Wisdom King

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The Wisdom king Kundali.

In Vajrayana Buddhism, a Wisdom King (Sanskrit Vidyārāja, Chinese: 明王; pinyin: Míngwáng; Japanese pronunciation: Myōō) is a type of deity in Buddhism and classed as the third after buddhas and Bodhisattvas in Japanese statuary. The Sanskrit name literally translates to "knowledge king", thus the Chinese character "明", meaning "knowledgeable", or "bright" is used, leading to wide array of alternative English names, including "Radiant King", "Guardian King", etc. In Tibetan Buddhism, they are known as Herukas.

The female counterparts of Wisdom Kings are known as Wisdom Queens (Sanskrit: vidyā-rājñī, Chinese: 明妃 Míngfēi, Japanese: 明妃 Myōhi).

Doctrine[edit]

Generally, the Wisdom Kings function as the guardians of Buddhism, and wrathful manifestations of Buddhas. More specifically, they are the protectors of the Five Wisdom Buddhas.[1]

According to the esoteric doctrine of the three chakra bodies (三輪身, sanrinjin), whereas Buddhas represent pure concepts and bodhisattvas teach through compassion, Wisdom Kings are embodiments of the wheel of injunction (教令輪身, kyōryō tenshin) and teach through fear, shocking nonbelievers into faith.[1]

Iconography[edit]

As mentioned above, Wisdom Kings are usually represented as wrathful deities, often with blue skin, multiple arms, sometimes with many faces, and even many legs. They hold weapons in their hands and are sometimes adorned with skulls, snakes or animal skins and wreathed in flames.

List of Wisdom Kings[edit]

The Five Wisdom Kings[edit]

In the Shingon tradition of Esoteric Buddhism, the Five Great Wisdom Kings (五大明王, Jp: Godai Myō-ō[2]; Ch: Wǔ Dà Míngwáng), also known as the Five Guardian Kings are a group of Wisdom Kings who represent the luminescent wisdom of the Buddha and protect the Five Wisdom Buddhas. The Five Kings are usually defined as follows.

The Five Wisdom Kings is the most important grouping of Wisdom Kings (Vidyaraja) in Esoteric Buddhism. They are wrathful manifestations of The Five Wisdom Buddhas.

The Five Wisdom Kings inhabit the Womb Realm. They are organized according to the directions of the compass.

Vajrayakṣa

(north)

Yamāntaka

(west)

Acala

(principal deity/ meditator)

Trailokyavijaya

(east)

Kuṇḍali

(south)

Others[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Baroni, Helen Josephine (2002). The illustrated encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. p. 100. ISBN 0-8239-2240-5.
  2. ^ Brown, Steven T. (2001), Theatricalities of power: the cultural politics of Noh, Stanford University Press, p. 85, ISBN 0-8047-4070-4
  3. ^ J. Hackin (1994). Asiatic Mythology: A Detailed Description and Explanation of the Mythologies of All the Great Nations of Asia. Asian Educational Services. p. 423. ISBN 978-81-206-0920-4.

Further reading[edit]

  • Mark and Luebeck,Walter Hosak (2006). Big Book of Reiki Symbols, The. Tokyo: Lotus Press. ISBN 0-914955-64-0.