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Wojciech Jastrzębowski (born 19 April 1799 in Szczepkowo-Giewarty, Janowo parish, near Mława; died on 30 December 1882 in Warsaw) was a Polish scientist, naturalist and inventor, professor of botanic, physics, zoology and horticulture at Instytut Rolniczo-Leśny in Marymont in Warsaw. He was one of the fathers of ergonomics.
Born as representative of the Polish nobility, who originated from the village of Janowiec-Jastrząbki in the Janowiec Kościelny on Pobożany parish, under the coat of arms of Pobóg. His father Maciej Jastrzębowski, married Marianna Leśnikowska, heiress of part of the Szczepkowo-Giewarty village. Soon after the wedding he moved to his wife’s estate.
Wojciech Jastrzębowski passed his maturity examination at the Warsaw Lyceum. He participated in the November Uprising. He was the creator of the sundial at Warsaw Lyceum as well as the creator of “Jastrzębowski Compass” – a device which enables setting sundials in any place and in any circumstances.
He was a pioneer of Ergonomics.
Jastrzębowski became a member of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Learning, as well as a member of the Cracow Science Society, the Agricultural Society in Kielce and Lvov Agricultural Society. He was the honorary member of the Poznań Society of Friends of Learning.
He was the creator of Zakład Praktyki Leśnej, the first institution for the improvement of professional performance of woodsman and gamekeepers, in Feliksów near Brok. In the year 2004 a monument in honour of Jastrzębowski was founded in Brok.
Jastrzębowski married Aniela z d’Cherów and had five daughters and two sons. The most prominent of his offspring was his grandson Wojciech Jastrzębowski (1884-1963), artist, senator of the II RP, professor.
About the everlasting peace between the nations
During the battle at Olszynka Grochowska in defence of Warsaw in 1831, Wojciech Jastrzębowski formulated a document which may be described as a project of the first constitution of Europe united as one republic without internal borders, with unified judicial system and institutions consisting of representatives of all nations. The document was named ‘About the everlasting peace between the nations’ („O wiecznym pokoju między narodami”), and consisted of 77 articles. It was published on 3 May 1831 on the anniversary of the Polish Constitution of May 3rd. In his text he suggested that all nations should renounce their freedom and become enslaved with the laws, all monarch should be henceforth the guardians and executors of these laws and should not be referred to with no other title than fathers of nations.
In Mazovian Voivodeship one may find a cycling path named after Jastrzębowski. It stretches from Ostrów Mazowiecka to Brok.
- Rys ergonomji czyli nauki o pracy, opartej na prawdach poczerpniętych z Nauki Przyrody (The Outline of Ergonomics, i.e. Science of Work, Based on the Truths Taken from the Natural Science) (1857).
- Traktat o Wiecznym Przymierzu Miedzy Narodami Ucywilizowanymi - Konstytucja dla Europy (The Treatise on the Eternal Union between the Civilized Nations - the Constitution for Europe) (1831).