Jump to content

Wojciech Jaruzelski

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wojciech Jaruzelski
Jaruzelski in 1981
President of Poland
In office
19 July 1989 – 22 December 1990
Prime Minister
Preceded byOffice restored
Succeeded byLech Wałęsa
First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party
In office
18 October 1981 – 29 July 1989
Prime Minister
Preceded byStanisław Kania
Succeeded byMieczysław Rakowski
6th Chairman of the Council of State
In office
6 November 1985 – 19 July 1989
Prime Minister
  • Zbigniew Messner
  • Mieczysław Rakowski
First Secretary
  • Himself
  • Mieczysław Rakowski
Preceded byHenryk Jabłoński
Succeeded byOffice abolished;
Himself as President
Prime Minister of Poland
In office
11 February 1981 – 6 November 1985
First Secretary
  • Stanisław Kania
  • Himself
Preceded byJózef Pińkowski
Succeeded byZbigniew Messner
Minister of National Defence
In office
11 April 1968 – 22 November 1983
Preceded byMarian Spychalski
Succeeded byFlorian Siwicki
Personal details
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski

(1923-07-06)6 July 1923
Kurów, Poland
Died25 May 2014(2014-05-25) (aged 90)
Warsaw, Poland
Resting placePowązki Military Cemetery, Warsaw
Political party
(m. 1961)
ChildrenMonika Jaruzelska
Military service
Years of service1943–1991

Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (/ˈvɔɪɛx ˌjɑːrˈzɛlski/ VOY-chekh YAH-roo-ZEL-skee; Polish: [ˈvɔjt͡ɕɛx ˈvʲitɔlt jaruˈzɛlskʲi] ; 6 July 1923 – 25 May 2014) was a Polish military general, politician and de facto leader of the Polish People's Republic from 1981 until 1989. He was the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party between 1981 and 1989, making him the last leader of the Polish People's Republic. Jaruzelski served as Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985, the Chairman of the Council of State from 1985 to 1989 and briefly as President of Poland from 1989 to 1990, when the office of President was restored after 37 years. He was also the last commander-in-chief of the Polish People's Army, which in 1990 became the Polish Armed Forces.

Born to Polish nobility in Kurów in eastern (then-central) Poland, Jaruzelski was deported with his family to Siberia by the NKVD after the invasion of Poland. Assigned to forced labour in the Siberian wilderness, he developed photokeratitis which forced him to wear protective sunglasses for the rest of his life. In 1943, Jaruzelski joined the newly created First Polish Army and fought alongside the Soviets against Nazi Germany in the Eastern Front, most notably in the liberation of Warsaw and in the Battle of Berlin. Following the Polish October and the expatriation of Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky back to the Soviet Union, Jaruzelski became the chief political officer of the Polish People's Army and eventually Polish Minister of Defence in 1968.

Jaruzelski became the First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party and leader of Poland after the brief one-year term of Stanisław Kania. Kania's predecessor, Edward Gierek, left Poland severely indebted by accepting loans from foreign creditors and the country's economy almost collapsed by the time Jaruzelski became head of state. As Poland headed towards insolvency, rationing was enforced due to shortages of basic goods, which only contributed to the tense social and political situation. The declining living and working conditions triggered anger among the masses and strengthened anti-communist sentiment; the Solidarity union was also gaining support which worried the Polish Central Committee and the Soviet Union that viewed Solidarity as a threat to the Warsaw Pact. Fearing a Soviet intervention similar to those in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968), Jaruzelski imposed martial law in Poland on 13 December 1981 to crush the anti-communist opposition. The military junta, curfew and travel restrictions lasted until 22 July 1983.

By the mid-1980s, censorship lost its importance and the authority of the United Workers' Party disintegrated, allowing more freedom of expression in Poland. During the revolutions of 1989 in Central and Eastern Europe, Jaruzelski supported the change of government for the benefit of the country and resigned after the Polish Round Table Agreement, which led to multi-party elections in Poland. He briefly served as President of Poland but exercised no real power and, in the 1990 Polish presidential election, Lech Wałęsa succeeded him as the first President elected in a popular vote.

Having served as the country's leader during its turbulent final years of communist rule, Jaruzelski remains a controversial figure in Poland to this day. He was praised for allowing the country's peaceful transition into democracy, but was also fiercely criticized by contemporaries for his imposition of martial law, including his government's violent suppression of protests and imprisonment of thousands of opposition activists without definite charges, among other human rights violations.

Early life


Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski was born on 6 July 1923 in Kurów,[1] into a family of Polish gentry.[1][2] He was the son of Wanda (née Zaremba) and Władysław Mieczysław Jaruzelski, a Czech-educated agronomist and volunteered soldier who fought in the war against Soviet Russia in 1920[3][4] and was raised on the family estate near Wysokie (in the vicinity of Białystok).[5] From 1933 until September 1939, he was educated in a Catholic school in Warsaw where he received strict religious education.[3][1]

World War II commenced on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany, aided by the Soviet invasion of Poland sixteen days later. These resulted in the complete defeat of Poland by October and a partition between Soviet and German zones of control. Jaruzelski and his family fled to Lithuania to stay with some friends. However, a few months later, after Lithuania and the other Baltic states were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union, Jaruzelski and his family were captured by the Red Army and designated for deportation to Siberia.[1][6]

In June 1941, they were stripped of their valuable possessions and deported. At the railway station, Jaruzelski was separated from his father, who was sent directly to a gulag. Jaruzelski and his mother were sent on a month-long journey to Biysk, Altai Krai. After that, Jaruzelski walked for 180 kilometres (110 mi) to Turochak where he was responsible for forest cleaning.[3][7] During his labour work, he was stricken with snow blindness, suffering permanent damage to his eyes as well as to his back.[2] His eye condition forced him to wear dark sunglasses most of the time for the rest of his life, which became his trademark.[6] Jaruzelski's father died on 4 June 1942 from dysentery; his mother and sister survived the war (she died in 1966).

Military career

Jaruzelski in 1968

Jaruzelski was selected by the Soviet authorities for enrollment into the Soviet Officer Training School.[1] During his time in the Kazakh Republic, Jaruzelski wanted to join the non-Soviet controlled Polish exile army led by Władysław Anders,[7] but in 1943,[8] by which time the Soviet Union was fighting in Europe against Germany in the Eastern Front, he joined the Polish army units being formed under Soviet command.[2] He served in this Soviet-controlled First Polish Army during the war.[1] He participated in the 1945 Soviet military takeover of Warsaw and the Battle of Berlin.[1] By the time the war ended that year, he had gained the rank of lieutenant.[2] He "further credited himself in Soviet eyes"[1] by engaging in combat against the non-Communist Polish Home Army, from 1945 to 1947.[1]

After the end of the war, Jaruzelski graduated from the Polish Higher Infantry School and then from the General Staff Academy.[8] He joined Poland's Communist party, the Polish United Workers' Party, in 1948[8] and became an informant for the Soviet supervised Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army using the cover name Wolski.[9] In the initial post-war years, he was among those who fought the Polish anti-Communists ("cursed soldiers") in the Świętokrzyskie region. A BBC News profile of Jaruzelski states that his career "took off after the departure [from Poland] in 1956 of Polish-born Soviet Marshal, Konstantin Rokossovsky",[2] who had been Poland's Commander in Chief and Minister of Defence.[2] Jaruzelski was elected to be a member of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party[8][10] and became the Chief Political Officer of the Polish armed forces in 1960, its chief of staff in 1964; and Polish Minister of Defence in 1968,[2] succeeding in the latter post Marshal Marian Spychalski persecuted in the years 1948-1956, albeit without the rank.[11]

Jaruzelski (right) with Fidel Castro (left) in Poland, May 1972

In August 1968, Jaruzelski, as the defence minister, ordered the 2nd Army under General Florian Siwicki (of the "LWP") to invade Czechoslovakia, resulting in military occupation of northern Czechoslovakia until 11 November 1968 when under his orders and agreements with the Soviet Union his Polish troops were withdrawn and replaced by the Soviet Army. In 1970, he was involved in the successful plot against Władysław Gomułka, which led to the appointment of Edward Gierek as General Secretary of the Polish United Workers Party. There is some question whether he took part in organising the brutal suppression of striking workers; or whether his orders to the Communist military led to massacres in the coastal cities of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Elbląg and Szczecin. As Minister of Defense, General Jaruzelski was ultimately responsible for 27,000 troops used against unarmed civilians.[12] He claims that he was circumvented, which is why he never apologised for his involvement.[12] Jaruzelski became a candidate member for the Politburo of the Polish United Workers' Party, the chief executive body of the party, obtaining full membership the following year.[1]

Leader of the Polish military government

Jaruzelski in a television studio, preparing to announce the imposition of martial law, 1981

On 11 February 1981, Jaruzelski was named Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister). On 18 October, Stanisław Kania was ousted as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party after a listening device recorded him criticising the Soviet leadership. Jaruzelski was elected his successor, becoming the only professional soldier to become the leader of a ruling European Communist party.[6][8]

A fortnight after taking power, Jaruzelski met with Solidarity head Lech Wałęsa and Catholic bishop Józef Glemp, and hinted that he wanted to bring the church and the union into a sort of coalition government. However, his intention was to crush Solidarity.[13] As early as September, while he was still merely prime minister, he met with his aides to find an excuse to impose martial law.[13] On 13 December, citing purported recordings of Solidarity leaders planning a coup, Jaruzelski organised his own coup by proclaiming martial law.[6] A Military Council of National Salvation was formed, with Jaruzelski as chairman. A BBC News profile of Jaruzelski contends that the establishment of martial law was "an attempt to suppress the Solidarity movement."[2]

Protests held in response to martial law were violently suppressed by the military of paramilitary units mostly by the use of water cannons, tear gas, batons, truncheons, and clubs, with one notable exception in Wujek: following a "shoot-to-kill" order, ZOMO units opened fire on demonstrators there, killing nine and wounding 21 others. The total number of deaths during martial law, while still uncertain and subject to dispute, is estimated to be 91 in total.[14]

Jaruzelski (second from right) with other communist leaders and members of the Warsaw Pact, Berlin, 1987

In 1982, Jaruzelski helped reorganise the Front of National Unity, the organisation the Communists used to manage their satellite parties, as the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth.[15] At the invitation of Jaruzelski, a delegation of the ruling Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party visited Poland between 27 and 29 December of that year, with the Hungarian delegation sharing their experiences on crushing the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.[16]

In spite of severe economic sanctions introduced by the Reagan Administration, martial law was largely successful in suppressing and demoralising the opposition, marginalising the Solidarity movement until the late 1980s. As demonstrators gradually declined towards the end of 1982, martial law was suspended on 31 December of that year, and was formally lifted (along with the final restrictions) on 22 July 1983.

In 1985, Jaruzelski resigned as prime minister and defence minister and became the Chairman of the Polish Council of State, a post equivalent to that of the head of state of Poland. However, his power centered on and firmly entrenched in his coterie of "LWP" generals and lower ranks officers of the Polish Communist Army.[15] There were plans in the government circles to award him the rank of Marshal of Poland, ultimately abandoned largely due to his own negative attitude towards the proposal.

Subsequent years saw his government and its internal security forces censor, persecute, and jail thousands of journalists and opposition activists without charge. The socio-economic crisis deepened even more than in the late 1970s and rationing of basic foods such as sugar, milk, and meat, as well as materials such as gasoline and consumer products, continued while the median income of the population fell by as much as 10 percent. During Jaruzelski's rule from 1981 to 1989, between 100,000 and 300,000 people left the country.[15]

Justification for imposing martial law


According to Jaruzelski, an internal crackdown on solidarity through martial law was necessary to avoid a Soviet invasion.[17] In a May 1992 interview with Der Spiegel, Jaruzelski said: "Given the strategic logic of the time, I probably would have acted the same way if I had been a Soviet general. At that time, Soviet political and strategic interests were threatened."[18] Jaruzelski also claimed in 1997 that Washington had given him a "green light", stating that he had sent Eugeniusz Molczyk to confer with Vice-President George H. W. Bush, who had agreed with Molczyk that martial law was the lesser of two evils.[19] Whether this meeting with the American vice-president occurred is disputed. While it is erroneously cited,[clarification needed] Harvard historian Mark Kramer has pointed out that no documents support Jaruzelski's claim.[15] At a press conference in September of that same year, however, former Warsaw Pact forces supreme commander Viktor Kulikov denied that the Soviet Union had either threatened or intended to intervene.[20]

Historical evidence released under Boris Yeltsin's presidency paints a more complicated picture: while Eastern Bloc countries were fully in favour of a crackdown on Solidarity, minutes from Politburo, Warsaw Pact and special commission meetings from the year leading up martial law details strong internal divisions on the question of intervening: Senior Soviet party figures and ministers in a special commission formed to respond to developments in Poland, such as Mikhail Suslov, Yuri Andropov, Andrei Gromyko, and Dmitriy Ustinov were reluctant to intervene, citing the 1970 Polish protests and the ongoing Soviet-Afghan war,[21] while the Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, along with East German and Czechoslovak leaders Erich Honecker and Gustáv Husák, expressed a strong willingness to intervene if necessary.[22] To this end, plans were made for a joint Soviet, East German, and Czechoslovak attack under the pretext of a Warsaw Pact military exercise called 'Soyuz-80,' (dubbed Operation Krkonoše in Czechoslovakia) on December 1980;[22][23] Before it could be carried out, Brezhnev was convinced by Kania to postpone the planned invasion in order to give Polish leadership a chance.

By the time of Jaruzelski's rise to power, the Soviet leadership's anti-intervention faction had prevailed thanks to the influence of Andropov, who at this point was already a highly influential figure in the Politburo: minutes from their 29 October 1981 meeting details a discussion of Jaruzelski's demands for military support if he failed to control the situation, which were unanimously rejected.[22] Contrary to his public statements after the fact, Jaruzelski was in fact highly insistent on Warsaw Pact military support.[12] Following a long back-and-forth at Warsaw Pact and Politburo meetings, in which even a proposed bluffing statement of support was vetoed by Romania,[22][24] any notion of a Warsaw Pact intervention was firmly and consequently shut down by Andropov in a Politburo meeting three days before Jaruzelski's proclamation: "We do not intend to introduce troops into Poland. That is the proper position, and we must adhere to it until the end. I don't know how things will turn out in Poland, but even if Poland falls under the control of Solidarity, that's the way it will be."[25][15]


Jaruzelski with Nicolae Ceaușescu

The policies of Mikhail Gorbachev stimulated political reform in Poland as well as in other communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe.[26]

From 6 February to 4 April 1989, negotiations were held between 13 working groups during 94 sessions of the roundtable talks. These negotiations "radically altered the shape" of the Polish government and society, and resulted in an agreement which stated that a great degree of political power would be given to a newly created bicameral legislature. It also restored a post of president to act as head of state and chief executive. Solidarity was also declared a legal organisation. During the ensuing partially-free elections, the Communists and their allies were allocated 65 percent of the seats in the Sejm. Solidarity won all the remaining elected seats, and 99 out of the 100 seats in the fully elected Senate were also won by Solidarity-backed candidates.[1] Amid such a crushing defeat, there were fears Jaruzelski would annul the results. However, he allowed them to stand.[27] Jaruzelski was elected by parliament to the position of president. He was the only candidate.

Jaruzelski was unsuccessful in convincing Lech Wałęsa to include Solidarity in a "grand coalition"[1] with the Communists. He resigned as first secretary of the PZPR on 29 July 1989.[1][28] Mieczysław Rakowski succeeded him as party leader.[28]

The Communists initially intended to give Solidarity a few token cabinet posts for the sake of appearances. However, Wałęsa persuaded the Communists' two allied parties, the United People's Party (ZSL) and the Alliance of Democrats (SD), to break their alliance with the PZPR.[29] Accepting that he would have to appoint a Solidarity member as prime minister, Jaruzelski then asked Wałęsa to select three candidates, one of whom he would ask to form a government. Ultimately, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who had helped organise the roundtable talks, was selected as first non-Communist prime minister of an Eastern Bloc country in four decades.[30] Jaruzelski resigned as president in 1990.[1] He was succeeded by Wałęsa, who had won the presidential election on 9 December.[31]

On 31 January 1991, Jaruzelski retired from the army.[32]

After retirement

Jaruzelski in 2006

In October 1994, while attending a book-selling activity in Wroclaw, Jaruzelski was attacked by a male pensioner with a stone; his jaw was injured, requiring surgery. The attacker, who had been imprisoned during the martial law period, was sentenced to two years' imprisonment and fined 2,000,000 złoty.[33]

In an interview in 2001, Jaruzelski said that he believed communism failed and that he was now a social democrat. He also announced his support for President Aleksander Kwaśniewski and Leszek Miller, later Prime Minister. Both Kwaśniewski and Miller were members of the Democratic Left Alliance, the social democratic party that included most of the remains of the PZPR.[7]

In May 2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin awarded a medal commemorating the 60th anniversary of victory over Nazi Germany to Jaruzelski and other former leaders, including former Romanian King Michael I.[34] Czech President Václav Klaus criticised this step, saying that Jaruzelski was a symbol of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Jaruzelski said that he had apologised and that the decision on the August 1968 invasion had been a great "political and moral mistake".[35]

On 28 March 2006, Jaruzelski was awarded a Siberian Exiles Cross by Polish President Lech Kaczyński. However, after making this fact public, Kaczyński said that this was a mistake and blamed his staff for giving him a document containing 1,293 names without notifying him of Jaruzelski's inclusion. After this statement, Jaruzelski returned the cross.[36][37]

On 31 March 2006, the IPN charged Jaruzelski with committing communist crimes, mainly the creation of a criminal military organisation with the aim of carrying out criminal acts—mostly concerned with the illegal imprisonment of people. A second charge involved inciting state ministers to commit acts beyond their competence.[37] Jaruzelski evaded most court appearances, citing poor health. In December 2010, Jaruzelski suffered from severe pneumonia[38] and, in March 2011, he was diagnosed with lymphoma.[39]


Jaruzelski's grave at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw

Jaruzelski died on 25 May 2014 in a Warsaw hospital after suffering a stroke earlier that month.[40][41] He had reportedly requested last rites by a Catholic priest.[42][43] President Bronisław Komorowski, former Presidents Lech Wałęsa and Aleksander Kwaśniewski, and hundreds of other Poles attended his funeral mass at the Field Cathedral of the Polish Army in Warsaw on 30 May. Wałęsa and Komorowski, who were among the thousands imprisoned during the crackdown on Solidarity in 1981, both said that judgment against Jaruzelski "would be left to God".[43][44] Jaruzelski was cremated and buried with full military honours at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw, near the grave of Bolesław Bierut, the first Communist leader of Poland after World War II.[45] The decision to bury Jaruzelski at Powązki, the burial place of Polish soldiers killed defending their country since the early 19th century, caused protests.[42]

Personal life


Jaruzelski married Barbara Halina Jaruzelska (1931–2017)[46] in 1961.[47] They had a daughter, Monika who was born on 11 August 1963. Monika has a son, Gustaw.

In 2014, his wife Barbara threatened to file for divorce, saying she had caught his nurse Dorota in a compromising position with him.[48][49]



The BBC reported in 2001 that "for some Poles — particularly the Solidarity generation — he is little short of a traitor". However, opinion polls as of 15 May 2001 suggested that a majority of the Polish people were open to agreeing with his explanation that martial law was implemented to forestall a Soviet invasion.[2] In interviews in Russian media (Rossiyskaya Gazeta, for example), he has been presented as the harbinger of Poland's democracy.[50]

Croatian writer Slavenka Drakulić described Jaruzelski as a "tragic believer in Communism who made a pact with the devil in good faith".[51]

Written works


Różnić się mądrze (English translation: To Differ Wisely; 1999).[8]

"Być może to ostatnie słowo (wyjaśnienia złożone przed Sądem)" (English translation: "It may be the last word (explanations given in the Court)"; 2008).

Honours and awards



Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari
Officer's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta
Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta – 5 November 1948
Order of the Builders of People's Poland
Order of the Banner of Work, 1st class
Order of the Cross of Grunwald, 3rd class – 2 September 1945
Cross of Valour (twice) – 24 June 1945, 14 January 1946
Silver Cross of Merit – 20 July 1945
Silver Medal "For Meritorious Field of Glory" (thrice) – 4 February 1945, 27 March 1945, 12 May 1945
Medal "For Participation in the Fights in Defense of the People's Power"
Medal of the 10th Anniversary of People's Poland – 1954
Medal of the 30th Anniversary of People's Poland – 1974
Medal of the 40th Anniversary of People's Poland – 1984
Medal "For Oder, Neisse and the Baltic"
Medal "For Warsaw 1939-1945"
Medal "For Participation in the Battles for Berlin"
Medal of Victory and Freedom 1945
Gold Medal of the Armed Forces in the Service of the Fatherland
Silver Medal of the Armed Forces in the Service of the Fatherland
Bronze Medal of the Armed Forces in the Service of the Fatherland
Gold Medal of Merit for National Defence
Silver Medal of Merit for National Defence
Bronze Medal of Merit for National Defence
Medal of the National Education Commission
Medal Pro Memoria – 2005
Gold Badge of them. Janek Krasicki
Polish State Millennium Badge

Soviet Union

Order of Lenin (twice) – 1968 and 1983[52]
Order of the October Revolution – 1973
Order of the Red Banner – 1978
Order of Friendship of Peoples – 1973
Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" – 1969
Medal "For the Liberation of Warsaw" – 1945
Medal "For the Capture of Berlin" – 1945
Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" - 1945
Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" – 1965
Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" – 1975
Jubilee Medal "Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" – 1985
Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" – 1968
Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" – 1978
Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" – 1988
Medal "For Strengthening of Brotherhood in Arms" – 1979

Other countries

Commander of the Order of the Crown (Belgium) – 1967
Order of Georgi Dimitrov (Bulgaria) – 1983
Medal of 30th Anniversary of the Bulgarian Armed Forces (Bulgaria) – 1974
Order of José Martí (Cuba) – 1983
Collar of the Order of the White Lion (Czechoslovakia) – 1978
Order of Klement Gottwald (Czechoslovakia) – 1983
Order of the Red Banner (Czechoslovakia) – 1971
Medal “For Strengthening Friendship in Arms”, Golden class (Czechoslovakia)
Grand Cross of the White Rose of Finland (Finland) – 1989
Grand Cross of the Legion d'Honneur (France) – 1989
Order of Karl Marx (East Germany) – 1983
Scharnhorst Order (East Germany) – 1975
Grand Cross of Order of the Redeemer (Greece) – 1987
Order of the Flag of the Republic of Hungary, 1st with diamonds (Hungary) – 1983
Order of the Red Banner (Hungary) – 1977
Medal of 60th Anniversary of the End of World War II (Israel) – 2005
Knight Grand Cross with Ribbon of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Italy) – 1989
Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolia) – 1977
Order of the Red Banner (Mongolia) – 1983
Order of the National Flag, 1st class (North Korea) – 1977[citation needed]
Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry (Portugal)
Order of the Star of the Romanian People's Republic, 1st class (Romania) – 1983
Gold Medal "Virtutea Ostăşească" (Romania) – 1971
Medal of Zhukov (Russia) – 1996
Jubilee Medal "50 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (Russia) – 1995
Jubilee Medal "60 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (Russia) – 2005
Gold Star Order (Vietnam) – 1983


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Profile: Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski". Cable Network News (CNN). Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Repa, Jan (16 May 2001). "Profile: Poland's last Communist leader". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) News. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  3. ^ a b c Liu, Yanshun (1 July 2016). Jaruzelski, the Shaker of Polish History (in Chinese) (1 ed.). Beijing, China: Shijiezhishi. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9787501252299.
  4. ^ Jaruzelski, Wojciech; Maxwell, Robert (3 November 2006). Jaruzelski, prime minister of Poland: selected speeches – Wojciech Jaruzelski, Robert Maxwell. Pergamon Press. ISBN 9780080333663. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  5. ^ Chodakiewicz, Marek Jan (12 December 2006). "The Jaruzelski Case: The Ascent of Agent 'Wolski'". World Politics Review.
  6. ^ a b c d Sebetsyen, Victor (2009). Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York City: Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-375-42532-5.
  7. ^ a b c Green, Peter S. (27 May 2001). "An Aging Ex-Dictator Who Refuses To Recant". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  9. ^ "The Jaruzelski Case: The Ascent of Agent 'Wolski'". www.worldpoliticsreview.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  10. ^ "Profile: Poland's last communist leader". 16 May 2001.
  11. ^ The Struggle in the Polish Leadership and the Revolt of the ApparatArchived 27 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ a b c Szporer, Michael. "General Wojciech Jaruzelski". Global Museum on Communism. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011.
  13. ^ a b Poland marks Communist crackdown, BBC News, 13 December 2006
  14. ^ "Poland marks communist crackdown". 13 December 2006. Retrieved 17 May 2024.
  15. ^ a b c d e CIA Historical Review Program (24 October 1997). The Warsaw Pact 1955-1991 - Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (PDF file, direct download 12.2 MB). Soviet – East European Military Relations in Historical Perspective - Sources and Reassessments. The Historical Collections Division (HCD) of the Office of Information Management Services. p. 18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 November 2013.
  16. ^ Paczkowski, Andrzej; Byrne, Malcolm; Domber, Gregory F.; Klotzbach, Magdalena (1 January 2007). From Solidarity to Martial Law: The Polish Crisis of 1980-1981 : a Documentary History. Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-7326-96-7.
  17. ^ Suraska, Wisła (1 April 1998). How the Soviet Union Disappeared: An Essay on the Causes of Dissolution. Duke University Press. p. 69. Retrieved 1 April 2018 – via Internet Archive. jaruzelski 1981 december WRON andropov.
  18. ^ Das war psychische Folter Der Spiegel, 11 May 1992.
  19. ^ Jane Perlez, "Warsaw Journal: Old Cold War Enemies Exhume One Battlefield", The New York Times, 11 November 1997, p. 14.
  20. ^ Malcolm Byrne, "New Evidence on the Polish Crisis 1980–1981", Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11 (Winter 1998), p. 4
  21. ^ "Poland's Crisis: Examining the Causes and the Consequences". The New York Times. June 21, 1981.
  22. ^ a b c d Vojtech Mastny. The Soviet Non-Invasion of Poland in 1980/81 and the End of the Cold War Archived 20 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Working Paper No. 23, Cold War International History Project, Washington, D.C., September 1998, also published in Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2 (March 1999), pp. 189–211.
  23. ^ "Petr Klan » Když disident ujede". Aktuálně.cz. 16 September 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  24. ^ "Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Defense Ministers: Introduction". Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
  25. ^ Minutes of CPSU CC Politburo, 10 December 1981, Document No. 21, p. 165.
  26. ^ Sanford, George (1984). "The Polish Communist Leadership and the Onset of the State of War". Soviet Studies. 36 (4): 494–512. doi:10.1080/09668138408411551. ISSN 0038-5859. JSTOR 151930.
  27. ^ Sarotte, Mary Elise (7 October 2014). The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall. New York City: Basic Books. p. 23. ISBN 9780465064946.
  28. ^ a b Butturini, Paula (30 July 1989). "Solidarity Foe Is New Polish Party Chief". Chicago Tribune. Warsaw. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  29. ^ Piotr Wróbel, Rebuilding Democracy in Poland, 1989-2004, in M. B. B. Biskupski; James S. Pula; Piotr J. Wrobel (25 May 2010). The Origins of Modern Polish Democracy. Ohio University Press. pp. 273–275. ISBN 978-0-8214-1892-5. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  30. ^ Martin, Douglas (28 October 2013). "Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Ex-Premier of Poland, Dies at 86". The New York Times.
  31. ^ "A Biographical Note". Lech Wałęsa Institute. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009.
  32. ^ "Stanisław Ciosek: Gen. Jaruzelski to wielki Polak. Powinniśmy być mu wdzięczni". Wiadomosci.onet.pl. 25 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  33. ^ Liu, Yanshun (1 July 2016). Jaruzelski, the Shaker of Polish History (in Chinese) (1 ed.). Beijing, China: Shijiezhishi. p. 354. ISBN 9787501252299.
  34. ^ "Putin gives medal to Poland's communist-era strongman - AFP - Find Articles at BNET.com". 1 May 2008. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  35. ^ "Former Polish President Apologizes for 1968 Soviet-Led Invasion of Cz…". mosnews.com. 17 January 2004. Archived from the original on 17 January 2004. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  37. ^ a b "Gwardianie generała". Wiadomosci.onet.pl. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  38. ^ "Wojciech Jaruzelski 'admitted to hospital with pneumonia'". Telegraph. 29 December 2010. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  39. ^ Herald, Catholic. "Do not judge Jaruzelski, say Polish archbishops". CatholicHerald.co.uk. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  40. ^ Poland's last Communist leader Wojciech Jaruzelski dies. 25 May 2014, BBC News.
  41. ^ Poland's Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski dies at 90. Warsaw, Poland (AP), 25 May 2014.
  42. ^ a b "Prayers, protests at Polish general's funeral - US News". usnews.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  43. ^ a b Poland's Walesa kneels in prayer at funeral mass for former foe Jaruzelski | Reuters. 30 May 2014
  44. ^ "Walesa: 'I will leave God to judge Jaruzelski'". scotsman.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  45. ^ Three presidents to attend Jaruzelski funeral - National. 30 May 2014, TheNews.pl
  46. ^ "Zmarła Barbara Jaruzelska, żona Wojciecha Jaruzelskiego - Wiadomości". onet.pl. 5 June 2017. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  47. ^ Hella Pick (25 May 2014), "General Wojciech Jaruzelski obituary", The Guardian, retrieved 29 October 2014
  48. ^ Gover, Dominic (10 February 2014). "Poland's Last Soviet-Era Dictator, aged 90, Seduces his Nurse". International Business Times. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  49. ^ "Wife of former Polish dictator seeking divorce over his affair with nurse: report". New York Daily News. 11 February 2014.
  50. ^ "Войцех Ярузельский: Начал менять взгляды на Россию, находясь в депортации в Сибири". Российская газета (in Russian). 16 July 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  51. ^ Vanessa Gera (25 May 2014), Poland's last Communist leader, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, dies at age 90, The Associated Press, retrieved 28 May 2014
  52. ^ "Jaruzelski gets highest Soviet prize". Reading Eagle. Moscow. AP. 5 July 1983. Retrieved 7 September 2013.


  • Berger, Manfred E. Jaruzelski: Traitor or Patriot? London: Hutchinson, 1990. ISBN 0091744660
  • Berger, Manfred E., and Zbigniew Bauer. Jaruzelski. Kraków: Oficyna Cracovia, 1991. ISBN 8385104216
  • Labedz, Leopold. Poland Under Jaruzelski: A Comprehensive Sourcebook on Poland During and After Martial Law. New York: Scribner, 1984. ISBN 0684181169
  • Pelinka, Anton. Politics of the Lesser Evil: Leadership, Democracy, & Jaruzelski's Poland. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999. ISBN 1560003677
  • Swidlicki, Andrzej. Political Trials in Poland, 1981–1986. London: Croom Helm, 1988. ISBN 0709944446
  • Weschler, Lawrence. The Passion of Poland, from Solidarity Through the State of War. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. ISBN 0394722868
  • Yanshun, Liu [zh], "Jaruzelski, the Shaker of Polish History" Beijing, Shijiezhishi, 2016 ISBN 9787501252299
Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of Poland
11 February 1981 – 6 November 1985
Succeeded by
Preceded by Chairman of the Council of State
6 November 1985 – 19 July 1989
Succeeded by
Office abolished
Preceded by
Office restored
Bolesław Bierut (in Poland)
Kazimierz Sabbat (in Exile)
President of Poland
19 July 1989 – 22 December 1990
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party
18 October 1981 – 29 July 1989
Succeeded by