Witness (1985 film)
|Directed by||Peter Weir|
|Produced by||Edward S. Feldman|
|Screenplay by||Earl W. Wallace
|Story by||Pamela Wallace
Earl W. Wallace
|Music by||Maurice Jarre|
|Edited by||Thom Noble|
Edward S. Feldman Productions
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
|Box office||$68.7 million (US/Can)|
Witness is a 1985 American crime thriller film directed by Peter Weir and starring Harrison Ford and Kelly McGillis. The screenplay by William Kelley, Pamela Wallace, and Earl W. Wallace focuses on a detective protecting a young Amish boy who becomes a target after he witnesses a murder in Philadelphia.
The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards and won two, for Best Original Screenplay and Best Film Editing. It was also nominated for seven BAFTA Awards, winning one for Maurice Jarre's score, and was also nominated for six Golden Globe Awards. William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace won the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay and the 1986 Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture Screenplay presented by the Mystery Writers of America.
In 1984, an Amish community attends the funeral of Jacob Lapp, who leaves behind his wife Rachel and eight-year-old son Samuel. Later, Rachel and Samuel travel by train to visit Rachel's sister, which takes them into Philadelphia. While waiting for a connecting train, Samuel goes into the men's room and witnesses two men attack and murder a third, narrowly escaping detection as he hides in the stalls.
Detective John Book is assigned to the case, and he and his partner, Sergeant Elton Carter, question Samuel. It turns out the victim was an undercover police officer. Samuel is unable to identify the lone perpetrator whose face he saw from mug shots or a lineup. However, at the police station, Samuel sees a newspaper clipping in which narcotics officer James McFee is honored for his exemplary service, and points him out to John. John remembers that McFee was previously responsible for a seizure of chemicals used to make amphetamines, but the evidence had disappeared.
John confides his suspicions to Chief Paul Schaeffer, who advises John to keep the case secret so they can work out how to move forward. But John is later ambushed in a parking garage and badly wounded by McFee. Since only Schaeffer knew of John's suspicions, John realizes Schaeffer is also corrupt and tipped off McFee. John calls Carter and orders him to remove the Lapp file from the records. He then hides his car and uses his sister's car to return Rachel and Samuel to Lancaster County. While attempting to return to the city, John passes out in the vehicle in front of their farm.
Rachel argues that taking John to a hospital would allow the corrupt police officers to find him while putting Samuel in danger. Her father-in-law Eli reluctantly agrees to shelter him, despite his distrust for the outsider. John slowly recovers in their care, and begins to develop feelings for Rachel, who is likewise drawn to him. The Lapps' neighbor Daniel Hochleitner had hoped to court her, and this becomes a cause of friction.
John's relationship with the Amish community grows as they learn he is skilled at carpentry. He is invited to participate in a barn raising for a newly married couple and gains Hochleitner's respect. However, the attraction between John and Rachel is evident and clearly concerns Eli and others. That night, John comes upon Rachel as she bathes, and she stands half-naked before him, but he walks away.
John goes into town with Eli to use a payphone, and learns that Carter has been killed. He deduces that it was Schaeffer and McFee, who are intensifying their efforts to find him and are joined by a third corrupt officer, Ferguson. In town, Hochleitner is harassed by locals. Breaking with the Amish tradition of nonviolence, John retaliates. The fight is reported to the local police, who inform Schaeffer.
The next day, the corrupt officers arrive at the Lapp farm and search for John and Samuel, taking Rachel and Eli hostage. John orders Samuel to run to Hochleitner's home for safety, then tricks Ferguson into the corn silo and suffocates him under tons of corn. He retrieves Ferguson's shotgun and kills McFee. Schaeffer then forces Rachel and Eli out of the house at gunpoint; Eli signals to Samuel to ring the farm's bell. John confronts Schaeffer, who threatens to kill Rachel, but the loud clanging from the bell summons the Amish neighbors. With so many witnesses present, Schaeffer realizes he cannot escape, and gives up.
As John prepares to leave, he says goodbye to Samuel in the fields. He and Rachel share a long loving gaze on the porch. Finally, Eli wishes him well "out there among them English", signifying his acceptance of John as a member of their community. Book smiles, drives away, and exchanges a wave with Hochleitner on the road out.
- Harrison Ford as Det. John Book
- Kelly McGillis as Rachel Lapp
- Josef Sommer as Chief Paul Schaeffer
- Lukas Haas as Samuel Lapp
- Jan Rubeš as Eli Lapp
- Alexander Godunov as Daniel Hochleitner
- Danny Glover as Lt. James McFee
- Brent Jennings as Sgt. Elton Carter
- Patti LuPone as Elaine
- Angus MacInnes as Fergie
- Frederick Rolf as Stoltzfus
- Viggo Mortensen as Moses Hochleitner
- Timothy Carhart as Zenovich
Producer Edward S. Feldman, who was in a "first-look" development deal with 20th Century Fox at the time, first received the screenplay for Witness in 1983. Originally entitled Called Home (which is the Amish term for death), it ran 182 pages long, the equivalent of three hours of screen time. The script, which had been circulating in Hollywood for several years, had been inspired by an episode of Gunsmoke William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace had written in the 1970s.
Feldman liked the concept, but felt too much of the script was devoted to Amish traditions, diluting the thriller aspects of the story. He offered Kelley and Wallace $25,000 for a one-year option and one rewrite, and an additional $225,000 if the film actually was made. They submitted the revised screenplay in less than six weeks, and Feldman delivered it to Fox. Joe Wizan, the studio's head of production, rejected it with the statement that Fox didn't make "rural movies".
Feldman sent the screenplay to Harrison Ford's agent Phil Gersh, who contacted the producer four days later and advised him his client was willing to commit to the film. Certain the attachment of a major star would change Wizan's mind, Feldman approached him once again, but Wizan insisted that as much as the studio liked Ford, they still weren't interested in making a "rural movie."
Feldman sent the screenplay to numerous studios and was rejected by all of them, until Paramount Pictures finally expressed interest. Feldman's first choice of director was Peter Weir, but he was involved in pre-production work for The Mosquito Coast and passed on the project. John Badham dismissed it as "just another cop movie", and others Feldman approached either were committed to other projects or had no interest. Then, as financial backing for The Mosquito Coast fell through, Weir became free to direct Witness, which was his first American film. It was imperative filming start immediately, because a Directors Guild of America strike was looming on the horizon.
The film was shot on location in Philadelphia and the city and towns of Intercourse, Lancaster, Strasburg and Parkesburg. Local Amish were willing to work as carpenters and electricians, but declined to appear on film, so many of the extras actually were Mennonites. Halfway through filming, the title was changed from Called Home to Witness at the behest of Paramount's marketing department, which felt the original title posed too much of a promotional challenge. Principal photography was completed three days before the scheduled DGA strike, which ultimately failed to materialize.
There are a few times the dialect of the Pennsylvania Germans, popularly known as Pennsylvania Dutch, is heard in the film. In one scene, during construction of the new barn, a man says to John Book, "Du huschd hott gschofft. Sell waar guud!," which means "You worked hard. That was good!" But more often the Amish characters are heard speaking High German, the standard language of most German-speaking Europeans, which actually is used rarely by the Amish in particular, or Pennsylvania Germans in general.
Critical response 
Witness was generally well received by critics and earned eight Academy Award nominations (including Weir's first and Ford's sole nomination to date).
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times rated the film four out of four stars, calling it "first of all, an electrifying and poignant love story. Then it is a movie about the choices we make in life and the choices that other people make for us. Only then is it a thriller—one that Alfred Hitchcock would have been proud to make." He concluded, "We have lately been getting so many pallid, bloodless little movies—mostly recycled teenage exploitation films made by ambitious young stylists without a thought in their heads—that Witness arrives like a fresh new day. It is a movie about adults, whose lives have dignity and whose choices matter to them. And it is also one hell of a thriller."
Vincent Canby of the New York Times said of the film, "It's not really awful, but it's not much fun. It's pretty to look at and it contains a number of good performances, but there is something exhausting about its neat balancing of opposing manners and values ... One might be made to care about all this if the direction by the talented Australian film maker, Peter Weir ... were less perfunctory and if the screenplay ... did not seem so strangely familiar. One follows Witness as if touring one's old hometown, guided by an outsider who refuses to believe that one knows the territory better than he does. There's not a character, an event or a plot twist that one hasn't anticipated long before its arrival, which gives one the feeling of waiting around for people who are always late."
Variety said the film was "at times a gentle, affecting story of star-crossed lovers limited within the fascinating Amish community. Too often, however, this fragile romance is crushed by a thoroughly absurd shoot-em-up, like ketchup poured over a delicate Pennsylvania Dutch dinner."
Halliwell's Film Guide chose Witness as one of only two films from 1985 to receive a four star review, describing it as "one of those lucky movies which works out well on all counts and shows that there are still craftsmen lurking in Hollywood."
Radio Times called the film "partly a love story and partly a thriller, but mainly a study of cultural collision – it's as if the world of Dirty Harry had suddenly stumbled into a canvas by Brueghel." It added, "[I]t's Weir's delicacy of touch that impresses the most. He ably juggles the various elements of the story and makes the violence seem even more shocking when it's played out on the fields of Amish denial."
The film opened in 876 theaters in the United States on February 8, 1985 and grossed $4,539,990 in its opening weekend, ranking No. 2 behind Beverly Hills Cop. It remained at No. 2 for the next three weeks and finally topped the charts in its fifth week of release. It eventually earned $68,706,993 in the United States.
Negotiation expert William Ury summarized the film's climactic scene in a chapter titled "The Witness" in his 1999 book Getting to Peace (later republished with the alternate title The Third Side: Why We Fight and How We Can Stop) and used the scene as a symbol of the power of ordinary citizens to resolve conflicts and stop violence.
This scene from the popular movie Witness captures the power of ordinary community members to contain violence. The Amish farmers were present as the third side in perhaps its most elemental form, seemingly doing nothing, but in fact playing the critical role of Witness. Like the Amish, we are all potential Witnesses.
Awards and nominations 
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- Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay (winner)
- Academy Award for Best Film Editing (winner)
- Academy Award for Best Picture (nominee)
- Academy Award for Best Director (nominee)
- Academy Award for Best Actor (Harrison Ford, nominee)
- Academy Award for Best Art Direction (Stan Jolley and John H. Anderson, nominees)
- Academy Award for Best Cinematography (John Seale, nominee)
- Academy Award for Best Original Score (Maurice Jarre, nominee)
- BAFTA Award for Best Film (nominee)
- BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay (nominee)
- BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role (Harrison Ford, nominee)
- BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role (Kelly McGillis, nominee)
- BAFTA Award for Best Film Music (Maurice Jarre, winner)
- BAFTA Award for Best Cinematography (John Seale, nominee)
- BAFTA Award for Best Editing (nominee)
- Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama (nominee)
- Golden Globe Award for Best Director (nominee)
- Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay (nominee)
- Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama (Harrison Ford, nominee)
- Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture (Kelly McGillis, nominee)
- Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score (Maurice Jarre, nominee)
- Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film (winner)
- Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor (Harrison Ford, winner)
- Writers Guild of America Award for Best Original Screenplay (winner)
- Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Feature Film (nominee)
- Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media (nominee)
- American Cinema Editors Award for Best Edited Feature Film (winner)
- Australian Cinematographers Society Award for Cinematographer of the Year (winner)
- British Society of Cinematographers Award for Best Cinematography (nominee)
The film was not well-received by the Amish communities where it was filmed. A statement released by a law firm associated with the Amish claimed that their portrayal in the movie was not accurate. The National Committee For Amish Religious Freedom called for a boycott of the movie soon after its release, citing fears that these communities were being "overrun by tourists" as a result of the popularity of the movie, and worried that "the crowding, souvenir-hunting, photographing and trespassing on Amish farmsteads will increase." After the movie was completed, Pennsylvania governor Dick Thornburgh agreed not to promote Amish communities as future film sites. A similar concern was voiced within the movie itself, where Rachel tells a recovering John that tourists often consider her fellow Amish something to stare at, with some even being so rude as to trespass on their private property.
- "Witness". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com.
- Feldman, Edward S. (2005). Tell Me How You Love the Picture. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 180–190. ISBN 0-312-34801-0.
- Roger Ebert (February 8, 1985). "Witness". Chicago Sun-Times.
- New York Times review (subscription required)
- "Witness". Variety. December 31, 1984.
- "Witness Review". Time Out New York.
- Halliwell's Film Guide, 13th edition – ISBN 0-00-638868-X.
- John Ferguson. "Witness review". Radio Times.
- "Festival de Cannes: Witness". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- Ury, William (2000) . The third side: why we fight and how we can stop (Revised ed.). New York: Penguin Books. pp. 170–171. ISBN 0140296344. OCLC 45610553.
- Hostetler, John A.; Kraybill, Donald B. (1988). "Hollywood markets the Amish". In Gross, Larry P.; Katz, John Stuart; Ruby, Jay. Image ethics: the moral rights of subjects in photographs, film, and television. Communication and society. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 220–235. ISBN 0195054334. OCLC 17676506.
- "Amish ask boycott of movie 'Witness'". Pittsburgh Press. February 16, 1985. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
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