|FISU World University Games|
The FISU World University Games, formerly the Universiade, is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU). The former name is a portmanteau of the words "University" and "Olympiad".
The Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games; however, this latter term can also refer to competitions for sub-University grades students. In July 2020 as part of a new branding system by the FISU, it was stated that the Universiade was to be officially branded as the FISU World University Games.
The most recent summer event was the 2021 Summer World University Games held in Chengdu, China from 28 July – 8 August 2023, after being postponed three times due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It effectively replaced the 2023 Summer World University Games, that was set to be held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. It was cancelled after the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The most recent winter event was the 2023 Winter World University Games held in Lake Placid, United States from 11 to 21 January 2023, after the 2021 edition scheduled to be held in Lucerne, Switzerland was also cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation (FISU), which now hosts the Universiade, and even the very first World University Games held in 1923. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing (and passing) a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport. This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event.
At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name. Petitjean, and later the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants (CIE), was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships. This was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year later and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games. The CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.
A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany. The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath also led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged. The Union Internationale des Étudiants (UIE) incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947 to 1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries.
After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week. The Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were initially Western-led sports competitions.
Division between the largely Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE eventually began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games. This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France (which remained neutral to the split), but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade. It was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had previously been a European competition became a truly global one, with the inclusion of Brazil, Japan and the United States among the competing nations. The increased participation ultimately led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship.
Not recognized by FISU as Universiade or World University Games:
|#||Year||Event||Body||Host city||Host country|
|1||1923||International Universities Championships||CIE||Paris||France|
|2||1924||Summer Student World Championships||CIE||Warsaw||Poland|
|3||1927||Summer Student World Championships||CIE||Rome||Italy|
|4||1928||Summer Student World Championships||CIE||Paris||France|
|5||1930||International University Games||CIE||Darmstadt||Germany|
|6||1933||International University Games||CIE||Turin||Italy|
|7||1935||International University Games||CIE||Budapest||Hungary|
|8||1937||International University Games||CIE||Paris||France|
|9||1939||International University Games||CIE||Monte Carlo||Monaco|
|10||1939||International University Games||NSDStB||Vienna||Germany|
|11||1947||International University Games||CIE||Paris||France|
|12||1947||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||Prague||Czechoslovakia|
|13||1949||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||Budapest||Hungary|
|14||1949||Summer International University Sports Week||FISU||Merano||Italy|
|15||1951||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||East Berlin||East Germany|
|16||1951||Summer International University Sports Week||FISU||Luxembourg||Luxembourg|
|17||1953||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||Bucharest||Romania|
|18||1953||Summer International University Sports Week||FISU||Dortmund||West Germany|
|19||1955||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||Warsaw||Poland|
|20||1955||Summer International University Sports Week||FISU||San Sebastián||Spain|
|21||1957||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||Moscow||Soviet Union|
|22||1957||World University Games||PUC||Paris||France|
|23||1959||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||Vienna||Austria|
|24||1962||World Festival of Youth and Students||UIE||Helsinki||Finland|
|Games||Year||Host country||Host city||Opened by||Dates||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top nation|
|1||1959||Italy||Turin||Giovanni Gronchi||26 August – 7 September||45||985||7||60||Italy|
|2||1961||Bulgaria||Sofia||Dimitar Ganev||25 August – 3 September||32||1270||9||68||Soviet Union|
|3||1963||Brazil||Porto Alegre||Paulo de Tarso Santos||30 August – 8 September||27||917||9||70||Hungary|
|4||1965||Hungary||Budapest||István Dobi||20–30 August||32||1729||9||74||Hungary|
|5||1967||Japan||Tokyo||Hirohito||27 August – 4 September||30||937||10||83||United States|
|6||1970||Italy||Turin[a]||Giuseppe Saragat||26 August – 6 September||40||2080||9||82||Soviet Union|
|7||1973||Soviet Union||Moscow||Leonid Brezhnev||15–25 August||72||2765||10||111||Soviet Union|
|8||1975||Italy||Rome[b]||Giovanni Leone||18–21 August||38||450||1||38||Soviet Union|
|9||1977||Bulgaria||Sofia||Todor Zhivkov||17–28 August||78||2939||10||101||Soviet Union|
|10||1979||Mexico||Mexico City||José López Portillo||2–13 September||85||2974||10||97||Soviet Union|
|11||1981||Romania||Bucharest||Nicolae Ceaușescu||19–30 July||86||2912||10||133||Soviet Union|
|12||1983||Canada||Edmonton||Prince Charles||1–12 July||73||2400||10||118||Soviet Union|
|13||1985||Japan||Kobe||Akihito||24 August – 4 September||106||3949||11||123||Soviet Union|
|14||1987||Yugoslavia||Zagreb||Lazar Mojsov||8–19 July||122||6423||12||139||United States|
|15||1989||West Germany||Duisburg[c]||Helmut Kohl||22–30 August||79||1785||4||66||Soviet Union|
|16||1991||United Kingdom||Sheffield||Anne, Princess Royal||14–25 July||101||3346||11||119||United States|
|17||1993||United States||Buffalo||Primo Nebiolo||8–18 July||118||3582||12||135||United States|
|18||1995||Japan||Fukuoka||Naruhito||23 August – 3 September||118||3949||12||144||United States|
|19||1997||Italy||Sicily||Oscar Luigi Scalfaro||20–31 August||122||3582||10||129||United States|
|20||1999||Spain||Palma de Mallorca||Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo||3–13 July||114||4076||12||142||United States|
|21||2001||China||Beijing||Jiang Zemin||22 August – 1 September||165||6757||12||170||China|
|22||2003||South Korea||Daegu||Roh Moo-hyun||21–31 August||174||7180||13||189||China|
|23||2005||Turkey||Izmir||Ahmet Necdet Sezer||11–22 August||133||7816||14||195||Russia|
|25||2009||Serbia||Belgrade||Mirko Cvetković||1–12 July||145||5379||15||203||Russia|
|26||2011||China||Shenzhen||Hu Jintao||12–23 August||165||7999||24||306||China|
|27||2013||Russia||Kazan||Vladimir Putin||6–17 July||162||7966||27||351||Russia|
|28||2015||South Korea||Gwangju||Park Geun-hye||3–14 July||142||7432||21||274||South Korea|
|29||2017||Chinese Taipei[d]||Taipei||Tsai Ing-wen||19–30 August||145||7377||22||272||Japan|
|30||2019||Italy||Naples[e]||Sergio Mattarella||3–14 July||112||5971||18||220||Japan|
|31||2021||China||Chengdu||Xi Jinping||28 July – 8 August 2023[f]||116||5056||18||268||China|
|–||2023||Russia||Yekaterinburg||Cancelled, due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine|
|32||2025||Germany||Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region||16–27 July||20||225|
|33||2027||South Korea||Chungcheong Province||12–24 September (proposed)||17|
|34||2029||United States||Research Triangle||19–31 July (proposed)||17|
- Originally scheduled for Lisbon, Portugal in 1969.
- Originally scheduled for Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
- Originally scheduled for São Paulo City, Brazil.
- The Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by the FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.
- Originally scheduled for Brasília, Brazil.
- Originally scheduled to be held on 15–27 August 2021 and 25 June – 7 July 2022, but was postponed twice due to the COVID-19 pandemic. With the eventual cancellation of the 2023 Games in Yekaterinburg due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, this edition replaced the 2023 event.
|Games||Year||Host country||Host city||Opened by||Dates||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top nation|
|1||1960||France||Chamonix||Charles de Gaulle||28 February – 6 March||16||151||5||13||France|
|2||1962||Switzerland||Villars||Paul Chaudet||6–12 March||22||273||6||12||West Germany|
|3||1964||Czechoslovakia||Špindlerův Mlýn||Antonín Novotný||11–17 February||21||285||5||15||West Germany|
|4||1966||Italy||Sestriere||Giuseppe Saragat||5–13 February||29||434||6||19||Soviet Union|
|5||1968||Austria||Innsbruck||Franz Jonas||21–28 January||26||424||7||23||Soviet Union|
|6||1970||Finland||Rovaniemi||Urho Kekkonen||3–9 April||25||421||7||24||Soviet Union|
|7||1972||United States||Lake Placid||Richard Nixon||26 February – 5 March||23||351||7||25||Soviet Union|
|8||1975||Italy||Livigno||Giovanni Leone||6–13 April||15||143||2||13||Soviet Union|
|9||1978||Czechoslovakia||Špindlerův Mlýn||Gustáv Husák||5–12 February||21||260||7||16||Soviet Union|
|10||1981||Spain||Jaca||Juan Carlos I||25 February – 4 March||28||394||7||19||Soviet Union|
|11||1983||Bulgaria||Sofia||Todor Zhivkov||17–27 February||28||535||7||21||Soviet Union|
|12||1985||Italy||Belluno||Sandro Pertini||16–24 February||34||538||7||30||Soviet Union|
|13||1987||Czechoslovakia||Štrbské Pleso||Gustáv Husák||21–28 February||21||596||6||25||Czechoslovakia|
|14||1989||Bulgaria||Sofia||Todor Zhivkov||2–12 March||21||681||8||40||Soviet Union|
|16||1993||Poland||Zakopane||Lech Wałęsa||6–14 February||41||668||8||36||Japan|
|17||1995||Spain||Jaca||Juan Carlos I||18–28 February||41||765||9||35||South Korea|
|18||1997||South Korea||Muju-Jeonju||Kim Young-sam||24 January – 2 February||48||877||9||51||Japan|
|19||1999||Slovakia||Poprad-Vysoké Tatry||Rudolf Schuster||22–30 January||40||926||8||52||Russia|
|20||2001||Poland||Zakopane||Aleksander Kwaśniewski||7–17 February||41||1,007||9||52||Russia|
|21||2003||Italy||Tarvisio||Renzo Tondo||16–26 January||46||1,266||10||59||Russia|
|22||2005||Austria||Innsbruck-Seefeld||Heinz Fischer||12–22 January||50||1,449||11||68||Austria|
|23||2007||Italy||Turin||George Killian||17–27 January||48||1,638||11||72||South Korea|
|24||2009||China||Harbin||Liu Yandong||18–28 February||44||1,545||12||81||China|
|25||2011||Turkey||Erzurum||Abdullah Gül||27 January – 6 February||52||1,593||11||66||Russia|
|26||2013||Italy||Trentino||Ugo Rossi||11–21 December [a]||50||1,698||12||79||Russia|
|27||2015||Slovakia||Štrbské Pleso–Osrblie [b]||Andrej Kiska||24 January – 1 February||43||1,546||11||68||Russia|
|Spain||Granada||Felipe VI||4–14 February|
|28||2017||Kazakhstan||Almaty||Nursultan Nazarbayev||29 January – 8 February||57||1,604||12||85||Russia|
|29||2019||Russia||Krasnoyarsk||Vladimir Putin||2–12 March||58||3,000||11||76||Russia|
|30||2021||Switzerland||Lucerne||Cancelled, due to the COVID-19 pandemic|
|31||2023||United States||Lake Placid||Kathy Hochul||12–22 January||47||1443||12||85||Japan|
|33||2027||bid submissions accepted until 31 January 2022|
|34||2029||bid submissions accepted until 31 January 2022|
Unlike other sporting events, the World University Games are recognized for the flexibility in their program, as since the second edition held in 1961, it has been up to the Organizing Committee and the National University Sports Federation of the host country to choose sports or optional competitions. according to the reality of the host country.However, there is a list of mandatory sports that are defined by the International University Sports Federation that is reviewed at the end of each edition as the games also serves as World University Championship in those sports.At the first edition held in Turin in 1959,only 8 sports were in the sporting program (athletics, basketball, fencing, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, volleyball and water polo).The first sport to be considered optional was diving, which was added to the second edition held in Sofia, Bulgaria in 1961. In addition, optional events were added in basketball and volleyball, when women's tournaments were played.In Porto Alegre 1963 the woman's basketball was dropped from the sporting program.In 1967, the third World University Judo Championship was held in Tokyo, and it was integrated into the fifth edition of the Summer Universiade as an extra sport, thus gaining the status of an optional sport.Thus inaugurating a new type of sport at the event, which is the optional sport. Therefore, the sport with this status is not part of the fixed program and may be in this edition. However, not in the next one.
- Basketball at the Summer Universiade
- Volleyball at the Summer Universiade
- Water polo at the Summer Universiade
- Athletics at the Summer Universiade
- Swimming at the Summer Universiade
- Diving at the Summer Universiade
- Gymnastics at the Summer Universiade (artistic and rhythmic) Gymnastics (Artistic) was an optional sport in 1961, turned compulsory in 1963. Rhythmic was an optional sport in 1991,1995 and 1997. Turned compulsory in 2001.
- Fencing at the Summer Universiade
- Tennis at the Summer Universiade
- Table tennis at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 2001.
- Judo at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 1967, 1985, 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003.
- Taekwondo at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2015. Optional sport in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011.
- Archery at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2019. Optional sport in 2003, 2005, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.
- Badminton at the Summer Universiade – Compulsory since 2021. Optional sport in 2007, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.
- Baseball at the Summer Universiade – 6 times (1993, 1995, 2015, 2017,scheduled for 2027 and 2029)
- Beach volleyball at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2011, 2013, scheduled for 2025)
- Field hockey at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1991, 2013)
- Rugby sevens at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2013, 2019 scheduled for 2029)
- Basketball at the Summer Universiade (3x3 basketball) – scheduled for 2025
- Handball at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2015)
- Softball at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2007 scheduled for 2029)
- Rowing at the Summer Universiade – 7 times (1987, 1989, 1993, 2013, 2015, 2021 and scheduled for 2025)
- Shooting at the Summer Universiade – 6 times (2007, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2019 and 2021)
- Wrestling at the Summer Universiade – 5 times (1973, 1977, 1981, 2005, 2013)
- Golf at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (2007, 2011, 2015, 2017)
- Sailing at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (1999, 2005, 2011, 2019)
- Open Water Swimming at the Summer Universiade – 4 times (2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and scheduled for 2025)
- Weightlifting at the Summer Universiade – 3 times (2011, 2013, 2017)
- Canoeing at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1987, 2013)
- Chess at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (2011, 2013)
- Cycling at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (1983, 2011)
- Wushu at the Summer Universiade – 2 times (2017, 2021)
- Aerobics Gymnastics at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2011)
- Belt wrestling at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
- Billiards at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2017)
- Boxing at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
- Roller sports at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2017)
- Sambo at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
- Synchronized swimming at the Summer Universiade – 1 time (2013)
- Football at the Summer Universiade – Obsolescent since 2019. Optional sport in 1979, held from 1985 to 2019.
- Curling at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2007. Optional sport in 2003.
- Ice hockey at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1966. Optional sport in 1962.
- Alpine skiing at the Winter Universiade
- Biathlon at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1997. Optional sport in 1983, 1989, 1993, 1997 and 1999.
- Cross-country skiing at the Winter Universiade
- Figure skating at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1981. Optional sport in 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966 and 1968.
- Freestyle skiing at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2023. Optional sport in 2005, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2019.
- Snowboarding at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1999. Optional sport in 1995 and 1997.
- Ski-orienteering at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 2027. Optional sport in 2019.
- Short track speed skating at the Winter Universiade – Compulsory since 1997. Optional sport in 1985, 1989, 1991, 1993 and 1995.
- Bandy at the Winter Universiade – 1 time (2019)
- Nordic combined at the Winter Universiade – 27 times (1960–1970, 1978, 1981–2023). Compulsory sport from 1960 to 1970, and from 1981 to 2007; optional in 1972, 1978, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2023.
- Ski jumping at the Winter Universiade – 25 times (1960–1972, 1978, 1981–2017). Compulsory sport from 1960 to 1970, and between 1981 and 2007; optional in 1972, 1978, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 and 2023.
- Skeleton at the Winter Universiade – 1 time (2005)
Special sport status
- Speed skating at the Winter Universiade – 11 times (1968–2023). Sport with special status (1968, 1970, 1972, 1991, 1997, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2013, 2017, 2023).
|2||United States (USA)||493||446||417||1356|
|4||Soviet Union (URS)*||410||334||261||1005|
|6||South Korea (KOR)||241||230||258||729|
|Totals (10 entries)||3233||2815||2932||8980|
|2||South Korea (KOR)||121||86||78||285|
|4||Soviet Union (URS)*||103||92||67||262|
|Totals (10 entries)||898||834||786||2518|
- International University Sports Federation
- FISU World University Championships
- FISU America Games
- All-Africa University Games
- European Universities Games
- ASEAN University Games
- International Children's Games
- Pavitt, Michael (28 July 2020). "FISU finalises naming system for events". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- "Chengdu 2021 FISU World University Games postponed to 2022". www.fisu.net. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
- "FISU suspends Yekaterinburg hosting rights for 2023 World University Games".
- "FISU World University Summer Games (Universiade)".
- "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade postponed, will not take place in January 2021". FISU. 31 August 2020.
- Morgan, Liam (6 November 2020). "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade rescheduled for December". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- "Omicron forces student winter games to cancel". SwissInfo. 29 November 2021.
- Bell, Daniel (2003). Encyclopedia of International Games. McFarland and Company, Inc. Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina. ISBN 0-7864-1026-4.
- World Student Games (pre-Universiade). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-12-10.
- FISU History. FISU. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
- World Student Games (UIE). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
- Shaw, Justin (10 January 2023). "North Carolina Wins Bid for 2029 FISU World University Games". SportsTravel. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
- "Lake Placid set to host 2023 Winter Universiade after MoU signed with FISU". Inside the Games. 6 March 2018.
- "FISU World University Games bidding process will again be open to all cities, worldwide". FISU. 5 July 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.