With God, all things are possible
With God, all things are possible is the motto of the U.S. state of Ohio. Quoted from the Gospel of Matthew, verse 19:26, it is the only state motto taken directly from the Bible (Greek: παρὰ δὲ θεῷ πάντα δυνατά, para de Theō panta dynata). It is defined in section 5.06 of the Ohio Revised Code and sometimes appears beneath the Seal of Ohio. The motto was adopted in 1959 and survived a federal constitutional challenge in 2001. The state maintains that it is a generic expression of optimism rather than an endorsement of a particular religion.
The motto appears beneath the Seal of Ohio on the official letterhead of some state agencies. A large-scale version is displayed in a plaza near the Ohio Statehouse. The state motto appears on the flag of Franklin County, beneath the county seal, which is based on the state seal. School districts in Ohio are required to accept and display any donated copy of the motto that meets certain criteria.
The motto is also one of 46 phrases printed on the "Ohio Pride" license plate design introduced on April 15, 2013. It is located on two lines in the center-left of the baseplate, below "Inventors Hall of Fame" and above "Beautiful Ohio".
Ohio is considered the successor to the Northwest Territory, whose seal bore the Latin motto Meliorem lapsa locavit, meaning "He has planted one better than the one fallen." This motto, which may have come from the Seal of South Carolina, celebrated the internal improvements that succeeded in pushing back the wilderness. The seal's first recorded use was on a proclamation on July 26, 1788. Ohio's statehood in 1803 left it without a motto, though Meliorem lapsa locavit remains the motto of Belmont County.
On February 19, 1866, future Superintendent of Public Instruction William D. Henkle wrote to Secretary of State William Henry Smith, listing 125 Greek, Latin, and French phrases from which to choose a state motto. It was apparently thought that a motto of classical origin would be more dignified than one in English. On April 6, a Republican General Assembly passed 57 SB 172, adopting an elaborate new state seal and coat of arms. The coat of arms bore the motto Imperium in Imperio, Latin for "An Empire Within an Empire" or "Sovereignty Within Sovereignty", number 85 on Henkle's list. Governor Jacob Dolson Cox used the new seal and motto for the first time in a proclamation on November 5. Though it was intended to extol the state's grandeur, the motto was thought to be too pretentious and ironically recalled states' rights only a year after the Civil War. The historian Rush R. Sloane would later describe it as "a sort of climax of absurdity".
On May 9, 1868, facing significant cost overruns associated with the new seal, a Democratic Assembly repealed the entire statute. Representative Jacob Wolf proposed to leave the motto in place, while Representative Francis Bates Pond proposed to replace it with Fiat justicia ruat cœlem, Latin for "Let justice be done even if the sky falls". Despite these legislators' efforts, the state was once again left without an official motto.
After 1868, there were hundreds of unsuccessful attempts to designate a new state motto. On June 29, 1933, the Senate passed a resolution declaring "Gateway to the West" to be the motto, but it did not pass the House of Representatives. In the early 1950s, the General Assembly sponsored a contest to choose a motto. In 1953, Representative Anna F. Heise O'Neil introduced a bill to designate a state motto in time for Ohio's sesquicentennial, but it was tabled. A 1957 proposal to place "Home of Light and Flight" on the seal would have celebrated Thomas Edison's birthplace in Milan and the Wright brothers' hometown of Dayton. The same year, State Senator Lowell Fess sponsored a bill backed by the Ohio American Legion that would have restored Imperium in Imperio.
In March 1958, ten-year-old Jimmy Mastronardo of Cincinnati wrote to The Cincinnati Enquirer, pointing out that Ohio was the only one out of 48 states that lacked a motto. He recommended the phrase, "With God, all things are possible." Secretary of State Ted W. Brown encouraged him to promote his proposal to legislators and registered him as a lobbyist. He called his State Senator, William H. Deddens, who invited him to testify before the Senate State Government Committee on February 24, 1959. Mastronardo gathered 18,000 signatures in a petition drive, initially collecting them door to door and at a local food festival. On June 22, the House of Representatives voted unanimously to pass a bill adopting his motto, after he was given the unprecedented privilege of addressing the House from the speaker's podium. Governor Michael DiSalle signed 103 SB 193 into law in July, effective October 1, 1959. The motto made its first appearance on a state publication the following year, when the Secretary of State's office distributed a pamphlet about state symbols to schoolchildren.
Although the motto is widely understood to come from Jesus' words in an encounter with a rich young man, Mastronardo told reporters that he simply proposed his mother's favorite saying, unaware of its Biblical origin. At a statewide meeting of elections officials, Brown presented him with a Citation Award while a surprise guest, comedian Joe E. Brown, praised the twelve-year-old for his efforts. Mastronardo also received an Ohio flag embroidered with the motto.
In April 1996, Governor George Voinovich returned from a trade mission to India, where he had seen the slogan "Government Work Is God's Work" (Kannada: ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ಕೆಲಸ ದೇವರ ಕೆಲಸ) prominently displayed on the Vidhana Soudha, the state capitol in Bangalore. This display gave him the idea for a similar inscription of Ohio's motto on the Statehouse in Columbus, as part of a $110 million renovation project that was nearing completion. He went public with the proposal at an observance of the National Day of Prayer in May. In November, the Capitol Square Review & Advisory Board decided to instead install a seal and motto on a plaza adjoining the Statehouse.
In 1997, just before the bronze fixture was to be installed, the Ohio affiliate of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) sued the board, Voinovich, Secretary of State Bob Taft, and several other state officials. The ACLU alleged that the state had violated the Establishment Clause in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and a similar clause in the Ohio Constitution. The state argued that its motto was not explicitly Christian, likening it to the national motto, "In God We Trust", and the use of "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance. It was explained as "a compelling symbol of hope, inspiration and stick-to-it-iveness". The ACLU represented a Cleveland-area Presbyterian associate minister who objected to the state's trivialization of a quote attributed to Jesus. An ACLU-sponsored poll in the spring of 1997 found that only two percent of Summit County residents were aware of the motto.
On September 1, 1998, U.S. District Judge James L. Graham upheld the motto, finding it to be "generically theistic" without endorsing any particular denomination, but he enjoined the state from citing its source. The state carried out the installation within days. On April 25, 2000, a panel of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the lower court ruling, finding that "the words have no secular purpose and appear to be a government endorsement of the Christian religion". However, the Council on American–Islamic Relations disputed this finding, citing verse 2:106 of the Quran, while the World Vaisnava Association objected on the basis of Hindu scriptures.
By this time, there was significant public support for the motto. A June 2000 Ohio Poll conducted by the University of Cincinnati found that 62% of Ohioans were aware of the April ruling; of them, 11% agreed with it while 88% disagreed. The U.S. House of Representatives weighed in, voting 333–27 (with 66 voting "present") to pass a non-binding resolution, sponsored by Representatives Mike Oxley and Tony P. Hall of Ohio, that expressed support for Ohio's motto and others that refer to God. The entire Ohio delegation except for Representative Stephanie Tubbs Jones voted in favor. By December, Attorney General Betty Montgomery's office had received 15,000 letters of support regarding the ACLU case, more than on any other issue during her term.
On March 16, 2001, after an en banc review, the full Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed Judge Graham's ruling 9–4, leaving the motto in place. In a dissenting opinion, Judge Gilbert S. Merritt, Jr., expressed skepticism that the state fully intended to separate religious meaning from these words. He noted that Ohio officials had frequently explained the motto to their constituents in religious terms: Secretaries of State from Brown to Taft had cited Matthew 19:26 in pamphlets, and in 2000, Montgomery wrote to constituents that "the destruction of our state motto is part of a carefully constructed plan to strip America of every last symbol of our faith." On June 7, 2001, the ACLU declined to appeal the case further, fearing the repercussions of an adverse ruling by a conservative U.S. Supreme Court.
As noted in ACLU v. Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board, the federal government also invokes God in both its official motto, "In God We Trust", and in the Pledge of Allegiance. Three federal circuit courts have affirmed the national motto (see Aronow v. United States, O'Hair v. Murray, and Gaylor v. United States).
Besides Ohio, several other states, territories, and cities refer to God on their seals without quoting the Bible:
- South Dakota's seal bears the motto "Under God the people rule". Colorado's includes Nil sine numine, Latin for "Nothing without providence" or "Nothing without the Deity". Arizona's includes Ditat Deus, meaning "God enriches". The mottos of all three were chosen before statehood by territorial governors.
- Florida's seal bears the national motto.
- Although Kentucky's official motto is "United we stand, divided we fall", in 2002 the legislature also adopted Deo gratiam habeamus ("Let us be grateful to God") as the state's Latin motto.
- American Samoa's motto is Samoa Muamua Le Atua, which means "Samoa, let God be first".
- Boston's motto is Sicut patribus sit deus nobis, "As to our fathers may God be to us".
The coat of arms of Puerto Rico bears the motto Joannes est nomen ejus, meaning "John is his name". Like Ohio's motto, it is a quotation from the Bible, in this case the Vulgate's Gospel of Luke, verse 1:63. The motto is a reference to St. John the Baptist or San Juan Bautista, the island's original namesake. It reflects the commonwealth's strong Roman Catholic heritage as a former Spanish colony.
- Capitol Square Review & Advisory Board v. Pinette, another case involving the ACLU and the Statehouse plaza
Notes and references
- "Winter - West Seal". Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- American Civil Liberties Union of Ohio and The Rev. Matthew Peterson v. Capitol Square Review & Advisory Board, 243 F.3d 289 (6th Cir. 2001).
- Fritsch, Jane (April 30, 2000). "Holy Cow! Ohio Has A Motto Problem". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
- Ohio Rev. Code §5.06
- Sidoti, Liz (June 8, 2001). "Debate over Ohio's Bible-quoted motto won't go to high court". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. Spartanburg, South Carolina. Associated Press. p. A4 – via Google News.
- Steinfels, Peter (July 29, 2000). "Trusting in God is one thing, but saying all things are possible with God is quite another. Or is it?". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- "Franklin County Flag". Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Ohio Rev. Code §3313.801
- "New Ohio Pride License Plate". Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- 1997 Ohio Individual Income Tax IT-1040EZ Forms and Instructions (PDF). Ohio Department of Taxation. 1997. p. 1. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- "Letter from the Tax Commissioner" (PDF). 2001 Annual Report (PDF). Ohio Department of Taxation. October 26, 2001. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- "Letter from the Tax Commissioner" (PDF). 2002 Annual Report (PDF). Ohio Department of Taxation. June 27, 2003. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Reinke, Edgar C. (Winter 1985). "Meliorem Lapsa Locavit: An Intriguing Puzzle Solved". Ohio History. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio History Connection. 94: 74.
- Bennett, Pamela J.; January, Alan (January 21, 2005). "Indiana's State Seal—An Overview". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
- "Belmont County Flag". Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- Lindley, Harlow (April 1944). "A State Motto". The Ohio State Archæological and Historical Quarterly. Ohio State Archæological and Historical Society. 53 (2): 160–165.
- McDonald, Forrest (November 2002). States' Rights and the Union: Imperium in Imperio, 1776–1876. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1227-7.
- "March 28, 1866". Journal of the Senate of the State of Ohio for the Regular Session of the Fifty-Seventh General Assembly. 62: 391. 1866 – via Google Books.
- Cox, Jacob Dolson (November 5, 1866). "Proclamation by Jacob D. Cox, Governor of the State of Ohio". Retrieved February 1, 2015 – via Ohio Memory.
- Knabenshue, Samuel S. (April 1902). "The Great Seal of Ohio". The Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications. Ohio State Archæological and Historical Society. 10 (4): 489–490.
- Randall, Emilius Oviatt (January 1902). "Great Seal of Ohio". The Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications. Ohio State Archæological and Historical Society. 10 (3): 392–393.
- Sloane, Rush R. (1903). "The Organization and Admission of Ohio into the Union and the Great Seal of the State". Ohio Centennial Anniversary Celebration at Chillicothe, May 20–21, 1903, under the auspices of the Ohio State Archælogical and Historical Society: complete proceedings. Ohio Centennial Anniversary Celebration. Chillicothe, Ohio: Ohio State Archæological and Historical Society. pp. 90–119. LCCN 04018527. OCLC 855752 – via Internet Archive.
- "Ohio Legislature [Official Report]". The Ohio State Journal. Columbus, Ohio. March 26, 1868. p. 3 – via Ohio Memory.
- "11-Year-Old Testifies In Senate On Adopting Motto". Reflector-Herald. 172 (46). Norwalk, Ohio. United Press International. February 24, 1959. p. 1 – via NewspaperArchive.com.
- "Ohio May Have Another Motto". Quarterly Bulletin. 8. Historical Society of Northwestern Ohio. June 29, 1933.
- "State Motto". Profile Ohio. Ohio Secretary of State. 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- Bulletin. Ohio General Assembly. 1953. p. 252.
- "357 New Bills Introduced To Establish Day's Record". The Zanesville Signal. March 7, 1957. p. 23 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Legislature's Hopper Holds Grist For Official Ohio Motto". The Blade. 122. Toledo, Ohio. Associated Press. February 6, 1957. p. 3 – via Google News.
- Radel, Cliff (September 4, 1998). "A mom to match our state motto". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Gannett Company. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- However, Washington State has never adopted an official motto. Its unofficial motto is Al-ki or Alki, meaning "bye and bye" in Chinook Jargon.
- "Boy Sponsors Motto". The War Cry. The Salvation Army. September 12, 1959. p. 16. Retrieved January 26, 2015 – via Internet Archive.
- "Motto For Ohio Nears Adoption". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Associated Press. June 23, 1959 – via Google News.
- "New Motto Put On State Seal". Sandusky Register. Sandusky, Ohio. United Press International. February 26, 1960. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Scooter Bill Gets Final Test Today". The Lima News. 75 (168). Lima, Ohio. United Press International. June 17, 1959. p. 4 – via NewspaperArchive.com.
- "Ohio's Official Motto 11 Years Old Today". Coshocton Tribune. 62 (19). Coshocton, Ohio. October 1, 1970. p. 6B – via NewspaperArchive.com.
- "Group to sell Ohio in trade trip to India". News. The Cincinnati Post. E. W. Scripps Company. Associated Press. April 3, 1996. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
- Harper, Jennifer (October 12, 1998). "All Things Are Possible – except, of Course, Jesus". Insight on the News. Washington, D.C.: News World Communications. Retrieved January 26, 2015 – via Questia Online Library.
- "Public, private citizens wield day of prayer for political gain". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Associated Press. May 3, 1996. p. 16 – via Google News.
- American Civil Liberties Union v. Capitol Square Review, 20 F. Supp. 2d 1176 (S.D. Ohio 1998).
- Nolan, John (April 26, 2000). "Ohio motto, 'With God, all things are possible,' ruled a no-no". Allegheny Times. Beaver, Pennsylvania: Beaver Newspapers. Associated Press. p. A1 – via Google News.
- "Muslims want Christian quote kept as Ohio motto". Delray Beach News. 45 (139). Delray Beach, Florida. Associated Press. May 5, 2000. p. 10A – via Google News.
- Tarjanyi, Judy (April 28, 2000). "Islam leaders join dissent of judgment". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. p. 6. Retrieved February 15, 2015 – via Google News.
- "Hindus call Ohio ruling 'absurd'". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. May 27, 2000. p. B5 – via Google News.
- "Poll finds motto ruling unpopular". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Gannett Company. Associated Press. July 16, 2000. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- Straub, Bill (June 28, 2000). "House votes in support of Ohio's state motto". The Cincinnati Post. E. W. Scripps Company. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved January 20, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
- 106 HR 494
- Montgomery, Betty (July 14, 2004). "Pledge, motto get support". Letter to the editor. Northwest Columbus News. 29 (19). Columbus, Ohio: Suburban News Publications. p. 7A. Retrieved February 6, 2015 – via Google News.
- "Federal judges mull Christmas as a holiday and Ohio's God motto". The Daily Record. 99 (297). Ellensburg, Washington. Associated Press. December 16, 2000. p. B3. Retrieved February 15, 2015 – via Google News.
- Kentucky Revised Statutes section 2.105
- Grabowski 1992, p. 47.
- Grabowski 1992, p. 7.