Wireless power transfer

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Inductive charging pad for LG smartphone, using the Qi system, an example of near-field wireless transfer. When the phone is set on the pad, a coil in the pad creates a magnetic field which induces a current in another coil, in the phone, charging its battery.

Wireless power transfer (WPT) or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device, without the use of discrete human-made conductors. Wireless power is a generic term that refers to a number of different power transmission technologies that use time-varying electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields. In wireless power transfer, a wireless transmitter connected to a power source conveys the field energy across an intervening space to one or more receivers, where it is converted back to an electrical current and then used. Wireless transmission is useful to power electrical devices in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or are not possible.

Wireless power techniques fall into two categories, non-radiative and radiative. In non-radiative techniques, power is typically transferred by magnetic fields using inductive coupling between coils of wire. Applications of this type include electric toothbrush chargers, RFID tags, smartcards, and chargers for implantable medical devices like artificial cardiac pacemakers, and inductive powering or charging of electric vehicles like trains or buses. A current focus is to develop wireless systems to charge mobile and handheld computing devices such as cellphones, digital music players and portable computers without being tethered to a wall plug. Power may also be transferred by electric fields using capacitive coupling between metal electrodes. In radiative far-field techniques, also called power beaming, power is transferred by beams of electromagnetic radiation, like microwaves or laser beams. These techniques can transport energy longer distances but must be aimed at the receiver. Proposed applications for this type are solar power satellites, and wireless powered drone aircraft.[1][2][3]

Japan and China both have national ambitions to begin on-orbit testing of Solar Power Satellites by the 2030s which may accelerate both technical and regulatory progress.

An important issue associated with all wireless power systems is limiting the exposure of people and other living things to potentially injurious electromagnetic fields (see Electromagnetic radiation and health).


Further information: Coupling (electronics)
Generic block diagram of a wireless power system

"Wireless power transfer" is a collective term that refers to a number of different technologies for transmitting energy by means of electromagnetic fields.[4][5] The technologies, listed in the table below, differ in the distance over which they can transfer power efficiently, whether the transmitter must be aimed (directed) at the receiver, and in the type of electromagnetic energy they use: time varying electric fields, magnetic fields, radio waves, microwaves, or infrared or visible light waves.[6]

In general a wireless power system consists of a "transmitter" connected to a source of power such as a mains power line, which converts the power to a time-varying electromagnetic field, and one or more "receiver" devices which receive the power and convert it back to DC or AC electric current which is used by an electrical load.[4][6] At the transmitter the input power is converted to an oscillating electromagnetic field by some type of "antenna" device. The word "antenna" is used loosely here; it may be a coil of wire which generates a magnetic field, a metal plate which generates an electric field, an antenna which radiates radio waves, or a laser which generates light. A similar antenna or coupling device at the receiver converts the oscillating fields to an electric current. An important parameter that determines the type of waves is the frequency f in hertz of the oscillations. The frequency determines the wavelength λ = c/f of the waves which carry the energy across the gap, where c is the velocity of light.

Wireless power uses the same fields and waves as wireless communication devices like radio,[7][8] another familiar technology that involves electrical energy transmitted without wires by electromagnetic fields, used in cellphones, radio and television broadcasting, and WiFi. In radio communication the goal is the transmission of information, so the amount of power reaching the receiver is not so important, as long as it is sufficient so the signal to noise ratio is high enough that the information can be received intelligibly.[5][7][8] In wireless communication technologies, generally, only tiny amounts of power reach the receiver. In contrast, with wireless power the amount of energy received is the important thing, so the efficiency (fraction of transmitted energy that is received) is the more significant parameter.[5] For this reason, wireless power technologies are likely to be more limited by distance than wireless communication technologies.

These are the different wireless power technologies:[4][6][9][10][11]

Technology Range[12] Directivity[6] Frequency Antenna devices Current and/or possible future applications
Inductive coupling Short Low Hz – MHz Wire coils Electric tooth brush and razor battery charging, induction stovetops and industrial heaters.
Resonant inductive coupling Mid- Low kHz – GHz Tuned wire coils, lumped element resonators Charging portable devices (Qi), biomedical implants, electric vehicles, powering busses, trains, MAGLEV, RFID, smartcards.
Capacitive coupling Short Low kHz – MHz Electrodes Charging portable devices, power routing in large-scale integrated circuits, Smartcards.
Magnetodynamic coupling[10] Short N.A. Hz Rotating magnets Charging electric vehicles, busses, biomedical implants.
Microwaves Long High GHz Parabolic dishes, phased arrays, rectennas Solar power satellite, powering drone aircraft.
Light waves Long High ≥THz Lasers, photocells, lenses Powering drone aircraft, powering space elevator climbers.

Field regions[edit]

Electric and magnetic fields are created by charged particles in matter such as electrons. A stationary charge creates an electrostatic field in the space around it. A steady current of charges (direct current, DC) creates a static magnetic field around it. The above fields contain energy, but cannot carry power because they are static. However time-varying fields can carry power.[13] Accelerating electric charges, such as are found in an alternating current (AC) of electrons in a wire, create time-varying electric and magnetic fields in the space around them. These fields can exert oscillating forces on the electrons in a receiving "antenna", causing them to move back and forth. These represent alternating current which can be used to power a load.

The oscillating electric and magnetic fields surrounding moving electric charges in an antenna device can be divided into two regions, depending on distance Drange from the antenna.[4][6][7][9][14][15] [16] The boundary between the regions is somewhat vaguely defined.[6] The fields have different characteristics in these regions, and different technologies are used for transferring power:

  • Near-field or nonradiative region – This means the area within about 1 wavelength (λ) of the antenna.[4][14][15] In this region the oscillating electric and magnetic fields are separate[7] and power can be transferred via electric fields by capacitive coupling (electrostatic induction) between metal electrodes, or via magnetic fields by inductive coupling (electromagnetic induction) between coils of wire.[5][6][7][9] These fields are not radiative,[15] meaning the energy stays within a short distance of the transmitter.[17] If there is no receiving device or absorbing material within their limited range to "couple" to, no power leaves the transmitter.[17] The range of these fields is short, and depends on the size and shape of the "antenna" devices, which are usually coils of wire. The fields, and thus the power transmitted, decrease exponentially with distance,[14][16][18] so if the distance between the two "antennas" Drange is much larger than the diameter of the "antennas" Dant very little power will be received. Therefore, these techniques cannot be used for long range power transmission.
Resonance, such as resonant inductive coupling, can increase the coupling between the antennas greatly, allowing efficient transmission at somewhat greater distances,[4][7][9][14][19][20] although the fields still decrease exponentially. Therefore the range of near-field devices is conventionally divided into two categories:
  • Short range – up to about one antenna diameter: Drange ≤ Dant.[17][19][21] This is the range over which ordinary nonresonant capacitive or inductive coupling can transfer practical amounts of power.
  • Mid-range – up to 10 times the antenna diameter: Drange ≤ 10 Dant.[19][20][21][22] This is the range over which resonant capacitive or inductive coupling can transfer practical amounts of power.
  • Far-field or radiative region – Beyond about 1 wavelength (λ) of the antenna, the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other and propagate as an electromagnetic wave; examples are radio waves, microwaves, or light waves.[4][9][14] This part of the energy is radiative,[15] meaning it leaves the antenna whether or not there is a receiver to absorb it. The portion of energy which does not strike the receiving antenna is dissipated and lost to the system. The amount of power emitted as electromagnetic waves by an antenna depends on the ratio of the antenna's size Dant to the wavelength of the waves λ,[23] which is determined by the frequency: λ = c/f. At low frequencies f where the antenna is much smaller than the size of the waves, Dant << λ, very little power is radiated. Therefore the near-field devices above, which use lower frequencies, radiate almost none of their energy as electromagnetic radiation. Antennas about the same size as the wavelength Dant ≈ λ such as monopole or dipole antennas, radiate power efficiently, but the electromagnetic waves are radiated in all directions (omnidirectionally), so if the receiving antenna is far away, only a small amount of the radiation will hit it.[15][19] Therefore, these can be used for short range, inefficient power transmission but not for long range transmission.[24]
However, unlike fields, electromagnetic radiation can be focused by reflection or refraction into beams. By using a high-gain antenna or optical system which concentrates the radiation into a narrow beam aimed at the receiver, it can be used for long range power transmission.[19][24] From the Rayleigh criterion, to produce the narrow beams necessary to focus a significant amount of the energy on a distant receiver, an antenna must be much larger than the wavelength of the waves used: Dant >> λ = c/f.[25][26] Practical beam power devices require wavelengths in the centimeter region or below, corresponding to frequencies above 1 GHz, in the microwave range or above.[4]

Non-radiative techniques[edit]


At large relative distance, the near-field components of electric and magnetic fields are approximately quasi-static oscillating dipole fields. These fields decrease with the cube of distance: (Drange/Dant)−3[16][27] Since power is proportional to the square of the field strength, the power transferred decreases as (Drange/Dant)−6.[7][18][28][29] or 60 dB per decade. In other words, if far apart, doubling the distance between the two antennas causes the power received to decrease by a factor of 26 = 64. As a result, inductive and capacitive coupling can only be used for short-range power transfer, within a few times the diameter of the antenna device Dant. Unlike in a radiative system where the maximum radiation occurs when the dipole antennas are oriented transverse to the direction of propagation, with dipole fields the maximum coupling occurs when the dipoles are oriented longitudinally.

Inductive (magnetic) coupling[edit]

Generic block diagram of an inductive wireless power system.
(left) Modern inductive power transfer, an electric toothbrush charger. A coil in the stand produces a magnetic field, inducing an AC current in a coil in the toothbrush, which is rectified to charge the batteries.
(right) A light bulb powered wirelessly by induction, in 1910.

In inductive coupling (electromagnetic induction[9][30] or inductive power transfer, IPT), power is transferred between coils of wire by a magnetic field.[7] The transmitter and receiver coils together form a transformer[7][9] (see diagram). An alternating current (AC) through the transmitter coil (L1) creates an oscillating magnetic field (B) by Ampere's law. The magnetic field passes through the receiving coil (L2), where it induces an alternating EMF (voltage) by Faraday's law of induction, which creates an AC current in the receiver.[5][30] The induced alternating current may either drive the load directly, or be rectified to direct current (DC) by a rectifier in the receiver, which drives the load. A few systems, such as electric toothbrush charging stands, work at 50/60 Hz so AC mains current is applied directly to the transmitter coil, but in most systems an electronic oscillator generates a higher frequency AC current which drives the coil, because transmission efficiency improves with frequency.[30]

Inductive coupling is the oldest and most widely used wireless power technology, and virtually the only one so far which is used in commercial products. It is used in inductive charging stands for cordless appliances used in wet environments such as electric toothbrushes[9] and shavers, to reduce the risk of electric shock.[31] Another application area is "transcutaneous" recharging of biomedical prosthetic devices implanted in the human body, such as cardiac pacemakers and insulin pumps, to avoid having wires passing through the skin.[32][33] It is also used to charge electric vehicles such as cars and to either charge or power transit vehicles like buses and trains.[9][11]

However the fastest growing use is wireless charging pads to recharge mobile and handheld wireless devices such as laptop and tablet computers, cellphones, digital media players, and video game controllers.[11]

The power transferred increases with frequency[30] and the mutual inductance M between the coils,[5] which depends on their geometry and the distance Drange between them. A widely used figure of merit is the coupling coefficient .[30][34] This dimensionless parameter is equal to the fraction of magnetic flux through L1 that passes through L2. If the two coils are on the same axis and close together so all the magnetic flux from L1 passes through L2, k = 1 and the link efficiency approaches 100%. The greater the separation between the coils, the more of the magnetic field from the first coil misses the second, and the lower k and the link efficiency are, approaching zero at large separations.[30] The link efficiency and power transferred is roughly proportional to k2.[30] In order to achieve high efficiency, the coils must be very close together, a fraction of the coil diameter Dant,[30] usually within centimeters,[24] with the coils' axes aligned. Wide, flat coil shapes are usually used, to increase coupling.[30] Ferrite "flux confinement" cores can confine the magnetic fields, improving coupling and reducing interference to nearby electronics,[30][32] but they are heavy and bulky so small wireless devices often use air-core coils.

Ordinary inductive coupling can only achieve high efficiency when the coils are very close together, usually adjacent. In most modern inductive systems resonant inductive coupling (described below) is used, in which the efficiency is increased by using resonant circuits.[15][20][30][35] This can achieve high efficiencies at greater distances than nonresonant inductive coupling.

Prototype inductive electric car charging system at 2011 Tokyo Auto Show
Powermat inductive charging spots in a coffee shop. Customers can set their phones and computers on them to recharge.
Wireless powered access card.
Resonant inductive coupling[edit]
Diagram of the resonant inductive wireless power system demonstrated by Marin Soljačić's MIT team in 2007. The resonant circuits were coils of copper wire which resonated with their internal capacitance (dotted capacitors) at 10 MHz. Power was coupled into the transmitter resonator, and out of the receiver resonator into the rectifier, by small coils which also served for impedance matching.

Resonant inductive coupling (electrodynamic coupling,[9] strongly coupled magnetic resonance[19]) is a form of inductive coupling in which power is transferred by magnetic fields (B, green) between two resonant circuits (tuned circuits), one in the transmitter and one in the receiver (see diagram, right).[7][9][15][31][35] Each resonant circuit consists of a coil of wire connected to a capacitor, or a self-resonant coil or other resonator with internal capacitance. The two are tuned to resonate at the same resonant frequency. The resonance between the coils can greatly increase coupling and power transfer, analogously to the way a vibrating tuning fork can induce sympathetic vibration in a distant fork tuned to the same pitch. Nikola Tesla first discovered resonant coupling during his pioneering experiments in wireless power transfer around the turn of the 20th century,[36][37][38] but the possibilities of using resonant coupling to increase transmission range has only recently been explored.[39] In 2007 a team led by Marin Soljačić at MIT used two coupled tuned circuits each made of a 25 cm self-resonant coil of wire at 10 MHz to achieve the transmission of 60 W of power over a distance of 2 meters (6.6 ft) (8 times the coil diameter) at around 40% efficiency.[9][19][31][37][40]

The concept behind resonant inductive coupling is that high Q factor resonators exchange energy at a much higher rate than they lose energy due to internal damping.[19] Therefore, by using resonance, the same amount of power can be transferred at greater distances, using the much weaker magnetic fields out in the peripheral regions ("tails") of the near fields (these are sometimes called evanescent fields[19]). Resonant inductive coupling can achieve high efficiency at ranges of 4 to 10 times the coil diameter (Dant).[20][21][22] This is called "mid-range" transfer,[21] in contrast to the "short range" of nonresonant inductive transfer, which can achieve similar efficiencies only when the coils are adjacent. Another advantage is that resonant circuits interact with each other so much more strongly than they do with nonresonant objects that power losses due to absorption in stray nearby objects are negligible.[15][19] A drawback of resonant coupling is that at close ranges when the two resonant circuits are tightly coupled, the resonant frequency of the system is no longer constant but "splits" into two resonant peaks, so the maximum power transfer no longer occurs at the original resonant frequency and the oscillator frequency must be tuned to the new resonance peak.[20]

Resonant technology is currently being widely incorporated in modern inductive wireless power systems.[30] One of the possibilities envisioned for this technology is area wireless power coverage. A coil in the wall or ceiling of a room might be able to wirelessly power lights and mobile devices anywhere in the room, with reasonable efficiency.[31] An environmental and economic benefit of wirelessly powering small devices such as clocks, radios, music players and remote controls is that it could drastically reduce the 6 billion batteries disposed of each year, a large source of toxic waste and groundwater contamination.[24]

Capacitive coupling[edit]

Main article: Capacitive coupling

In capacitive coupling (electrostatic induction), the conjugate of inductive coupling, energy is transmitted by electric fields[5] between electrodes such as metal plates. The transmitter and receiver electrodes form a capacitor, with the intervening space as the dielectric.[5][7][9][32][41] An alternating voltage generated by the transmitter is applied to the transmitting plate, and the oscillating electric field induces an alternating potential on the receiver plate by electrostatic induction,[5][41] which causes an alternating current to flow in the load circuit. The amount of power transferred increases with the frequency[41] the square of the voltage, and the capacitance between the plates, which is proportional to the area of the smaller plate and (for short distances) inversely proportional to the separation.[5]

Capacitive coupling has only been used practically in a few low power applications, because the very high voltages on the electrodes required to transmit significant power can be hazardous,[7][9] and can cause unpleasant side effects such as noxious ozone production. In addition, in contrast to magnetic fields,[19] electric fields interact strongly with most materials, including the human body, due to dielectric polarization.[32] Intervening materials between or near the electrodes can absorb the energy, in the case of humans possibly causing excessive electromagnetic field exposure.[7] However capacitive coupling has a few advantages over inductive coupling. The field is largely confined between the capacitor plates, reducing interference, which in inductive coupling requires heavy ferrite "flux confinement" cores.[5][32] Also, alignment requirements between the transmitter and receiver are less critical.[5][7][41] Capacitive coupling has recently been applied to charging battery powered portable devices.[42] and is being considered as a means of transferring power between substrate layers in integrated circuits.[43]

Capacitive wireless power systems
transverse or bipolar coupling
longitudinal or unipolar coupling

Two types of circuit have been used:

  • Bipolar design:[44][45] In this type of circuit, there are two transmitter plates and two receiver plates. Each transmitter plate is coupled to a receiver plate. The transmitter oscillator drives the transmitter plates in opposite phase (180° phase difference) by a high alternating voltage, and the load is connected between the two receiver plates. The alternating electric fields induce opposite phase alternating potentials in the receiver plates, and this "push-pull" action causes current to flow back and forth between the plates through the load. A disadvantage of this configuration for wireless charging is that the two plates in the receiving device must be aligned face to face with the charger plates for the device to work.
  • Unipolar design:[5][41][45] In this type of circuit, the transmitter and receiver have only one active electrode, and either the ground or a large passive electrode serves as the return path for the current. The transmitter oscillator is connected between an active and a passive electrode. The load is also connected between an active and a passive electrode. The electric field produced by the transmitter induces alternating charge displacement in the load dipole through electrostatic induction.[46]
Resonant capacitive coupling[edit]

Resonance can also be used with capacitive coupling to extend the range. At the turn of the 20th century, Nikola Tesla did the first experiments with both resonant electrostatic and magnetic coupling.

Electrical conduction[edit]

Atmospheric plasma channel coupling[edit]

See also: Electrolaser

In atmospheric plasma channel coupling, energy is transferred between two electrodes by electrical conduction through ionized air.[47] When an electric field gradient exists between the two electrodes, exceeding 34 kilovolts per centimeter at sea level atmospheric pressure, an electric arc occurs.[48] This atmospheric dielectric breakdown results in the flow of electric current along a random trajectory through an ionized plasma channel between the two electrodes. An example of this is natural lightning, where one electrode is a virtual point in a cloud and the other is a point on Earth. Laser Induced Plasma Channel (LIPC) research is presently underway using ultrafast lasers to artificially promote development of the plasma channel through the air, directing the electric arc, and guiding the current across a specific path in a controllable manner.[49] The laser energy reduces the atmospheric dielectric breakdown voltage and the air is made less insulating by superheating, which lowers the density () of the filament of air.[50]

This new process is being explored for use as a laser lightning rod and as a means to trigger lightning bolts from clouds for natural lightning channel studies,[51] for artificial atmospheric propagation studies, as a substitute for conventional radio antennas,[52] for applications associated with electric welding and machining,[53][54] for diverting power from high-voltage capacitor discharges, for directed-energy weapon applications employing electrical conduction through a ground return path,[55][56][57][58] and electronic jamming.[59]

Magnetodynamic coupling[edit]

In this method, power is transmitted between two rotating armatures, one in the transmitter and one in the receiver, which rotate synchronously, coupled together by a magnetic field generated by permanent magnets on the armatures.[10] The transmitter armature is turned either by or as the rotor of an electric motor, and its magnetic field exerts torque on the receiver armature, turning it. The magnetic field acts like a mechanical coupling between the armatures.[10] The receiver armature produces power to drive the load, either by turning a separate electric generator or by using the receiver armature itself as the rotor in a generator.

This device has been proposed as an alternative to inductive power transfer for noncontact charging of electric vehicles.[10] A rotating armature embedded in a garage floor or curb would turn a receiver armature in the underside of the vehicle to charge its batteries.[10] It is claimed that this technique can transfer power over distances of 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 inches) with high efficiency, over 90%.[10][60] Also, the low frequency stray magnetic fields produced by the rotating magnets produce less electromagnetic interference to nearby electronic devices than the high frequency magnetic fields produced by inductive coupling systems. A prototype system charging electric vehicles has been in operation at University of British Columbia since 2012. Other researchers, however, claim that the two energy conversions (electrical to mechanical to electrical again) make the system less efficient than electrical systems like inductive coupling.[10]

Far-field radiative techniques[edit]

Far field methods achieve longer ranges, often multiple kilometer ranges, where the distance is much greater than the diameter of the device(s). The main reason for longer ranges with radio wave and optical devices is the fact that electromagnetic radiation in the far-field can be made to match the shape of the receiving area (using high directivity antennas or well-collimated laser beams). The maximum directivity for antennas is physically limited by diffraction.

In general, visible light (from lasers) and microwaves (from purpose-designed antennas) are the forms of electromagnetic radiation best suited to energy transfer.

The dimensions of the components may be dictated by the distance from transmitter to receiver, the wavelength and the Rayleigh criterion or diffraction limit, used in standard radio frequency antenna design, which also applies to lasers. Airy's diffraction limit is also frequently used to determine an approximate spot size at an arbitrary distance from the aperture. Electromagnetic radiation experiences less diffraction at shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies); so, for example, a blue laser is diffracted less than a red one.

The Rayleigh criterion dictates that any radio wave, microwave or laser beam will spread and become weaker and diffuse over distance; the larger the transmitter antenna or laser aperture compared to the wavelength of radiation, the tighter the beam and the less it will spread as a function of distance (and vice versa). Smaller antennae also suffer from excessive losses due to side lobes. However, the concept of laser aperture considerably differs from an antenna. Typically, a laser aperture much larger than the wavelength induces multi-moded radiation and mostly collimators are used before emitted radiation couples into a fiber or into space.

Ultimately, beamwidth is physically determined by diffraction due to the dish size in relation to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation used to make the beam.

Microwave power beaming can be more efficient than lasers, and is less prone to atmospheric attenuation caused by dust or water vapor.

Here, the power levels are calculated by combining the above parameters together, and adding in the gains and losses due to the antenna characteristics and the transparency and dispersion of the medium through which the radiation passes. That process is known as calculating a link budget.


An artist's depiction of a solar satellite that could send electric energy by microwaves to a space vessel or planetary surface.

Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically in the microwave range.[61] A rectenna may be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity. Rectenna conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized. Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power satellites to Earth and the beaming of power to spacecraft leaving orbit has been considered.[62][63]

Power beaming by microwaves has the difficulty that, for most space applications, the required aperture sizes are very large due to diffraction limiting antenna directionality. For example, the 1978 NASA Study of solar power satellites required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz.[64] These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths, although short wavelengths may have difficulties with atmospheric absorption and beam blockage by rain or water droplets. Because of the "thinned array curse," it is not possible to make a narrower beam by combining the beams of several smaller satellites.

For earthbound applications, a large-area 10 km diameter receiving array allows large total power levels to be used while operating at the low power density suggested for human electromagnetic exposure safety. A human safe power density of 1 mW/cm2 distributed across a 10 km diameter area corresponds to 750 megawatts total power level. This is the power level found in many modern electric power plants.

Following World War II, which saw the development of high-power microwave emitters known as cavity magnetrons, the idea of using microwaves to transfer power was researched. By 1964, a miniature helicopter propelled by microwave power had been demonstrated.[65]

Japanese researcher Hidetsugu Yagi also investigated wireless energy transmission using a directional array antenna that he designed. In February 1926, Yagi and his colleague Shintaro Uda published their first paper on the tuned high-gain directional array now known as the Yagi antenna. While it did not prove to be particularly useful for power transmission, this beam antenna has been widely adopted throughout the broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries due to its excellent performance characteristics.[66]

Wireless high power transmission using microwaves is well proven. Experiments in the tens of kilowatts have been performed at Goldstone in California in 1975[67][68][69] and more recently (1997) at Grand Bassin on Reunion Island.[70] These methods achieve distances on the order of a kilometer.

Under experimental conditions, microwave conversion efficiency was measured to be around 54%.[71]

A change to 24 GHz has been suggested as microwave emitters similar to LEDs have been made with very high quantum efficiencies using negative resistance, i.e., Gunn or IMPATT diodes, and this would be viable for short range links.

In 2015, researchers at the University of Washington introduced power over Wi-Fi, which trickle-charges batteries and powered battery-free cameras and temperature sensors using transmissions from Wi-Fi routers.[72][73] Wi-Fi signals were shown to power battery-free temperature and camera sensors at ranges of up to 20 feet. It was also shown that Wi-Fi can be used to wirelessly trickle-charge nickel–metal hydride and lithium-ion coin-cell batteries at distances of up to 28 feet.


With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells, a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to the visible region of the spectrum (tens of micrometers to tens of nanometers), power can be transmitted by converting electricity into a laser beam that is then pointed at a photovoltaic cell.[74][75] This mechanism is generally known as 'power beaming' because the power is beamed at a receiver that can convert it to electrical energy. At the receiver, special photovoltaic laser power converters which are optimized for monochromatic light conversion are applied.[76]

Advantages compared to other wireless methods are:[77]

  • Collimated monochromatic wavefront propagation allows narrow beam cross-section area for transmission over large distances.
  • Compact size: solid state lasers fit into small products.
  • No radio-frequency interference to existing radio communication such as Wi-Fi and cell phones.
  • Access control: only receivers hit by the laser receive power.

Drawbacks include:

  • Laser radiation is hazardous. Low power levels can blind humans and other animals. High power levels can kill through localized spot heating.
  • Conversion between electricity and light is limited. Photovoltaic cells achieve 40%–50% efficiency.[78] (Note that the conversion efficiency of laser light into electricity is much higher than that of sun light into electricity using solar cells).
  • Atmospheric absorption, and absorption and scattering by clouds, fog, rain, etc., causes up to 100% losses.
  • Requires a direct line of sight with the target. (Note that, instead of being beamed directly onto the receiver, the laser light can also be guided by an optical fiber. Then one speaks of power-over-fiber technology.)

Laser 'powerbeaming' technology was explored in military weapons[79][80][81] and aerospace[82][83] applications. Also, it is applied for powering of various kinds of sensors in industrial environment. Lately, it is developed for powering commercial and consumer electronics. Wireless energy transfer systems using lasers for consumer space have to satisfy laser safety requirements standardized under IEC 60825.[citation needed]

Other details include propagation,[84] and the coherence and the range limitation problem.[85]

Geoffrey Landis[86][87][88] is one of the pioneers of solar power satellites[89] and laser-based transfer of energy especially for space and lunar missions. The demand for safe and frequent space missions has resulted in proposals for a laser-powered space elevator.[90][91]

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center demonstrated a lightweight unmanned model plane powered by a laser beam.[92] This proof-of-concept demonstrates the feasibility of periodic recharging using the laser beam system.

Energy harvesting[edit]

Main article: Energy harvesting

In the context of wireless power, energy harvesting, also called power harvesting or energy scavenging, is the conversion of ambient energy from the environment to electric power, mainly to power small autonomous wireless electronic devices.[93] The ambient energy may come from stray electric or magnetic fields or radio waves from nearby electrical equipment, light, thermal energy (heat), or kinetic energy such as vibration or motion of the device.[93] Although the efficiency of conversion is usually low and the power gathered often minuscule (milliwatts or microwatts),[93] it can be adequate to run or recharge small micropower wireless devices such as remote sensors, which are proliferating in many fields.[93] This new technology is being developed to eliminate the need for battery replacement or charging of such wireless devices, allowing them to operate completely autonomously.


In 1826 André-Marie Ampère developed Ampère's circuital law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field.[94] Michael Faraday developed Faraday's law of induction in 1831, describing the electromagnetic force induced in a conductor by a time-varying magnetic flux. In 1862 James Clerk Maxwell synthesized these and other observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory, deriving Maxwell's equations. This set of partial differential equations forms the basis for modern electromagnetics, including the wireless transmission of electrical energy.[11][35] Maxwell predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves in his 1873 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.[95] In 1884 John Henry Poynting developed equations for the flow of power in an electromagnetic field, Poynting's theorem and the Poynting vector, which are used in the analysis of wireless energy transfer systems.[11][35] In 1888 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz discovered radio waves, confirming the prediction of electromagnetic waves by Maxwell.[95]

Nikola Tesla's experiments[edit]

Tesla demonstrating wireless transmission by "electrostatic induction" during an 1891 lecture at Columbia College.  The two metal sheets are connected to a Tesla coil oscillator, which applies high-voltage radio frequency alternating current.  An oscillating electric field between the sheets ionizes the low-pressure gas in the two long Geissler tubes in his hands, causing them to glow, similar to neon tubes.
Nikola Tesla's "Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy" (U.S. Patent 649,621).
(left) An experiment at Tesla's Experimental Station in Colorado Springs, demonstrating the wireless transmission of electrical energy sufficient to power a 10-watt incandescent lamp at a distance of 1,938 feet (591 m) from the station's magnifying transmitter.[96][97] (right) Tesla's uncompleted Wardenclyffe World Wireless system station prototype.

Tesla conducted the first experiments in wireless power transfer at the turn of the 20th century. From 1891 to 1898 he investigated wireless transmission of electrical energy using his radio frequency resonant transformer circuit called the Tesla coil, which produces high-voltage, high-frequency alternating currents.[35][37]  The Tesla coil was first developed as a high voltage radio frequency power supply for his "System of Electric Lighting" patented in 1891.[98]  With this basic resonance transformer design concept he was able to transmit electrical energy over short distances without interconnecting wires by magneto-inductive coupling.[36][38]  The transformer's primary LC circuit acted as a transmitter.  The transformer's secondary LC circuit was tuned to the primary LC circuit's resonant frequency and acted as a receiver.  The Tesla coil transformer itself could be configured as a wireless transmitter and used to transmit energy by electro-inductive coupling.  While demonstrating this technology during lectures before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1891, the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1892, and at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago he was able to wirelessly power lamps from across the stage and out into the room.[99][100][101]

In 1899 Tesla moved his wireless transmission research to Colorado Springs, Colorado. At the Colorado Springs Experimental Station he assembled an enormous version of his resonance transformer called a Tesla coil magnifying transmitter, capable of producing voltages on the order of 10 megavolts.  In one demonstration, using just the oscillator's primary LC circuit energized to only one-twentieth of the oscillator's full capacity, he was able to light three incandescent lamps by magneto-inductive coupling at a distance of about one hundred feet.[102][103]

By this time Tesla's top priority had shifted from his system of high-frequency lighting to the development of a wireless system that could transmit electrical energy directly to homes and factories, as proposed in his 1900 Century magazine article.[104] [105][106]  He claimed that it is possible to transmit energy on a worldwide scale, applying a method that involves electrical conduction through the earth and the periodic alteration of Earth's electrostatic charge.[107][108][109]  In 1900 he received the patents SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY and APPARATUS FOR TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY.[110][111]  They describe two hypothetical wireless stations, one consisting of a large Tesla coil magnifying transmitter and the other a similar Tesla coil receiver, each with an elevated air terminal electrode suspended by balloon at an altitude of 30,000 feet (9,100 m), where the atmospheric pressure is lower.  Tesla believed atmospheric ionization would allow energy to be transmitted at high voltages (millions of volts) over long distances by electrical conduction.  Another claim was that such a high elevation of the air terminal electrodes is not absolutely necessary.[112]  By 1901 Tesla had come to believe the entire planet could be made to act as a giant electrical resonator and that by driving sufficiently powerful current pulses into Earth at a harmonic of its fundamental resonant frequency using a grounded Tesla coil transmitter working against a relatively short elevated capacitive air terminal electrode, its natural electrostatic potential could be made to oscillate, and this alternating current could be received at any location with a Tesla coil receiver and similar capacitive air terminal electrode arrangement tuned to resonance with the transmitter.[113][114]  Tesla demonstrated the coupling of a Tesla coil transmitter and a Tesla coil receiver in an experiment at his Experimental Station in Colorado Springs, transmitting enough electrical energy to power a 10-watt incandescent lamp at a distance of 1,938 feet (591 m) from the station's magnifying transmitter.[96][97]

In 1901, Tesla began construction of a large ultra-high voltage wireless energy transmission station, now called the Wardenclyffe Tower, at Shoreham, New York.  Promoted to investors as a transatlantic wireless telephony station, it was also intended to demonstrate wireless power transfer as a prototype facility for the "World Wireless System" that was to distribute both information and power worldwide.[105][115]  By 1904 his investors had withdrawn and the facility was never completed.

Tesla claimed his ideas were proven but there is little direct corroboration that he ever transferred power beyond the above-mentioned demonstrations.[11][35][36][116][117][118][119][120][121]  His belief that long range wireless energy transmission is possible by means of the magnifying transmitter was based upon empirical scientific evidence gathered at Colorado Springs.[96][97][122]  While he claimed to have created terrestrial stationary waves, he was never able to demonstrate a fully developed prototype World Wireless system based upon the earth resonance principle.[123]  The only known report of the long range transmission and reception of electrical energy by Tesla himself is a statement made to attorney Drury W. Cooper that in 1899 he collected quantitative transmission-reception data at a distance of about 10 miles (16 km).[124]  There are four other reports of Tesla having achieved long range wireless power transfer.  The first is the wireless operation of lamps and electric motors at a distance of 15 miles (24 km).[125]  The second is the wireless transfer of "power enough to light a lamp at 30 km" (19 miles).[126]  The third is the wireless transfer of sufficient power to light an incandescent lamp of approximately 10 W at a distance of 1,938 feet (591 m) from the magnifying transmitter's ground plate to the point of reception.[96][97]  The fourth is a statement that was made by Tesla biographer John J. O'Neill, based upon "fragmentary material published in a number of publications," that Tesla lit 200 incandescent lamps at a distance of 26 miles (42 km).[127][128][129][117]  Tesla does not mention this demonstration in his writings; it does not appear in his Colorado laboratory notes,[96][97]  There is no independent confirmation of it having taken place[117][130] but recent mathematical analysis suggest it could have been possible using the 1899 Colorado Springs magnifying transmitter.[131]

It is speculated the Colorado Springs and Wardenclyffe facilities produced the Sommerfeld-Zenneck wave,[132][133][134][135] a non-radiative terrestrial transmission line propagation mode that exists as an exact solution to Maxwell's equations.[136][137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144]

It is also speculated that the Sommerfeld-Zenneck wave does not exist, [145][146][147][148] and that Tesla's idea of wireless global transmission of electrical energy, from a physics standpoint, would not have functioned as he claimed, the output of the Tesla coil magnifying transmitter instead being electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio space waves.[149][150][151][152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163][164]

While Tesla's own description of his creative process is entirely consistent with the scientific method,[165] historian W. Bernard Carlson asserts the inventor suffered from confirmation bias in his work and deliberately avoided the scientist's role of disproving an hypothesis, and instead allowed a bit of seemingly confirmatory evidence to "create an illusion in his mind" that the whole idea was practical.[166]

In the years since his original research into World Wireless system technology similar apparatus have been built for attempts to repeat Tesla's own experimental demonstrations of long range non-radiative wireless transmission and reception of electrical energy.[167][168][169][131]  The People's Power Project demonstration attempt ultimately did not take place.[170]  The goal of Project Tesla was to excite 8 Hz standing waves in the Schumann cavity but there was an unresolved receiver design issue and wireless power transfer was not demonstrated.[120][171]  Nevada Lightning Lab did demonstrate the long range wireless transmission of electrical energy using a grounded Tesla coil transmitter and a grounded Tesla coil receiver with coupled electric fields and an earth return circuit.[172]  TEXZON Technologies also demonstrated long range non-radiative wireless transmission of electrical energy with grounded and capacitively grounded Tesla coil transmitters [173]:p. 198, Fig. 2 and similar Tesla coil receivers using the Sommerfeld-Zenneck guided surface wave propagation mode on the lossy Earth terrestrial transmission line.[174][175][176][177][178][179]

The resonant magnetic and capacitive induction coupling techniques developed by Tesla and employed in his early demonstrations are now familiar technology used throughout electronics and currently being applied to short- and mid-range wireless power transfer systems.  They make use of "near-field" effects,[37] and so are not suitable for the long range transmission of electrical energy.  Programs to research Tesla's long range non-radiative disturbed charge of ground and air technology [173]:p. 29 remain today in an early stage of development.[114][180][181]

Near-field and non-radiative technologies[edit]

Magneto-inductive power transfer between nearby wire coils is old technology, existing since the transformer was developed in the 1800s.  Induction heating has been used since the early 1900s.[citation needed]  With the advent of cordless devices, induction charging stands have been developed for appliances used in wet environments, like electric toothbrushes and electric razors, to eliminate the hazard of electric shock.  One field to which inductive power transfer has been applied is to power electric vehicles.  In 1892 Maurice Hutin and Maurice Leblanc patented a wireless method of powering railroad trains using resonant coils inductively coupled to a track wire at 3 kHz.[182] The first passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technologies were invented by Mario Cardullo[183] (1973) and Koelle et al.[184] (1975) and by the 1990s were being used in proximity cards and contactless smartcards.

The proliferation of portable wireless communication devices such as mobile phones, tablet, and laptop computers in recent decades is currently driving the development of mid-range wireless powering and charging technology to eliminate the need for these devices to be tethered to wall plugs during charging.[185] The Wireless Power Consortium was established in 2008 to develop interoperable standards across manufacturers.[185] Its Qi inductive power standard published in August 2009 enables high efficiency charging and powering of portable devices of up to 5 watts over distances of 4 cm (1.6 inches).[186] The wireless device is placed on a flat charger plate (which can be embedded in table tops at cafes, for example) and power is transferred from a flat coil in the charger to a similar one in the device.

In 2007, a team led by Marin Soljačić at MIT used a dual resonance transmitter with a 25 cm diameter secondary tuned to 10 MHz to transfer 60 W of power to a similar dual resonance receiver over a distance of 2 meters (6.6 ft) (eight times the transmitter coil diameter) at around 40% efficiency.[37][40] In 2008 the team of Greg Leyh and Mike Kennan of Nevada Lightning Lab used a grounded dual resonance transmitter with a 57 cm diameter secondary tuned to 60 kHz and a similar grounded dual resonance receiver to transfer power through coupled electric fields with an earth return circuit over a distance of 12 meters (39 ft).[187] The Lightning Foundry Twin Coil Prototype coupling distance was more than 21 times the transmitter coil diameter.

Microwaves and lasers[edit]

Before World War 2, little progress was made in wireless power transmission.[118] Radio was developed for communication uses, but couldn't be used for power transmission due to the fact that the relatively low-frequency radio waves spread out in all directions and little energy reached the receiver.[11][35][118] In radio communication, at the receiver, an amplifier intensifies a weak signal using energy from another source. For power transmission, efficient transmission required transmitters that could generate higher-frequency microwaves, which can be focused in narrow beams towards a receiver.[11][35][118][188]

The development of microwave technology during World War 2, such as the klystron and magnetron tubes and parabolic antennas[118] made radiative (far-field) methods practical for the first time, and the first long-distance wireless power transmission was achieved in the 1960s by William C. Brown.[11][35] In 1964 Brown invented the rectenna which could efficiently convert microwaves to DC power, and in 1964 demonstrated it with the first wireless-powered aircraft, a model helicopter powered by microwaves beamed from the ground.[11][118] A major motivation for microwave research in the 1970s and 80s was to develop a solar power satellite.[35][118] Conceived in 1968 by Peter Glaser, this would harvest energy from sunlight using solar cells and beam it down to Earth as microwaves to huge rectennas, which would convert it to electrical energy on the electric power grid.[11][189] In landmark 1975 experiments as technical director of a JPL/Raytheon program, Brown demonstrated long range transmission by beaming 475 W of microwave power to a rectenna a mile away, with a microwave to DC conversion efficiency of 54%.[190] At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory he and Robert Dickinson transmitted 30 kW DC output power across 1.5 km with 2.38 GHz microwaves from a 26 m dish to a 7.3 x 3.5 m rectenna array. The incident-RF to DC conversion efficiency of the rectenna was 80%.[11][191] In 1983 Japan launched MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment), a rocket experiment to test transmission of high power microwaves through the ionosphere.[11]

In recent years a focus of research has been the development of wireless-powered drone aircraft, which began in 1959 with the Dept. of Defense's RAMP (Raytheon Airborne Microwave Platform) project[118] which sponsored Brown's research. In 1987 Canada's Communications Research Center developed a small prototype airplane called Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform (SHARP) to relay telecommunication data between points on earth similar to a communication satellite. Powered by a rectenna, it could fly at 13 miles (21 km) altitude and stay aloft for months. In 1992 a team at Kyoto University built a more advanced craft called MILAX (MIcrowave Lifted Airplane eXperiment).

In 2003 NASA flew the first laser powered aircraft. The small model plane's motor was powered by electricity generated by photocells from a beam of infrared light from a ground-based laser, while a control system kept the laser pointed at the plane.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Books and Articles


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  94. ^ Richard Fitzpatrick (2007). "Ampère's Circuital Law". 
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  98. ^ U.S. Patent No. 454,622, Nikola Tesla, SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC LIGHTING, filed 23 June 1891; granted 25 April 1891
  99. ^ Tesla, Nikola (20 May 1891) Experiments with Alternate Currents of Very High Frequency and Their Application to Methods of Artificial Illumination, lecture before the American Inst. of Electrical Engineers, Columbia College, New York. Reprinted as a book of the same name by. Wildside Press. 2006. ISBN 0809501627. 
  100. ^ Tesla, Nikola (2 February 1892) Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency, lecture before the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London.
  101. ^ "Electricity at the Columbian Exposition" By John Patrick Barrett. 1894. Page 168–169.
  102. ^ Cheney, Margaret; Uth, Robert; Glenn, Jim (1999). Tesla, Master of Lightning. Barnes & Noble Publishing. pp. 90–92. ISBN 0760710058. 
  103. ^ Tesla was secretive about the distances he could transmit electrical energy.  One of his few disclosures was in Tesla, Nikola (June 1900). "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy". Century Magazine. New York: The Century Co.  The figure 7 caption reads:

    "EXPERIMENT TO ILLUSTRATE AN INDUCTIVE EFFECT OF AN ELECTRICAL OSCILLATOR OF GREAT POWER – The photograph shows three ordinary incandescent lamps lighted to full candle-power by currents induced in a local loop consisting of a single wire forming a square of fifty feet each side, which includes the lamps, and which is at a distance of one hundred feet from the primary circuit energized by the oscillator.  The loop likewise includes an electrical condenser, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of the oscillator, which is worked at less than five percent of its total capacity."

  104. ^ "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy". The Essential Tesla. Wilder Publications. 18 December 2008. ISBN 978-1934451762. 
  105. ^ a b Broad, William J. (4 May 2009). "A Battle to Preserve a Visionary's Bold Failure". New York Times. New York: The New York Times Co. p. D1. 
  106. ^ Carlson 2013 Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age, p. 209–210
  107. ^ Tesla, Nikola (March 5, 1904). "The Transmission of Electric Energy Without Wires". Electrical World and Engineer. McGraw Publishing Co. 43: 23760–23761. , reprinted in Scientific American Supplement, Munn and Co., Vol. 57, No. 1483, 4 June 1904, p. 23760–23761
  108. ^ Tesla, Nikola (30 November 1898). "Tesla Describes His Efforts in Various Fields of Work". Electrical Review - New York.  In The Sun, New York, 21 November 1898.

    Starting from two facts that the earth is a conductor insulated in space, and that a body cannot be charged without causing an equivalent displacement of electricity in the earth, I undertook to construct a machine suited for creating as large a displacement as possible of the earth's electricity.

  109. ^ The Feynman Lectures on Physics, R.P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton, M. Sands, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1964, Vol. 2, chapter 9.
  110. ^ U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Nikola Tesla, SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, filed 2 September 1897; granted 20 March 1900
  111. ^ U.S. Patent No. 649,621, Nikola Tesla, APPARATUS FOR TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, filed 2 September 1897; granted 15 May 1900
  112. ^ Cooper, Drury W., internal document of the law firm Kerr, Page & Cooper, New York City, 1916. (Cited in Anderson, Leland (1992). Nikola Tesla on His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power: An Extended Interview. Sun Publishing Company. p. 110. ISBN 1893817016. )

    At that time I was absolutely sure that I could put up a commercial plant, if I could do nothing else but what I had done in my laboratory on Houston Street; but I had already calculated and found that I did not need great heights to apply this method.  My patent says that I break down the atmosphere "at or near" the terminal.  If my conducting atmosphere is 2 or 3 miles above the plant, I consider this very near the terminal as compared to the distance of my receiving terminal, which may be across the Pacific.  That is simply an expression.  I saw that I would be able to transmit power provided I could construct a certain apparatus -- and I have, as I will show you later.  I have constructed and patented a form of apparatus which, with a moderate elevation of a few hundred feet, can break the air stratum down.

  113. ^ Sewall, Charles Henry (1903). Wireless telegraphy: its origins, development, inventions, and apparatus. D. Van Nostrand Co. pp. 38–42. 
  114. ^ a b Leyh, G. E.; Kennan, M. D. (28 September 2008). Efficient wireless transmission of power using resonators with coupled electric fields (PDF). NAPS 2008 40th North American Power Symposium, Calgary, 28–30 September 2008. Inst. of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. pp. 1–4. doi:10.1109/NAPS.2008.5307364. ISBN 978-1-4244-4283-6. 
  115. ^ Carlson 2013 Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age, Ch. 14 & 15, p. 302–367
  116. ^ Hawkins, Lawrence A. (February 1903). "Nikola Tesla: His Work and Unfulfilled Promises". The Electrical Age. 30 (2): 107–108. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  117. ^ a b c Coe, Lewis (2006). Wireless Radio: A History. McFarland. p. 112. ISBN 0786426624. 
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h Brown, William C. (1984). "The history of power transmission by radio waves". MTT-Trans. on Microwave Theory and Technique. Inst. of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 32 (9): 1230–1234. Bibcode:1984ITMTT..32.1230B. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1984.1132833. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  119. ^ Dunning, Brian (15 January 2013). "Did Tesla plan to transmit power world-wide through the sky?". The Cult of Nikola Tesla. Skeptoid.com. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  120. ^ a b Cheney, Margaret; Uth, Robert; Glenn, Jim (1999). Tesla, Master of Lightning. Barnes & Noble Publishing. pp. 90–92. ISBN 0760710058. 
  121. ^ "Life and Legacy: Colorado Springs". Tesla: Master of Lightning – companion site for 2000 PBS television documentary. PBS.org, US Public Broadcasting Service] website. 2000. 
  122. ^ Anderson, Leland (1992). Nikola Tesla on His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power: An Extended Interview. Sun Publishing Company. pp. 172–173. ISBN 1893817016. }
  123. ^ Carlson, W. Bernard (2013). Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age. Princeton University Press. pp. 294, 301. ISBN 1400846552. 
  124. ^ Cooper, Drury W., internal document of the law firm Kerr, Page & Cooper, New York City, 1916. (Cited in Anderson, Leland (1992). Nikola Tesla on His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power: An Extended Interview. Sun Publishing Company. pp. 172–173. ISBN 1893817016. }
  125. ^ Boksan, Slavko, Nikola Tesla und sein Werk, Deutscher Verlag für Jugend und Volk, 1932, pp. 237–238.
  126. ^ Eccles, W. H. (1943). "Dr. Nikola Tesla". Nature. London. 13 (II): 189.  (Reprinted in W. H. Eccles (1961). Tribute to Nikola Tesla. Beograd: Nikola Tesla Museum. )
  127. ^ O'Neill, John J. (1944). Prodigal Genius: The life of Nikola Tesla. Ives Washburn, Inc. p. 193. 
  128. ^ Cheney, Margaret, Tesla Man Out of Time, Prentice-Hall, 1981, 1983.
  129. ^ Cheney, Margaret; Uth, Robert; Glenn, Jim (1999). Tesla, Master of Lightning. Barnes & Noble Publishing. pp. 90–92. ISBN 0760710058. 
  130. ^ Dunning, Brian (January 15, 2013). "Did Tesla cause a field of light bulbs 26 miles away to illuminate wirelessly?". The Cult of Nikola Tesla. Skeptoid.com. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  131. ^ a b Corum, Kenneth L.; Corum, James F. (June 1, 2016). "Bell Labs and the Radio Surface Wave Propagation Experiment". In Valone, Thomas. Nikola Tesla's Electricity Unplugged: Wireless Transmission of Power as the Master of Lightning Intended. Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 978-1939149572. 
  132. ^ Cooper, Drury W., internal document of the law firm Kerr, Page & Cooper, New York City, 1916. (In Anderson, Leland (1992). Nikola Tesla on His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power: An Extended Interview. Sun Publishing Company. p. 75. ISBN 1893817016. )

    Note, for instance, the mathematical treatise of Sommerfeld, who shows that my theory is correct, that I was right in my explanations of the phenomena, and that the profession was completely misled.

  133. ^ Corum, K.L., M.W. Miller, and J.F. Corum, “Surface Waves and the Crucial Propagation Experiment,” Proceedings of the 2016 Texas Symposium on Wireless & Microwave Circuits & Systems, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, March 31-April 1, 2016. "[K.L. Corum's] most recent activity involved a modern replication of C.R. Burrows' 'crucial' Seneca Lake measurements and the experimental verification and NIST-traceable documentation of Tesla’s 1897-1899 (Zenneck mode) surface wave propagation phenomenon."
  134. ^ Corum, K.L. and J.F. Corum, “Bell Labs and the ‘Crucial’ 1936 Seneca Lake Experiment.” (Published in Nikola Tesla’s Electricity Unplugged as “Bell Labs and the Radio Surface Wave Propagation Experiment,” Thomas Valone, Ed., Adventures Unlimited Press, 2016.) "In 1916, Tesla, whose propagation experiments appeared to contradict the Hertz wave theory, confided to his own attorney, "Note, for instance, the mathematical treatise of Sommerfeld, who shows that my theory is correct, that I was right in my explanations of the phenomena, and that the profession was completely mislead." and "The effect at a distance is due to the current energy that flows through the surface layers of the earth. That has already been mathematically shown, really, by Sommerfeld. He agrees on this theory; but as far as I am concerned, that is positively demonstrated." [Be aware that Tesla is speaking of the electrodynamic propagating currents associated with what we now call surface waves, not the simple ohmic (diffusion [J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill, 1941, pp. 278-279]) ground current mechanism proposed by Karl Steinheil (1801-1870) or James Bowman Lindsay (1799-1862) in the mid-19th century.]"
  135. ^ Corum, K.L. and J.F. Corum, “Bell Labs and the ‘Crucial’ 1936 Seneca Lake Experiment.” (Published in Nikola Tesla’s Electricity Unplugged as “Bell Labs and the Radio Surface Wave Propagation Experiment,” Thomas Valone, Ed., Adventures Unlimited Press, 2016.) "Tesla’s assistant at the spectacular Colorado Springs propagation experiments in 1899, and later at his Wardenclyffe, Long Island laboratory . . . was Fritz Lowenstein (1874-1922) . . . . In his assessment of Sommerfeld’s theory, presented in a December 1, 1915 lecture before the IRE (published in the June 1916 issue of the Proceedings of the IRE), Lowenstein said, “The analysis … when transmitting over poorly conducting ground, as given by Sommerfeld, is of great value and interest. … The fundamental question remains, however, whether we may designate the method now used as a transmission by Hertzian waves similar to those emitted by the Hertzian oscillator of the early Marconi apparatus, or as true conduction along the ground as was proposed by Tesla in 1893. Sommerfeld’s work … led him to decompose the total wave action into a space wave and a surface wave. Thus the belief has been established in the minds of many radio engineers that transmission of the energy was carried by two distinct and different phenomena.” . . . Zenneck, himself, was in the audience at Lowenstein’s 1915 lecture and added his supporting comments. This was the general view of the state of radiowave propagation in the WWI era."
  136. ^ Sommerfeld, Arnold, "Uber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der Drahtlosen Telegraphie" (The Propagation of Waves in Wireless Telegraphy), Ann. Physik [4] 28, 665 (1909); 62, 95 (1920); 81, 1135 (1926).
  137. ^ Zenneck, Jonathan, "Über die Fortpflanzung ebener elektromagnetischer Wellen längs einer ebenen Leiterfläche und ihre Beziehung zur drahtlosen Telegraphie," Ann. Physik [4] 23, 846 (1907).
  138. ^ Goubau, G., "Über die Zennecksche Bodenwelle," (On the Zenneck Surface Wave), Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physik, Vol. 3, 1951, Nrs. 3/4, pp. 103-107.
  139. ^ Barlow, H.; Brown, J. (1962). "II". Radio Surface Waves. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 10–12. 
  140. ^ Marincic, Aleksandar S., "Nikola Tesla and The Wireless Transmission of Energy," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 10, Oct. 1982, pp. 4064-4068.].
  141. ^ Marincic, Aleksandar S. (1990). "Research of Nikola Tesla in Long Island Laboratory," Energy and Development at the International Scientific Conference in Honor of the 130th Anniversary of the Birth of Nikola Tesla". The Tesla Journal, An International Review of the Sciences and the Humanities. Tesla Memorial Society, Inc. (6 & 7): 25–28. 
  142. ^ Seifer, Marc (1996). "Appendix, The Magnifying Transmitter: A Technical Discussion". Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla, Biography of a Genius. Carol Publishing Group. p. 471. ISBN 1-55972-329-7. 
  143. ^ Collin, R.E. (2004). "Hertzian Dipole Radiating Over a Lossy Earth or Sea: Some Early and Late 20th Century Controversies," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 46, No. 2, April 2004, pp. 64-79. "There is no sign error . . . The famous 'sign error' is a myth."
  144. ^ S.Y.R. Hui, W.X. Zhong and C.K. Lee, "A Critical Review of Recent Progress in Mid-Range Wireless Power Transfer," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 2014, v. 29, n. 9, p. 4500-4511 The use of the resonance concept is in line with [Tesla's] other inventions such as . . . his low-frequency wireless power transfer via natural media.
  145. ^ Norton, Kenneth A. (June 8, 1935). "Propagation of Radio Waves Over a Plane Earth". Nature. 135: 934–935. doi:10.1038/135954a0. The purpose of this letter is to point out an error in sign in Prof. A. Sommerfeld's original paper (1909) on the attenuation of radio waves. 
  146. ^ Burrows, C.R., "The Surface Wave in Radio Propagation over Plane Earth," Proc. Radio Club of America, vol. 14, No. 2, Aug. 1937, pp. 15-18. "The results of Weyl for radio propagation over plane earth are found to differ from those of Sommerfeld by exactly Sommerfeld's surface wave. Experiments conducted under conditions for which these two theories differ greatly are entirely consistent with Weyl's results and show that Sommerfeld's surface wave is not set up by simple antennas. Accordingly the Sommerfeld-Rolf curves are in error for all conditions for which the dielectric constant cannot be neglected."
  147. ^ Wise, W. H. (1937), "The Physical Reality of Zenneck's Surface Wave." Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 35–44. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1937.tb00753.x. "Since the wave antennas were designed to utilize the horizontal component of the Zenneck wave electric field and do pick up radio signals it is desirable that we explain the success of the wave antennas in some other way at the same time that we throw away the Zenneck wave."
  148. ^ Banos, Alfredo (1966). Dipole Radiation in the Presence of a Conducting Half-Space. Oxford, New York: Pergamon Press. pp. 20–24, 154–155. Burrows made careful measurements which show that the results of Weyl for radio propagation over a plane earth are entirely consistent with the experimental work, but they differ from those of Sommerfeld by the surface wave term [arising from the residue of the pole in Figure 8 below]. . . . Burrows concludes that his experimental results prove conclusively that simple antennas do not generate a Sommerfeld surface wave. 
  149. ^ Wheeler, L. P. (August 1943). "Tesla's contribution to high frequency". Electrical Engineering. IEEE. 62 (8): 355–357. doi:10.1109/EE.1943.6435874. ISSN 0095-9197. Retrieved 5 May 2015. There was a growing conviction (never shared completely by Tesla himself) that the distance effects were fundamentally attributable to electromagnetic radiation, and hence there was offered small hope of discovering any essential novelty. 
  150. ^ Wait, James R. (1957), "Excitation of Surface Waves on Conducting, Stratified, Dielectric-Clad, and Corrugated Surfaces," Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards Vol. 59, No.6, December 1957. "Norton has suggested that the field in air of a dipole over a homogeneous ground be expressed as a sum of three components: A direct ray (or primary influence), a reflected ray which is to be modified by an appropriate Fresnel reflection coefficient, and a correction term. Norton has described the first and second components as the space wave; the third or correction term, the surface wave. This seems to be a logical step, although, taken separately, the space and surface waves of Norton are not solutions of Maxwell's equations. On the other hand, his "space wave" is the contribution that would be derived on the basis of geometrical optics, and his "surface wave" is the correction from wave theory. This latter term will be called the "Norton surface wave" as distinct from the Zenneck and Sommerfeld surface waves, and the trapped surface waves discussed below."
  151. ^ "Dennis Papadopoulos interview". Tesla: Master of Lightning – companion site for 2000 PBS television documentary. PBS.org, US Public Broadcasting Service website. 2000. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  152. ^ Coe, Lewis (2006). Wireless Radio: A History. McFarland. p. 112. ISBN 0786426624. 
  153. ^ Belohlavek, Peter; Wagner, John W. (2008). Innovation: The Lessons of Nikola Tesla. Blue Eagle Group. pp. 78–79. ISBN 9876510096. 
  154. ^ Wearing, Judy (2009). Edison's Concrete Piano: Flying Tanks, Six-Nippled Sheep, Walk-On-Water Shoes, and 12 Other Flops From Great Inventors. ECW Press. p. 98. ISBN 1554905516. 
  155. ^ Curty, Jari-Pascal; Declercq, Michel; Dehollain, Catherine; Joehl, Norbert (2006). Design and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Systems. Springer. p. 4. ISBN 0387447105. Tesla built a gigantic coil in a large square building over which rose a 60 m mast with a 1m diameter copper ball positioned at the top. The coil was resonated at a frequency of 150 kHz and was fed with 300 kW of low-frequency power obtained from the Colorado Springs Electric Company. When the RF output was fed to the mast, an RF potential was produced on the sphere that approached 100,000,000 V. 
  156. ^ Ick-Jae, Yoon; Hao, Ling (January 2012). "Realizing Efficient Wireless Power Transfer in the Near-Field Region Using Electrically Small Antennas, Wireless Power Transfer - Principles and Engineering Explorations,". In Ki Young, Kim. Wireless Power Transfer - Principles and Engineering Explorations (PDF). ISBN 978-953-307-874-8. In the early 1900's, Tesla carried out his experiment on power transmission over long distances by radio waves (Tesla, 1914). He built a giant coil (200-ft mast and 3-ft-diameter copper ball positioned at the top) resonating at 150 kHz and fed it with 300 kW of low frequency power. 
  157. ^ Tomar, Anuradha; Gupta, Sunil (July 2012). "Wireless power Transmission: Applications and Components". International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology. 1 (5). ISSN 2278-0181. He tried to broadcast approximately 300 kW power via 150 kHz radio wave. Unfortunately, he failed because of diffusion of the wireless power, which depends on the frequency of operation and the size of the transmitting antenna. He used an operating frequency of 150 kHz. 
  158. ^ Maqsood, M.; Nasir, M. Nauman (June 2013). "Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology". Journal of Physics: Conference Series 439 (2013). IOP Publishing Ltd. (6th Vacuum and Surface Sciences Conference of Asia and Australia (VASSCAA-6)). doi:10.1088/1742-6596/439/1/012046. [Tesla] made electric coil which was a 3 feet diameter ball at its top. He fed 300 kW power to tesla coil resonated at 150 kHz. The RF potential at the top sphere reached 100 MV. Unfortunately he failed due to diffusion in all directions. 
  159. ^ Shinohara, Naoki (January 2014). Wireless Power Transfer via Radiowaves. Wiley-ISTE. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-84821-605-1. Tesla actually built a gigantic coil that was connected to a 200 ft. high mast with a 3 ft. diameter ball at its top. . . . Tesla fed 300 kw of power to the coil that resonated at a frequency of 150 kHz.  The radio frequency (RF) potential at the top sphere reached 100 MV.  Unfortunately, the experiment failed because the transmitted power was diffused in all directions using 150 kHz radiowaves, whose wavelength was 21 km. 
  160. ^ Bush, Stephen F. (March 2014). Smart Grid: Communication-Enabled Intelligence for the Electric Power Grid. Wiley-IEEE Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-119-97580-9. [Tesla] carried out many famoous experiments toward developing the concept, one of which was transmitting 300 kW of power via 150 kHz radio waves. 
  161. ^ Xiaoming, Chen; Zhaoyang, Zhang; Hsiao-Hwa, Chen; Huazi, Zhang (April 2015). "Enhancing Wireless Information and Power Transfer by Exploiting Multi-Antenna Techniques". IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE, FEATURE TOPIC ON ENERGY HARVESTING COMMUNICATIONS. At the end of the 19th century, Nikola Tesla carried out the first WPT experiment, which tried to transmit approximately 300 KW power via 150 KHz radio waves. 
  162. ^ Sharma, Akshit; kansal, Pallav; Sharma, Saurabh (July 2015). "WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL POWER USING MICROWAVES AND ITS RECEPTION USING A METAMATERIAL" (PDF). Journal of Multi Disciplinary Engineering Technologies. 09 (01). ISSN 0974-1771. [Tesla] attempted to distribute tens of thousands horsepower of electricity by radio waves. . . . He actually built a gigantic coil, which was connected to a 200-feet high mast with a ball 3 feet in diameter at its top. He fed 300 kW power to the Tesla coil, which resonated at 150 kHz. The RF potential at the top sphere reached 100 MV. 
  163. ^ Prasad, Kuchipudi Durga; Saidulu, Kuntigorla (September 2015). "Wireless Power Transmission and Reception using Rectenna" (PDF). International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering. 2 (3): 145. ISSN 2349-784X. [Tesla] actually built a gigantic coil which was connected to a high mast of 200-ft with a 3 ft-diameter ball at its top.  He fed 300 kW power to the Tesla coil resonated at 150 kHz.  The RF potential at the top sphere reached 100 MV.  Unfortunately, he failed because the transmitted power was diffused to all directions with 150 kHz radio waves whose wave length was 21 km. 
  164. ^ El Oualkadi, Ahmed; Zbitou, Jamal (August 2016). "advance and innovation in wireless power transmission technology for autonomous systems". Handbook of Research on Advanced Trends in Microwave and Communication Engineering. IGI Global. pp. 325–326. ISBN 9781522507734. Tesla actually built a gigantic coil which was connected to a high mast of 187-ft with a 3-ft diameter ball at its top. He fed 300 kW power to the Tesla coil resonated at 150 kHz. The RF potential at the top sphere reached 100 MV. Unfortunately, he failed because the transmitted power was diffused to all directions with 150 kHz radio waves whose wave length was 21 km. 
  165. ^ Cooper, Drury W., internal document of the law firm Kerr, Page & Cooper, New York City, 1916. (Cited in Anderson, Leland (1992). Nikola Tesla on His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power: An Extended Interview. Sun Publishing Company. p. 110. ISBN 1893817016. )

    I never have, above my signature, announced anything that I did not prove first . . . whenever I publish something I go through it first by experiment, then from experiment I calculate, and when I have the theory and practice meet I announce the results.

  166. ^ Carlson, W. Bernard (2013). Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age. Princeton University Press. p. 301. ISBN 1400846552
  167. ^ Mische, Wilfred, People's Power Project, Nikola Tesla Research Health Research
  168. ^ Golka, Robert, "Project Tesla  In Search of an Answer to Our Energy Needs" Radio-Electronics, pp. 48-49, February 1981.
  169. ^ Leyh, G. E.; Kennan, M. D. (28 September 2008). Efficient wireless transmission of power using resonators with coupled electric fields (PDF). NAPS 2008 40th North American Power Symposium, Calgary, 28–30 September 2008. Inst. of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. pp. 1–4. doi:10.1109/NAPS.2008.5307364. ISBN 978-1-4244-4283-6. 
  170. ^ Nelson, Edward P., "Minnesota Powerline Construction Oral History Project", Minnesota Historical Society, April 18, 1978.
  171. ^ Lawren, Bill (March 1988). "Rediscovering Tesla". Omni Magazine. 10 (6): 64–66, 68, 116–117. Retrieved September 4, 2015. 
  172. ^ Leyh, G. E.; Kennan, M. D. (28 September 2008). Efficient wireless transmission of power using resonators with coupled electric fields (PDF). NAPS 2008 40th North American Power Symposium, Calgary, 28–30 September 2008. Inst. of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. pp. 1–4. doi:10.1109/NAPS.2008.5307364. ISBN 978-1-4244-4283-6.  The power flowed through the ambient electric fields and returned through Earth, similar to Tesla’s original concept from 1900.
  173. ^ a b Marinčić, Aleksandar (1978). Nikola Tesla  Colorado Springs Notes  1899–1900. Nolit. 
  174. ^ Corum, K.L. and J.F. Corum, "Bell Labs and the ‘Crucial’ 1936 Seneca Lake Experiment," TEXZON Technologies, LLC. (Published in Nikola Tesla's Electricity Unplugged as "Bell Labs and the Radio Surface Wave Propagation Experiment," Thomas Valone, Ed., Adventures Unlimited Press, 2016.)
  175. ^ Corum, K.L., M.W. Miller, and J.F. Corum, "Surface Waves and the 'Crucial' Propagation Experiment," Texas Symposium on Wireless & Microwave Circuits & Systems, IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, March 31-April 1, 2016.
  176. ^ Corum, Kenneth L.; Corum, James F. (June 1, 2016). "The Seneca Lake Experiment Repeated". In Valone, Thomas. Nikola Tesla's Electricity Unplugged: Wireless Transmission of Power as the Master of Lightning Intended. Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 978-1939149572. Professor Banos once wrote, "Burrows made careful measurements. . . . [He] concludes that his experimental results prove conclusively that simple antennas do not generate a Sommerfeld surface wave. . . ." We strongly challenge that supposition and assert that it has now been conclusively demonstrated that even simple structures may be adjusted to launch a Zenneck-Sommerfeld surface wave. 
  177. ^ Corum, K. L. and J. F. Corum, U.S. Patent Pending US20140252886 A1, "Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media."
  178. ^ Corum, K. L. and J. F. Corum, U.S. Patent Pending US20160072300 A1, "Excitation and use of guided surface wave modes on lossy media."
  179. ^ Devereaux, Richard T. (2016-09-28). "THE MICROGRID UNPLUGGED: ENERGY SURETY VIA WIRELESS POWER" (PDF). Texzon. This paper introduces the use of an electromagnetic phenomenon called the Zenneck surface wave to wirelessly transfer power from a secured external power generation source directly to a microgrid without reliance on traditional wired macrogrid architecture. It discusses the fragility and limitations of the current grid, describes the unique physical characteristics and historical evolution of Zenneck surface wave technology, and tracks its developmental status. 
  180. ^ Corum, K.L., M.W. Miller, and J.F. Corum, “Surface Waves and the Crucial Propagation Experiment,” Proceedings of the 2016 Texas Symposium on Wireless & Microwave Circuits & Systems, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, March 31-April 1, 2016.
  181. ^ Corum, K.L. and J.F. Corum, “Bell Labs and the ‘Crucial’ 1936 Seneca Lake Experiment.” (Published in Nikola Tesla’s Electricity Unplugged as “Bell Labs and the Radio Surface Wave Propagation Experiment,” Thomas Valone, Ed., Adventures Unlimited Press, 2016.)
  182. ^ US Patent No. 527857A, Maurice Hutin, Maurice Leblanc, Transformer system for electric railways, filed 16 November 1892; granted 23 October 1894
  183. ^ US Patent No. 3713148A, Mario W. Cardullo, William L. Parks, Transponder apparatus and system, filed 21 May 1970; granted 23 January 1973
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