Wireless

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Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which to perform the transfer. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves. With radio waves, intended distances can be short, such as a few meters for Bluetooth or as far as millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mouse, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones. Somewhat less common methods of achieving wireless communications include the use of other electromagnetic wireless technologies, such as light, magnetic, or electric fields or the use of sound.

The term wireless has been used twice in communications history, with slightly different meaning. It was initially used from about 1890 for the first radio transmitting and receiving technology, as in wireless telegraphy, until the new word radio replaced it around 1920. Radios in the UK that were not portable continued to be referred to as wireless sets into the 1960s. The term was revived in the 1980s and 1990s mainly to distinguish digital devices that communicate without wires, such as the examples listed in the previous paragraph, from those that require wires or cables. This became its primary usage in the 2000s, due to the advent of technologies such as mobile broadband, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.

Wireless operations permit services, such as mobile and interplanetary communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio waves, acoustic energy,) to transfer information without the use of wires.[1][2][3] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

History[edit]

Photophone[edit]

Bell and Tainter's photophone, of 1880.

The first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented the photophone, a telephone that sent audio over a beam of light. The photophone required sunlight to operate, and a clear line of sight between transmitter and receiver. These factors greatly decreased the viability of the photophone in any practical use. It would be several decades before the photophone's principles found their first practical applications in military communications and later in fiber-optic communications.[4][5]

Electric wireless technology[edit]

Early wireless[edit]

A number of wireless electrical signaling schemes including sending electric currents through water and the ground using electrostatic and electromagnetic induction were investigated for telegraphy in the late 19th century before practical radio systems became available. These included a patented induction system by Thomas Edison allowing a telegraph on a running train to connect with telegraph wires running parallel to the tracks, a William Preece induction telegraph system for sending messages across bodies of water, and several operational and proposed telegraphy and voice earth conduction systems.

The Edison system was used by stranded trains during the Great Blizzard of 1888 and earth conductive systems found limited use between trenches during World War I but these systems were never successful economically.

Radio waves[edit]

Marconi transmitting the first radio signal across the Atlantic.

In 1894, Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless telegraph system using radio waves, which had been known about since proof of their existence in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz, but discounted as a communication format since they seemed, at the time, to be a short range phenomenon.[6] Marconi soon developed a system that was transmitting signals way beyond distances anyone could have predicted (due in part to the signals bouncing off the then unknown ionosphere). Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to this form of wireless telegraphy.

Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an extremely high frequency of up to 60 GHz in his experiments.[7] He also introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves,[8] when he patented the radio crystal detector in 1901.[9][10]

Wireless revolution[edit]

Power MOSFETs, which are used in RF power amplifiers to boost radio frequency (RF) signals in long-distance wireless networks.

The wireless revolution began in the 1990s,[11][12][13] with the advent of digital wireless networks leading to a social revolution, and a paradigm shift from wired to wireless technology,[14] including the proliferation of commercial wireless technologies such as cell phones, mobile telephony, pagers, wireless computer networks,[11] cellular networks, the wireless Internet, and laptop and handheld computers with wireless connections.[15] The wireless revolution has been driven by advances in radio frequency (RF) and microwave engineering,[11] including the transition from analog to digital RF technology along with the migration to metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) based multi-carrier RF power amplifiers,[14][15] which enabled a substantial increase in voice traffic along with the delivery of digital data such as text messaging, images and streaming media.[14]

Modes[edit]

Wireless communications can be via:

Radio[edit]

Radio and microwave communication carry information by modulating properties of electromagnetic waves transmitted through space.

Free-space optical[edit]

An 8-beam free space optics laser link, rated for 1 Gbit/s at a distance of approximately 2 km. The receptor is the large disc in the middle, the transmitters the smaller ones. To the top and right corner a monocular for assisting the alignment of the two heads.

Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to transmit wirelessly data for telecommunications or computer networking. "Free space" means the light beams travel through the open air or outer space. This contrasts with other communication technologies that use light beams traveling through transmission lines such as optical fiber or dielectric "light pipes".

The technology is useful where physical connections are impractical due to high costs or other considerations. For example, free space optical links are used in cities between office buildings which are not wired for networking, where the cost of running cable through the building and under the street would be prohibitive. Another widely used example is consumer IR devices such as remote controls and IrDA (Infrared Data Association) networking, which is used as an alternative to WiFi networking to allow laptops, PDAs, printers, and digital cameras to exchange data.

Sonic[edit]

Sonic, especially ultrasonic short range communication involves the transmission and reception of sound.

Electromagnetic induction[edit]

Electromagnetic induction only allows short-range communication and power transmission. It has been used in biomedical situations such as pacemakers, as well as for short-range RFID tags.

Services[edit]

Common examples of wireless equipment include:[16]

Electromagnetic spectrum[edit]

AM and FM radios and other electronic devices make use of the electromagnetic spectrum. The frequencies of the radio spectrum that are available for use for communication are treated as a public resource and are regulated by organizations such as the American Federal Communications Commission, Ofcom in the United Kingdom, the international ITU-R or the European ETSI. Their regulations determine which frequency ranges can be used for what purpose and by whom. In the absence of such control or alternative arrangements such as a privatized electromagnetic spectrum, chaos might result if, for example, airlines did not have specific frequencies to work under and an amateur radio operator was interfering with a pilot's ability to land an aircraft. Wireless communication spans the spectrum from 9 kHz to 300 GHz.[citation needed]

Applications[edit]

Mobile telephones[edit]

One of the best-known examples of wireless technology is the mobile phone, also known as a cellular phone, with more than 6.6 billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide as of the end of 2010.[18] These wireless phones use radio waves from signal-transmission towers to enable their users to make phone calls from many locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments.[19]

Data communications[edit]

Wireless data communications allows wireless networking between desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers, cell phones and other related devices. The various available technologies differ in local availability, coverage range and performance,[20][21] and in some circumstances users employ multiple connection types and switch between them using connection manager software[22][23] or a mobile VPN to handle the multiple connections as a secure, single virtual network.[24] Supporting technologies include:

Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily with other devices, peripheries, and the Internet.[25] Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a, b, g, n, ac, ax, Wi-Fi has link speeds similar to older standards of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes, within offices, and at public hotspots.[26] Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering it free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods.[27]
Cellular data service offers coverage within a range of 10-15 miles from the nearest cell site.[20] Speeds have increased as technologies have evolved, from earlier technologies such as GSM, CDMA and GPRS, through 3G, to 4G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.[28][29] As of 2018, the proposed next generation is 5G.
Low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN) bridge the gap between Wi-Fi and Cellular for low bitrate Internet of things (IoT) applications.
Mobile-satellite communications may be used where other wireless connections are unavailable, such as in largely rural areas[30] or remote locations.[20] Satellite communications are especially important for transportation, aviation, maritime and military use.[31]
Wireless sensor networks are responsible for sensing noise, interference, and activity in data collection networks. This allows us to detect relevant quantities, monitor and collect data, formulate clear user displays, and to perform decision-making functions[32]

Wireless data communications are used to span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling in point-to-point communication and point-to-multipoint communication, to provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure, to link portable or temporary workstations, to overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or to remotely connect mobile users or networks.

Peripherals[edit]

Peripheral devices in computing can also be connected wirelessly, as part of a Wi-Fi network or directly via an optical or radio-frequency (RF) peripheral interface. Originally these units used bulky, highly local transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse; however, more recent generations have used smaller, higher-performance devices. Radio-frequency interfaces, such as Bluetooth or Wireless USB, provide greater ranges of efficient use, usually up to 10 feet, but distance, physical obstacles, competing signals, and even human bodies can all degrade the signal quality.[33] Concerns about the security of wireless keyboards arose at the end of 2007, when it was revealed that Microsoft's implementation of encryption in some of its 27 MHz models was highly insecure.[34]

Energy transfer[edit]

Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires. There are two different fundamental methods for wireless energy transfer. Energy can be transferred using either far-field methods that involve beaming power/lasers, radio or microwave transmissions or near-field using electromagnetic induction.[35] Wireless energy transfer may be combined with wireless information transmission in what is known as Wireless Powered Communication.[36] In 2015, researchers at the University of Washington demonstrated far-field energy transfer using Wi-Fi signals to power cameras.[37]

Medical technologies[edit]

New wireless technologies, such as mobile body area networks (MBAN), have the capability to monitor blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen level and body temperature. The MBAN works by sending low powered wireless signals to receivers that feed into nursing stations or monitoring sites. This technology helps with the intentional and unintentional risk of infection or disconnection that arise from wired connections.[38]

Categories of implementations, devices and standards[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ATIS Telecom Glossary 2007". atis.org. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  2. ^ Franconi, Nicholas G.; Bunger, Andrew P.; Sejdić, Ervin; Mickle, Marlin H. (2014-10-24). "Wireless Communication in Oil and Gas Wells". Energy Technology. 2 (12): 996–1005. doi:10.1002/ente.201402067. ISSN 2194-4288. S2CID 111149917.
  3. ^ Biswas, S.; Tatchikou, R.; Dion, F. (January 2006). "Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication protocols for enhancing highway traffic safety". IEEE Communications Magazine. 44 (1): 74–82. doi:10.1109/mcom.2006.1580935. ISSN 0163-6804. S2CID 6076106.
  4. ^ "Photo- and Graphophone". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ "Alexander Graham Bell's Photophone – Ahead of its Time". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO. 2009. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-313-34743-6.
  7. ^ "Milestones: First Millimeter-wave Communication Experiments by J.C. Bose, 1894-96". List of IEEE milestones. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  8. ^ Emerson, D. T. (1997). "The work of Jagadis Chandra Bose: 100 years of MM-wave research". IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Research. 45 (12): 2267–2273. Bibcode:1997imsd.conf..553E. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602853. ISBN 9780986488511. S2CID 9039614. reprinted in Igor Grigorov, Ed., Antentop, Vol. 2, No.3, pp. 87–96.
  9. ^ "Timeline". The Silicon Engine. Computer History Museum. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  10. ^ "1901: Semiconductor Rectifiers Patented as "Cat's Whisker" Detectors". The Silicon Engine. Computer History Museum. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  11. ^ a b c Golio, Mike; Golio, Janet (2018). RF and Microwave Passive and Active Technologies. CRC Press. pp. ix, I-1, 18–2. ISBN 9781420006728.
  12. ^ Rappaport, T. S. (November 1991). "The wireless revolution". IEEE Communications Magazine. 29 (11): 52–71. doi:10.1109/35.109666. S2CID 46573735.
  13. ^ "The wireless revolution". The Economist. January 21, 1999. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  14. ^ a b c Baliga, B. Jayant (2005). Silicon RF Power MOSFETS. World Scientific. ISBN 9789812561213.
  15. ^ a b Harvey, Fiona (May 8, 2003). "The Wireless Revolution". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  16. ^ Tech Target – Definition of Wireless – Posted by Margaret Rouse (April 2 control and traffic control systems
  17. ^ Tsai, Allen. "AT&T Releases Navigator GPS Service with Speech Recognition". Telecom Industry News. Retrieved 2 April 2008.
  18. ^ Robust demand for mobile phone service will continue; UN agency predicts UN News Centre February 15, 2010,
  19. ^ Vilorio, Dennis. "You're a what? Tower Climber" (PDF). Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c "High Speed Internet on the Road". Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
  21. ^ Mitchell, Bradley. Wireless Internet Service: An Introduction
  22. ^ What is Connection Manager? Microsoft Technet, March 28, 2003
  23. ^ Unwired Revolution
  24. ^ http://www.gd-itronix.com/index.cfm?page=Products:MobilityXE
  25. ^ About.com
  26. ^ "Wi-Fi"
  27. ^ O'Brien, J. & Marakas, G.M.(2008) Management Information Systems (pp. 239). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin
  28. ^ Lachu Aravamudhan, Stefano Faccin, Risto Mononen, Basavaraj Patil, Yousuf Saifullah, Sarvesh Sharma, Srinivas Sreemanthula. "Getting to Know Wireless Networks and Technology", InformIT
  29. ^ "What really is a Third Generation (3G) Mobile Technology", ITU
  30. ^ Geier, Jim. Wireless Network Industry Report 2007, Wireless-Nets, Ltd., 2008
  31. ^ Ilcev, Stojce Dimov, Global Mobile Satellite Communications for Maritime, Land and Aeronautical Applications, Springer, 2006
  32. ^ F.L. Lewis. "Wireless Sensor Networks." Smart Environments: Technologies, Protocols, and Applications, ed. D.J. Cook and S.K. Das, John Wiley, New York, 2004. Automation and robotics research institute. 26 Oct. 2013
  33. ^ Paventi, Jared. "How does a Wireless Keyboard Work." Ehow. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
  34. ^ Moser, Max; Schrödel, Philipp (2007-12-05). "27Mhz Wireless Keyboard Analysis Report aka "We know what you typed last summer"" (PDF). Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  35. ^ Jones, George. "Future Proof. How Wireless Energy Transfer Will Kill the Power Cable." MaximumPC. 14 Sept. 2010. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
  36. ^ Suzhi Bi, Yong Zeng, and Rui Zhang (May 2016) "Wireless powered communication networks: an overview"
  37. ^ "First Demonstration of a Surveillance Camera Powered by Ordinary Wi-Fi Broadcasts". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2020-11-20.
  38. ^ Linebaugh, Kate. "Medical Devices in Hospitals go wireless." Online.wsj. The Wall Street Journal. 23 May 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Geier, Jim (2001). Wireless LANs. Sams. ISBN 0-672-32058-4.
  • Goldsmith, Andrea (2005). Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83716-2.
  • Larsson, Erik; Stoica, Petre (2003). Space-Time Block Coding For Wireless Communications. Cambridge University Press.
  • Molisch, Andreas (2005). Wireless Communications. Wiley-IEEE Press. ISBN 0-470-84888-X.
  • Pahlavan, Kaveh; Levesque, Allen H (1995). Wireless Information Networks. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-10607-0.
  • Pahlavan, Kaveh; Krishnamurthy, Prashant (2002). Principles of Wireless Networks – a Unified Approach. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-093003-2.
  • Rappaport, Theodore (2002). Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-042232-0.
  • Rhoton, John (2001). The Wireless Internet Explained. Digital Press. ISBN 1-55558-257-5.
  • Tse, David; Viswanath, Pramod (2005). Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84527-0.

External links[edit]