower of the Villa Taylor in Marrakesh.[383]

Some of his paintings can today be seen in the Wendy and Emery Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art. Emery Reves was Churchill's American publisher, as well as a close friend[384] and Churchill often visited Emery and his wife Wendy Russell Reves at their villa, La Pausa, in the South of France, which had originally been built in 1927 for Coco Chanel by her lover the 2nd Duke of Westminster. The villa was rebuilt within the museum in 1985 with a gallery of Churchill paintings and memorabilia.[385][386]

Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins, Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level which would fund his extravagant lifestyle. MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living.[387] From his first book in 1898 until his second stint as Prime Minister, Churchill's income while out of office was almost entirely made from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines, among them the forthnightly columns that appeared in the Evening Standard from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement.[388]

Churchill was a prolific writer, often under the pen name "Winston S. Churchill", which he used by agreement with the American novelist of the same name to avoid confusion between their works. His output included a novel, two biographies, three volumes of memoirs, and several histories. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".[389] Two of his most famous works, published after his first premiership brought his international fame to new heights, were his six-volume memoir The Second World War and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a four-volume history covering the period from Caesar's invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).[390] A number of volumes of Churchill's speeches were also published. the first of which, Into Battle, was published in the United States under the title Blood, Sweat and Tears, and was included in Life Magazine's list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–1944.[391]

Churchill was an amateur bricklayer, constructing buildings and garden walls at his country home at Chartwell,[233] where he also bred butterflies.[392] As part of this hobby Churchill joined the Amalgamated Union of Building Trade Workers,[393] but was expelled due to his revived membership in the Conservative Party.[233]

Churchill was passionate about science and technology. When he was 22 he read Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and a primer on physics. In the 1920s and 1930s he wrote popular-science essays on topics such as evolution and fusion power. In an unpublished manuscript, Are We Alone in the Universe?, he investigates the possibility of extraterrestrial life in a thorough scientific way.[394][395]

Ideology

When campaigning for his Oldham seat in 1899, Churchill referred to himself as a Conservative and a Tory Democrat.[396]

Personal life

From childhood, Churchill had been unable to pronounce the letter s, verbalising it with a slur.[47] This lateral lisp continued throughout his career, reported consistently by journalists of the time and later. Authors writing in the 1920s and 1930s, before sound recording became common, also mentioned Churchill having a stutter, describing it in terms such as "severe" or "agonising".[397] The Churchill Centre and Museum says the majority of records show his impediment was a lateral lisp, while Churchill's stutter is a myth.[398]

His dentures were specially designed to aid his speech.[399] After many years of public speeches carefully prepared not only to inspire, but also to avoid hesitations, he could finally state, "My impediment is no hindrance".[400]

In 1898 he wrote to his mother stating that "I do not accept the Christian or any other form of religious belief".[401] In a letter to his cousin he referred to religion as "a delicious narcotic" and expressed a preference for Protestantism over Roman Catholicism, relating that he felt it "a step nearer Reason".[402]

Marriage and children

A young Winston Churchill and fiancée Clementine Hozier shortly before their marriage in 1908

Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of the Earl of Crewe and Crewe's wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, and Hannah Rothschild).[403] In 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Lady St Helier. Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance.[404] He proposed to Clementine during a house party at Blenheim Palace on 10 August 1908, in a small Temple of Diana.[405]

On 12 September 1908, he and Clementine were married in St. Margaret's, Westminster. The church was packed; A. G. Edwards, the Bishop of St Asaph, conducted the service.[406] The couple spent their honeymoon at Highgrove House in Eastcote.[407] In March 1909, the couple moved to a house at 33 Eccleston Square.

Their first child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny.[408] On 28 May 1911, their second child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square.[409] Their third child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Churchill had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to "stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city" after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.[410]

Clementine gave birth to her fourth child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, four days after the official end of the First World War.[411] In the early days of August 1921, the Churchills' children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent, Mlle. Rose. Clementine travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster, and his family. While still under the care of Mlle. Rose, Marigold had a cold but was reported to have recovered from the illness. As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Rose sent for Clementine, but the illness proved fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery three days later.[412]

On 15 September 1922, the Churchills' last child, Mary, was born. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be their home until Winston's death in 1965.[413][414]

Honours

Coat of arms of Winston Churchill

In addition to the honour of a state funeral, Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours, including the following, chronologically:

Honorary military appointments

Churchill in his air commodore's uniform
Churchill in his colonel's uniform

Churchill held substantive ranks in the British Army and in the Territorial Army since he was commissioned as a Cornet in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars until his retirement from the Territorial Army in 1924 with the rank of Major, having held the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel during the Great War.[423]

In addition he held many honorary military appointments. In 1939, he was appointed as an Honorary Air Commodore in the Auxiliary Air Force and was awarded honorary wings in 1943.[424] In 1941, he was made a Regimental Colonel of the 4th Hussars. During the Second World War, he frequently wore his uniform as an Air Commodore and as a Colonel of the Hussars. After the war he was appointed as the Colonel in Chief of the 4th Hussars,[425] Queen's Royal Irish Hussars[426] and the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars.[427]

In 1913, he was appointed an Elder Brother of Trinity House as result of his appointment as First Lord of the Admiralty.[428] He held the post of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports from 1941 until his death and in that capacity was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 89th (Cinque Ports) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, on 20 February 1942.[429] In 1949 was appointed Deputy Lieutenant (DL) of Kent.

Cultural depictions

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Winston Churchill: greatest British hero or a warmongering villain?". The Week. 23 January 2015. 
  2. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1; Jenkins 2001, p. 5.
  3. ^ Johnson, Paul (2010). Churchill. New York, NY: Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 0-14-311799-8. 
  4. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1; Jenkins 2001, pp. 3, 5.
  5. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 4.
  6. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1; Jenkins 2001, p. 4.
  7. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 5–6.
  8. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 5, 7.
  9. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 6–7.
  10. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1.
  11. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 2; Jenkins 2001, p. 7.
  12. ^ a b Jenkins 2001, p. 7.
  13. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 8.
  14. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 10.
  15. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 2; Jenkins 2001, p. 8.
  16. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 2.
  17. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 2–3; Jenkins 2001, p. 10.
  18. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 16, 29.
  19. ^ T. E. C. Jr. MD (November 1977). "Winston Churchill's Poignant Description of the Death of his Nanny". Pediatrics. 60 (5): 752. 
  20. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 3–5.
  21. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 4.
  22. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 5.
  23. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 6–8.
  24. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 17–19.
  25. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 20–21.
  26. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 25, 29.
  27. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 32.
  28. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 22; Jenkins 2001, p. 19.
  29. ^ a b c d Jenkins 2001, p. 21.
  30. ^ a b Gilbert 1991, p. 35.
  31. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 37–39.
  32. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 32–33, 37; Jenkins 2001, p. 20.
  33. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 37; Jenkins 2001, p. 20.
  34. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 45.
  35. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 46.
  36. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 46; Jenkins 2001, p. 21.
  37. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 48–49; Jenkins 2001, p. 21.
  38. ^ Haffner, p. 32
  39. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 51; Jenkins 2001, p. 21.
  40. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 53.
  41. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 62; Jenkins 2001, p. 28.
  42. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 56, 58–60; Jenkins 2001, pp. 28–29.
  43. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 57–58; Jenkins 2001, p. 29.
  44. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 57.
  45. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 63; Jenkins 2001, p. 22.
  46. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 63; Jenkins 2001, p. 23.
  47. ^ a b Gilbert 1991, p. 65.
  48. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 23.
  49. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 24.
  50. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 67, 68; Jenkins 2001, p. 25.
  51. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 67–68; Jenkins 2001, pp. 24–25.
  52. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 26.
  53. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 69; Jenkins 2001, p. 27.
  54. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 69, 71; Jenkins 2001, p. 27.
  55. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 70.
  56. ^ Robbins 1992, pp. 16–19
  57. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 72; Jenkins 2001, pp. 29–30.
  58. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 75; Jenkins 2001, pp. 30–31.
  59. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 78, 79.
  60. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 79; Jenkins 2001, p. 31.
  61. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 81, 82; Jenkins 2001, pp. 31, 32.
  62. ^ Gilvert 1991, p. 81; Jenkins 2001, pp. 32–34.
  63. ^ a b Jenkins 2001, p. 35.
  64. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 85, 89; Jenkins 2001, pp. 35–36.
  65. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 89–90; Jenkins 2001, pp. 38–39.
  66. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 90; Jenkins 2001, p. 39.
  67. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 91–98; Jenkins 2001, pp. 39–40.
  68. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 98, 99; Jenkins 2001, p. 41.
  69. ^ a b Gilbert 1991, p. 100.
  70. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 34, 41.
  71. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 42.
  72. ^ a b Gilbert 1991, p. 101; Jenkins 2001, p. 42.
  73. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 43.
  74. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 103–104; Jenkins 2001, p. 44.
  75. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 104; Jenkins 2001, p. 45.
  76. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 45.
  77. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 103, 104; Jenkins 2001, pp. 45–46.
  78. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 105; Jenkins 2001, p. 47.
  79. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 105–106.
  80. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 107–110.
  81. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 111–113.
  82. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 115–120.
  83. ^ Jenkins, pp. 55–62
  84. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 121.
  85. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 121–122.
  86. ^ Jenkins, pp. 61–62
  87. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 125.
  88. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 123–124, 126–129.
  89. ^ Jenkins, pp. 62–64
  90. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 130–131.
  91. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 128, 131.
  92. ^ "No. 27244". The London Gazette. 6 November 1900. p. 6772. 
  93. ^ UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved November 6, 2017. 
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  95. ^ Jenkins, pp. 74–76
  96. ^ "History of Sir Winston Churchill – GOV.UK". 
  97. ^ a b c Hall, Douglas J. "Churchill's Elections". The Churchill Centre. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  98. ^ a b c d Gilbert, Martin (2001). Churchill: A Study in Greatness (one-volume edition). London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6725-8. 
  99. ^ a b Toye, Richard (2007). Lloyd George and Churchill: Rivals for Greatness. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4896-5. 
  100. ^ Churchill, Randolph. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman (1967), C & T Publications: pp. 287–89
  101. ^ Jenkins, pp. 150–51
  102. ^ Jenkins, p. 152
  103. ^ Gilbert, Martin (31 May 2009). "Churchill and Eugenics". Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  104. ^ Jenkins, pp. 157–66
  105. ^ Jenkins, p. 161
  106. ^ Lee, Geoffrey. The People's Budget, An Edwardian Tragedy (2008)
  107. ^ LIBERALISM AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM – Winston Churchill. 1909. 
  108. ^ House Of Commons 4 May; King's Theatre, Edinburgh, 17 July, "It is quite true that the land monopoly is not the only monopoly which exists, but it is by far the greatest of monopolies; it is a perpetual monopoly, and it is the mother of all other forms of monopoly"
  109. ^ House Of Commons 4 May; King's Theatre, Edinburgh, 17 July, "that the unearned increment in land is reaped by the land monopolist in exact proportion, not to the service, but to the disservice done. It is monopoly which is the keynote; and where monopoly prevails, the greater the injury to society, the greater the reward of the monopolist will be. See how this evil process strikes at every form of industrial activity."
  110. ^ Churchill, Randolph. pp. 359–65
  111. ^ Churchill, Randolph, p. 395
  112. ^ Jenkins, p. 194
  113. ^ "The Siege of Sidney Street". Metropolitan Police Service. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
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  117. ^ Beresiner, Yasha (October 2002). "Brother Winston: Churchill as a Freemason". Masonic Quarterly Magazine. London, UK: Grand Lodge Publications Limited for the United Grand Lodge of England (3). Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
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  119. ^ a b "Sir Winston Churchill: Biography: Chronological Summary, Churchill College". University of Cambridge. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  120. ^ Jenkins, pp. 301–02
  121. ^ Churchill took flying lessons, 1911, The Aerodrome.com
  122. ^ "Naval innovation: From coal to oil". Epmag.com. 4 July 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  123. ^ Dahl, Erik J. Naval innovation: from coal to oil, Joint Force Quarterly, 2000.
  124. ^ The World Crisis (new edition), Odhams 1938, p. 323
  125. ^ James, Robert Rhodes (1973). Churchill: A Study in Failure. Pelican. p. 80. 
  126. ^ a b "The First World War, The development of the Tank, sponsored by Winston Churchill". Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
  127. ^ Callwell, C.E. (2005). Dardanelles, a study of the strategical and certain tactical aspects of the Dardanelles campaign. London, UK: Naval & Military Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84574-273-7. 
  128. ^ Jenkins, pp. 282–88
  129. ^ Jenkins, p. 287
  130. ^ "No. 29520". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 March 1916. p. 3260. 
  131. ^ Jenkins, p. 301
  132. ^ a b "20th and early 21st Century". Army.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  133. ^ Jenkins, p. 309
  134. ^ Myers, Kevin (3 September 2009). "The greatest 20th century beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  135. ^ Ferris, John. Treasury Control, the Ten Year Rule and British Service Policies, 1919–1924. The Historical Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4. (December 1987), pp. 859–83
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  137. ^ Jordan, Anthony J. (April 1995). Churchill, a founder of modern Ireland. Westport Books. pp. 70–75. ISBN 978-0-9524447-0-1. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  138. ^ Jenkins, pp. 361–65
  139. ^ a b Douglas, R.M., 'Did Britain Use Chemical Weapons in Mandatory Iraq?', The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 81, No. 4 (December 2009), pp. 859–87.
  140. ^ a b c Kersaudy, François Churchill and de Gaulle, Saddle Brook: Stratford Press, 1981 page 27.
  141. ^ a b c d Kersaudy, François Churchill and de Gaulle, Saddle Brook: Stratford Press (1981), page 28.
  142. ^ Myers, Kevin."The greatest 20th century beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill". The Irish Independent. 3 September 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
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  146. ^ British Political Parties in Churchill's Time by Prof. John Ramsden, Queen Mary & Westfield College
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  150. ^ James, p. 206
  151. ^ "Speeches – Gold Standard Bill". The Churchill Centre. 4 May 1925. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  152. ^ Jenkins, p. 405
  153. ^ Gilbert, pp. 146–74.
  154. ^ Gilbert, p. 162.
  155. ^ Gilbert, p. 173.
  156. ^ Henderson, H. The Interwar Years and other papers. Clarendon Press
  157. ^ James 1970, p. 168
  158. ^ a b c Gilbert, Martin (2004). Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years. London, UK: Pimlico. ISBN 978-1-84413-418-2. 
  159. ^ Books Written by Winston Churchill (see Amid these Storms), The Churchill Centre (2007).
  160. ^ 247 House of Commons Debates 5s col 755.
  161. ^ a b Myers, Kevin (6 August 2010). "Seventy years on and the soundtrack to the summer of 1940 is filling Britain's airwaves". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  162. ^ Barczewsk, Stephanie, John Eglin, Stephen Heathorn, Michael Silvestri, and Michelle Tusan. Britain Since 1688: A Nation in the World, p. 301
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  167. ^ HANSARD 1803–2005; HC Deb 26 January 1931 vol 247 cc637–762
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  170. ^ speech on 18 March 1931 quoted in James, p. 254
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  172. ^ Subramanian, Archana (3 March 2016). "Striking a deal". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 
  173. ^ James, pp. 269–72
  174. ^ HANSARD 1803–2005; PRIVILEGE. HC Deb 13 June 1934 vol 290 cc1711–808
  175. ^ James, p. 258
  176. ^ See Dyson and Maharatna (1991) for a review of the data and the various estimates made.
  177. ^ Gordon, Leonard A. (1 January 1983). "Review of Prosperity and Misery in Modern Bengal: The Famine of 1943–1944". The American Historical Review. 88 (4): 1051–1051. doi:10.2307/1874145. JSTOR 1874145. 
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  183. ^ Pankaj Mishra "Exit Wounds", The New Yorker, 13 August 2007.
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Sources

Gilbert, Martin (1991). Churchill: A Life. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-29183-8. 
Jenkins, Roy (2001). Churchill. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-78290-9. 

Primary sources

Secondary sources

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Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Walter Runciman
Member of Parliament
for Oldham

19001906
Served alongside: Alfred Emmott
Succeeded by
John Bright
Preceded by
William Houldsworth
Member of Parliament
for Manchester North West

19061908
Succeeded by
William Joynson-Hicks
Preceded by
Edmund Robertson
Member of Parliament
for Dundee

19081922
Served alongside: Alexander Wilkie
Succeeded by
Edwin Scrymgeour
Preceded by
Leonard Lyle
Member of Parliament
for Epping

19241945
Succeeded by
Leah Manning
New constituency Member of Parliament
for Woodford

19451964
Constituency abolished
Preceded by
Dai Grenfell
Father of the House
1959–1964
Succeeded by
Rab Butler
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Marlborough
Undersecretary of State for the Colonies
1905–1908
Succeeded by
Jack Seely
Preceded by
David Lloyd-George
President of the Board of Trade
1908–1910
Succeeded by
Sydney Buxton
Preceded by
Herbert Gladstone
Home Secretary
1910–1911
Succeeded by
Reginald McKenna
Preceded by
Reginald McKenna
First Lord of the Admiralty
1911–1915
Succeeded by
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by
Edwin Montagu
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1915
Succeeded by
Herbert Samuel
Preceded by
Christopher Addison
Minister of Munitions
1917–1919
Succeeded by
The Lord Inverforth
Preceded by
The Viscount Weir
Secretary of State for Air
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Freddie Guest
Preceded by
The Viscount Milner
Secretary of State for War
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Laming Worthington-Evans
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1921–1922
Succeeded by
The Duke of Devonshire
Preceded by
Philip Snowden
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1924–1929
Succeeded by
Philip Snowden
Preceded by
The Earl Stanhope
First Lord of the Admiralty
1939–1940
Succeeded by
A. V. Alexander
Preceded by
Neville Chamberlain
Leader of the House of Commons
1940–1942
Succeeded by
Stafford Cripps
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1940–1945
Succeeded by
Clement Attlee
Preceded by
The Lord Chatfield
as Minister for Coordination of Defence
Minister of Defence
1940–1945
Preceded by
Clement Attlee
Leader of the Opposition
1945–1951
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1951–1955
Succeeded by
Anthony Eden
Preceded by
Manny Shinwell
Minister of Defence
1951–1952
Succeeded by
The Earl Alexander of Tunis
Academic offices
Preceded by
H. H. Asquith
Rector of the University of Aberdeen
1914–1918
Succeeded by
The Viscount Cowdray
Preceded by
John Gilmour
Rector of the University of Edinburgh
1929–1932
Succeeded by
Ian Hamilton
Preceded by
The Viscount Haldane
Chancellor of the University of Bristol
1929–1965
Succeeded by
The Duke of Beaufort
Party political offices
Preceded by
Neville Chamberlain
Leader of the Conservative Party
1940–1955
Succeeded by
Anthony Eden
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Marquess of Willingdon
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1941–1965
Succeeded by
Robert Menzies
Preceded by
The Earl Baldwin of Bewdley
Oldest living Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1947–1965
Succeeded by
The Earl Attlee
Preceded by
The Viscount Ullswater
Senior Privy Counsellor
1949–1965
Succeeded by
The Earl of Swinton
Preceded by
François Mauriac
Laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
1953
Succeeded by
Ernest Hemingway
Preceded by
Davie Logan
Oldest sitting Member of Parliament
1964
Succeeded by
Manny Shinwell