Wireless

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For other uses, see Wireless (disambiguation).

Wireless communication is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for television or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones.

Somewhat less common methods of achieving wireless communications include the use of other electromagnetic wireless technologies, such as light, magnetic, or electric fields or the use of sound. The term wireless has been used twice in communications history, with slightly different meaning. It was initially used from about 1890 for the first radio transmitting and receiving technology, as in wireless telegraphy, until the new word radio replaced it around 1920. The term was revived in the 1980s and 1990s mainly to distinguish digital devices that communicate without wires, such as the examples listed in the previous paragraph, from those that require wires or cables. This is its primary usage in the 2000s. LTE, LTE-Advanced, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are common modern wireless technologies used in the 2000s.

Wireless operations permit services, such as long-range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio waves, acoustic energy,) to transfer information without the use of wires.[1] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

History[edit]

Photophone[edit]

Main article: Photophone
Bell and Tainter's photophone, of 1880.

The world's first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented and patented the photophone, a telephone that conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulated light beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic waves). In that distant era, when utilities did not yet exist to provide electricity and lasers had not even been imagined in science fiction, there were no practical applications for their invention, which was highly limited by the availability of both sunlight and good weather. Similar to free-space optical communication, the photophone also required a clear line of sight between its transmitter and its receiver. It would be several decades before the photophone's principles found their first practical applications in military communications and later in fiber-optic communications.[2][3]

Electricity based wireless[edit]

Early wireless[edit]

Main article: Wireless telegraphy

A number of wireless electrical signaling schemes including sending electric currents through water and the ground using electrostatic and electromagnetic induction were investigated for telegraphy in the late 19th century before practical radio systems became available. These included a patented induction system by Thomas Edison allowing a telegraph on a running train to connect with telegraph wires running parallel to the tracks, a William Preece induction telegraph system for sending messages across bodies of water, and several operational and proposed telegraphy and voice earth conduction systems.

The Edison system was used by stranded trains during during the Great Blizzard of 1888 and earth conductive systems found limited use between trenches during World War I buy these systems were never successful economically.

Radio waves[edit]

Main article: History of radio
Marconi transmitting the first radio signal across the Atlantic.

In 1894 Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless telegraph system using radio waves, which had been known about since proof of their existence in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz, but discounted as communication format since they seemed, at the time, to be a short range phenomenon.[4] Marconi soon developed a system that was transmitting signals way beyond distances anyone could have predicted (due in part to the signals bouncing off the then unknown ionosphere). Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to this form of wireless telegraphy.

Modes[edit]

Wireless communications can be via:

Radio[edit]

Main article: radio

radio communication, microwave communication, for example long-range line-of-sight via highly directional antennas, or short-range communication,

Free-space optical[edit]

An 8-beam free space optics laser link, rated for 1 Gbit/s at a distance of approximately 2 km. The receptor is the large disc in the middle, the transmitters the smaller ones. To the top and right corner a monocular for assisting the alignment of the two heads.

Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to transmit wirelessly data for telecommunications or computer networking. "Free space" means the light beams travel through the open air or outer space. This contrasts with other communication technologies that use light beams traveling through transmission lines such as optical fiber or dielectric "light pipes".

The technology is useful where physical connections are impractical due to high costs or other considerations. For example, free space optical links are used in cities between office buildings which are not wired for networking, where the cost of running cable through the building and under the street would be prohibitive. Another widely used example is consumer IR devices such as remote controls and IrDA (Infrared Data Association) networking, which is used as an alternative to WiFi networking to allow laptops, PDAs, printers, and digital cameras to exchange data.

Sonic[edit]

Sonic, especially ultrasonic short range communication involves the transmission and reception of sound.

Electromagnetic induction[edit]

Electromagnetic induction short range communication and power. This has been used in biomedical situations such as pacemakers, as well as for short-range Rfid tags.

Services[edit]

Common examples of wireless equipment include:[5][6]

Electromagnetic spectrum[edit]

Light, colors, AM and FM radio, and electronic devices make use of the electromagnetic spectrum. The frequencies of the radio spectrum that are available for use for communication are treated as a public resource and are regulated by national organizations such as the Federal Communications Commission in the USA, or Ofcom in the United Kingdom. This determines which frequency ranges can be used for what purpose and by whom. In the absence of such control or alternative arrangements such as a privatized electromagnetic spectrum, chaos might result if, for example, airlines did not have specific frequencies to work under and an amateur radio operator were interfering with the pilot's ability to land an aircraft. Wireless communication spans the spectrum from 9 kHz to 300 GHz.[citation needed]

Applications[edit]

Mobile telephones[edit]

One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is the mobile phone, also known as a cellular phone, with more than 4.6 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide as of the end of 2010.[8] These wireless phones use radio waves from signal-transmission towers to enable their users to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments.[9]

Data communications[edit]

Wireless data communications allows wireless networking between desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers, cell phones and other related devices. The various available technologies differ in local availability, coverage range and performance,[10][11] and in some circumstances users employ multiple connection types and switch between them[12] using connection manager software[13][14] or a mobile VPN to handle the multiple connections as a secure, single virtual network.[15] Supporting technologies include:

Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily with other devices, peripheries, and the Internet.[16] Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a,b,g,n, Wi-Fi approaches speeds of some types of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes, within offices, and at public hotspots.[17] Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods.[18]
Cellular data service offers coverage within a range of 10-15 miles from the nearest cell site.[10] Speeds have increased as technologies have evolved, from earlier technologies such as GSM, CDMA and GPRS, to 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.[19][20]
Mobile Satellite Communications may be used where other wireless connections are unavailable, such as in largely rural areas[21] or remote locations.[10] Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation, maritime and military use.[22]
Wireless Sensor Networks are responsible for sensing noise, interference, and activity in data collection networks. This allows us to detect relevant quantities, monitor and collect data, formulate clear user displays, and to perform decision-making functions[23]

Wireless data communications are used to span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling in point-to-point communication or point-to-multipoint communication, to provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure, to link portable or temporary workstations, to overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or to remotely connect mobile users or networks.

Peripheries[edit]

Periphery devices in computing can also be connected wirelessly as part of a Wi-Fi network or directly by optical infer-red, Bluetooth or Wireless USB. Originally these units used bulky, highly local transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse; however, more recent generations have used small, higher-quality devices. A battery powers computer interface devices such as a keyboard or mouse and send signals to a receiver through a USB port by the way of an optical or radio frequency (RF) receiver. A RF design makes it possible to expand the range of efficient use, usually up to 10 feet but distance, physical obstacles, competing signals, and even human bodies can all degrade the signal quality.[24] Concerns about the security of wireless keyboards arose at the end of 2007, when it was revealed that Microsoft's implementation of encryption in some of its 27 MHz models was highly insecure.[25]

Energy transfer[edit]

Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load (Computer Load) that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires. There are two different fundamental methods for wireless energy transfer. They can be transferred using either far-field methods that involve beaming power/lasers, radio or microwave transmissions or near-field using induction. Both methods utilize electromagnetism and magnetic fields.[26]

Medical technologies[edit]

New wireless technologies, such as mobile body area networks (MBAN), have the capability to monitor blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen level and body temperature. The MBAN works by sending low powered wireless signals to receivers that feed into nursing stations or monitoring sites. This technology helps with the intentional and unintentional risk of infection or disconnection that arise from wired connections.[27]

Categories of implementations, devices and standards[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ATIS Telecom Glossary 2007". atis.org. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  2. ^ "Photo- and Graphophone". http://www.fi.edu.  External link in |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "Alexander Graham Bell's Photophone – Ahead of its Time". http://inventors.about.com.  External link in |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO. 2009. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-313-34743-6. 
  5. ^ Tech Target – Definition of Wireless – Posted by Margaret Rouse (April 2 control and traffic control systems
  6. ^ "Wireless headphones". Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  7. ^ Tsai, Allen. "AT&T Releases Navigator GPS Service with Speech Recognition". Telecom Industry News. Retrieved 2 April 2008. 
  8. ^ Robust demand for mobile phone service will continue; UN agency predicts UN News Centre February 15, 2010,
  9. ^ Vilorio, Dennis. "You're a what? Tower Climber" (PDF). Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c "High Speed Internet on the Road". Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2011. 
  11. ^ Mitchell, Bradley. Wireless Internet Service: An Introduction
  12. ^ Franconi, N. G.; Bunger, A; Sejdic, E; Mickle, M. H. (2014). "Wireless Communication in Oil and Gas Wells". Energy Technology. 2: 996–1005. doi:10.1002/ente.201402067. 
  13. ^ What is Connection Manager? Microsoft Technet, March 28, 2003
  14. ^ Unwired Revolution
  15. ^ http://www.gd-itronix.com/index.cfm?page=Products:MobilityXE
  16. ^ About.com
  17. ^ "Wi-Fi"
  18. ^ O'Brien, J. & Marakas, G.M.(2008) Management Information Systems (pp. 239). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin
  19. ^ Lachu Aravamudhan, Stefano Faccin, Risto Mononen, Basavaraj Patil, Yousuf Saifullah, Sarvesh Sharma, Srinivas Sreemanthula. "Getting to Know Wireless Networks and Technology", InformIT
  20. ^ "What really is a Third Generation (3G) Mobile Technology", ITU
  21. ^ Geier, Jim. Wireless Network Industry Report 2007, Wireless-Nets, Ltd., 2008
  22. ^ Ilcev, Stojce Dimov, Global Mobile Satellite Communications for Maritime, Land and Aeronautical Applications, Springer, 2006
  23. ^ F.L. Lewis. "Wireless Sensor Networks." Smart Environments: Technologies, Protocols, and Applications, ed. D.J. Cook and S.K. Das, John Wiley, New York, 2004. Automation and robotics research institute. 26 Oct. 2013
  24. ^ Paventi, Jared. "How does a Wireless Keyboard Work." Ehow. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
  25. ^ Moser, Max; Schrödel, Philipp (2007-12-05). "27Mhz Wireless Keyboard Analysis Report aka "We know what you typed last summer"" (PDF). Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  26. ^ Jones, George. "Future Proof. How Wireless Energy Transfer Will Kill the Power Cable." MaximumPC. 14 Sept. 2010. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
  27. ^ Linebaugh, Kate. "Medical Devices in Hospitals go wireless." Online.wsj. The Wall Street Journal. 23 May 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Pahlavan, Kaveh; Levesque, Allen H (1995). Wireless Information Networks. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-10607-0. 
  • Geier, Jim (2001). Wireless LANs. Sams. ISBN 0-672-32058-4. 
  • Goldsmith, Andrea (2005). Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83716-2. 
  • Molisch, Andreas (2005). Wireless Communications. Wiley-IEEE Press. ISBN 0-470-84888-X. 
  • Pahlavan, Kaveh; Krishnamurthy, Prashant (2002). Principles of Wireless Networks – a Unified Approach. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-093003-2. 
  • Rappaport, Theodore (2002). Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-042232-0. 
  • Rhoton, John (2001). The Wireless Internet Explained. Digital Press. ISBN 1-55558-257-5. 
  • Tse, David; Viswanath, Pramod (2005). Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84527-0. 
  • Larsson, Erik; Stoica, Petre (2003). Space-Time Block Coding For Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]