Withdrawal reflex

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The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli.[1] Spinal reflexes are often monosynaptic and are mediated by a simple reflex arc. A withdrawal reflex is mediated by a polysynaptic reflex resulting in the stimulation of many motor neurons in order to give a quick response.[2]


When a person touches a hot object and withdraws their hand from it without actively thinking about it, the heat stimulates temperature and danger receptors in the skin, triggering a sensory impulse that travels to the central nervous system. The sensory neuron then synapses with interneurons that connect to motor neurons.[3] Some of these send motor impulses to the flexors that lead to the muscles in the arm to contract, while some motor neurons send inhibitory impulses to the extensors so flexion is not inhibited. This is referred to as reciprocal innervation.[4]

Crossed extension reflex following withdrawal reflex[edit]

Once a danger receptor (called 'nociceptor') has been stimulated, the signal travels via the sensory nerve to the dorsal (posterior) horn of the spinal cord. The nerve synapses with ipsilateral motor neurons that exit the ventral (anterior) horn of the spinal cord and work to pull the soon-to-be injured body part away from danger within 0.5 seconds. [1] At the same time, the sensory neuron synapses with the ipsilateral motor neuron, as well as the motor neuron in the contralateral anterior horn.[4] This motor neuron stabilizes the uninjured side of the body (for instance; preparing the other leg to support the entire body weight when the other foot has stepped on a tack). At the same time as these two synapses, the sensory neuron also sends signals along the spinal cord to get motor neurons to contract muscles that shift the center of gravity of the body to maintain balance. This contralateral stimulation of motor neurons to stabilize the body is called the crossed extension reflex, and is a result of the withdrawal reflex (usually in the lower extremities).[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Solomon; Schmidt (1990). "13". In Carol, Field. Human Anatomy & physiology (2 ed.). Saunders College Publishing. p. 470. ISBN 0-03-011914-6. 
  2. ^ Martin, Elizabeth (2008). A dictionary of biology (6th ed. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 519. ISBN 978-019-920462-5. 
  3. ^ Thibodeau, Gary; Patton, Kevin (2000). "7". In Schrefer, Sally. Structure & Function of the Body (11 ed.). Mosby, Inc. p. 170. ISBN 0-323-01082-2. 
  4. ^ a b Seeley, Rod; Stephens, Trent; Philip Tate (1992). Allen, Deborah, ed. Anatomy and physiology (2 ed.). Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 
  5. ^ Anatomy and Physiology, The Unity of Form and Function by Ken Saladin. Pg 505-506.

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