Wolf's Head (secret society)
Wolf's Head Society is a senior society at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Membership recomposes annually with fifteen or sixteen Yale University students, typically rising seniors. The delegation spends its year together answerable to an alumni association. Wolf's Head, though Yale now counts upwards of 40 societies or similarly organized social clubs active on campus, remains relevant among current undergraduates.
The society was founded fifty years after the establishment of Skull and Bones Society when fifteen rising seniors from the Yale Class of 1884, with help from members of the Yale Class of 1883 who were considered publicly possible taps for the older societies, chose to abet the creation of The Third Society. The society changed its name to Wolf's Head five years later.
The effort was aided by over 300 Yale College alumni and a few Yale Law School faculty, in part to counter the dominance of Skull and Bones Society in undergraduate and university affairs. The founding defeated the last attempt to abolish secret or senior societies at Yale University. The tradition continued of creating and sustaining a society if enough potential rising seniors thought they had been overlooked: Bones was established in 1832 after a dispute over selections for Phi Beta Kappa awards; Scroll and Key Society, the second society at Yale, was established in 1841 after a dispute over elections to Bones. The Third Society's founding was motivated in part by sentiment among some outsiders that they deserved insider status. "[A] certain limited number were firmly convinced that there had been an appalling miscarriage of justice in their individual omission from the category of the elect," some founders agreed.
Before the founding in 1780 at Yale of the Alpha chapter (which still practices a secret handshake amongst members), of Phi Beta Kappa in Connecticut (the second chapter established after that society's founding in 1776) Yale College students established and joined literary societies. By the 1830s, the campus literary societies Linonia, Brothers in Unity, and Calliope had lost stature. Calliope folded in 1853, and the others shut down after the American Civil War. Calliope, Linonia, and Brothers in Unity existed respectively: 1819-1853, 1768-1878, and 1735-1868.
From the mid-1840s until 1883, several societies were started, but each failed to sustain the interest of Academical Department, or liberal arts, students at Yale College. Star and Dart, Sword and Crown, Tea-Kettle, Spade and Grave, and E.T.L. disbanded.
Phi Beta Kappa was inactive at Yale from 1871 to 1884. In the 1820s, Anti-Masonic agitation across the United States prompted PBK to examine the role of secrecy in its proceedings. Secrecy was soon shelved at the Yale chapter. Associated with PBK's national reorganization in 1881, secrecy disappeared as a signature among all chapters, quelling rivalry with collegiate fraternities, clubs and societies. PBK exists today, without any secrecy, as an academic honor society.
Beginning in the 1850s the Yale undergraduate student body grew more diverse. The college was becoming an institution of national rather than regional importance. Students who hailed from environs beyond New England or who were not Congregationalist or Presbyterian entered the college in large numbers.
The faculty was dominated by alumni of Bones, numbering four out of five faculty members between 1865 and 1916. Bones alumni were university secretaries from 1869 to 1921. Bones alumni were university treasurers for forty-three of the forty-eight years between 1862 - 1910.
In 1873, The Iconoclast, a student paper published once, 13 October, advocated for the abolition of the society system. It opined: "Out of every class Skull and Bones takes its men...They have obtained control of Yale. Its business is performed by them. Money paid to the college must pass into their hands, and be subject to their will....It is Yale College against Skull and Bones!! We ask all men, as a question of right, which should be allowed to live?" The Class of 1884 agreed to support another revolt against the society system with a vote of no confidence to coincide with its graduation. It had been understood that the society system was beyond reform and might well be abolished.
A spirited defense of the society system appeared in the May 1884 issue of The New Englander, authored and published by members of Scroll and Key. Several periodicals reported regularly on the situation. However, The Third Society had been incorporated in 1883, continuing a tradition among undergraduates of complaining about the societies but joining or establishing one if the opportunity opened.
The initial delegation, including ten Class Day officers from the Class of 1884 and led by Edwin Albert Merritt, met in secret during their senior year with the aid of members of the Class of 1883 who were "eager to start a society provided the evil features of the old societies would be eliminated. [The graduating and rising seniors] were unanimous on this point." Included among the supporters from the Class of 1883 were members touted as sure selections to Bones or Keys by the publishers of the Horoscope, an undergraduate publication that provided feature material on the most likely taps. The pro-society seniors won the Class Day vote, 67 - 50. Over half the Yale Corporation and faculty were members of societies at this time. Those members of the community were careful to quash any subsequent attempts to restrict the societies.
The New Haven Register reported in 1886: "Wolf's Head is not as far out of the world, in respect to its public doings, as are [Bones and Keys]. There is a sufficient veil of secrecy drawn around its mechanism, however, to class it with the secret societies, and this gives it a stability and respectability in Yale College circles that it might not have otherwise...." The society was managed similarly to finals clubs associated with the Sheffield Scientific School; however, it soon took on almost all aspects of the older societies.
The Third Society sat at the apex of a social pyramid bricked by junior societies (sophomore societies were abolished in 1875, freshmen societies in 1880), campus organizations, athletic teams, clubs, and fraternities.
In 1888, the society changed its name to Wolf's Head Society, consonant with the approval among undergraduates of the society's pin, a stylized wolf's head on an inverted ankh, an Egyptian hieroglyphic known as the Egyptian Cross or "the key of life". The earliest undergraduate members allowed fellow schoolmates to handle the pin, a specific refutation of pin display by the older societies. Eternal life is symbolized rather than death or erudition. A Roman fasces had been considered as a design element for the pin but was not adopted.
Point of view
Many pioneering and subsequent members mocked as "poppycock," from the Dutch for "soft excrement," the seemingly Masonic-inspired rituals and atmosphere associated with Skull and Bones. Disdain for "poppycock" has been exampled by The Pirates of Penzance prank, with the thespian pirate king persuaded to display the numbers 322 (part of the emblem of Skull and Bones) below a skull and crossbones at a local theatre, and Yale President A. Whitney Griswold's deprecations of poppycock -- "Bonesy bullshit" and "Dink Stover crap"—coloring undergraduate life.
Wolf's Head maintained however many traditional practices, such as the Thursday and Sunday meetings, common among its peers. Paul Moore, Jr., long-time Senior Fellow and successor trustee (1964 - 1990) for the Yale Corporation and long-tenured bishop in the American Episcopal Church, recalled the night before he first encountered combat in World War II: "I spent the evening on board ship being quizzed by [a friend from Harvard] about what went on in Wolf's Head. He could not believe I would hold back such irrelevant secrets the night before I faced possible death."
The "Old Hall" was erected within months of the founding. The older Academical Department societies met originally for decades in rented quarters near campus. Skull and Bones opened its tomb in 1856, more than two decades after its founding. Scroll and Key did likewise; its tomb opened in 1869 more than two decades after the society's founding.
- McKim, Mead and White, firm of. 1884, former or "Old Hall" at 77 Prospect Street, across the street from the Grove Street Cemetery, commissioned for the Phelps Trust Association, Richardsonian Romanesque. Purchased by the University in 1924, rented to Chi Psi Fraternity (1924–29), Book and Bond (defunct society) (1934–35), and Vernon Hall (defunct club) (1944–54). Currently houses the Yale Institution for Social and Policy Studies.
A building with narrow windows, the "Old Hall" was noted as "the most modern and handsomest" of the society domiciles by The New York Times, September 13, 1903. The building was erected in 1884 soon after the founding members secured financing.
- Bertram Goodhue, architect, designed "New Hall", ca. 1924; built posthumously. The building has stone wall and wrought iron fencing and is central to the largest secret society compound on campus. The compound commands the most prominent location on campus beyond Harkness Tower, the very icon of Yale, and the Memorial Quadrangle.
The "New Hall" opened in the mid 1920s and sits fronted by York Street surrounded by the Yale Daily News Briton Hadden Memorial building, the Yale Drama School and theatre, both gifts to Yale from E. Harkness. and the former homes of the Fence Club (or Psi Upsilon, 224 York Street), DKE (232 York Street) and Zeta Psi (212 York Street).
The society has been reputed to tap the gregarious "prep school type". Past members were associated intimately with the: coeducation of Yale College, establishment of the Yale residential college system and the Harvard house system, founding of the Elizabethan Club, and founding of the Yale Political Union. The society has tapped women since the spring of 1992, and was Yale's last all-male society.
Yale societies contrast sharply with Harvard finals clubs on membership criteria. Contributions to undergraduate life has been historically among the criteria for membership in Yale societies. Finals club overlook that quality among prospective members.
Some notable members
Malcolm Baldrige, Jr., Donald Beer, Stephen Vincent Benet, John Charlesworth, Thomas Charlton, Sam Chauncey, John Proctor Clarke, Alexander Smith Cochran, Erastus Corning II, Parker Corning, Robert Fiske, William Clay Ford, Richard Gilder,Paul Goldberger, A. Conger Goodyear, A. Whitney Griswold, Ashbel Green Gulliver, Edward Harkness, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Charles Edward Ives, Dick Jauron, Rasheed Khalidi, Lewis Lehrman, Christopher Lydon, Douglas MacArthur II,Ken MacKenzie,Edwin Merritt, Clark Millikan, Roger Milliken, Douglas Moore, Paul Moore, Jack Morrison, Rogers C.B. Morton, Thruston Morton, Edward John Phelps, Philip W. Pillsbury, Ducky Pond, Benno C. Schmidt, Jr., Tom Steyer, Sam Wagstaff, Rusty Wailes, Doug Wright, and William Wrigley III.
- "Timeline of Selected Events in the History of Yale University". Resources on Yale History. Yale University Library. March 19, 2010. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Yale Alumni Publications, Inc. "March 2001 Tercentennial Edition - An Irrepressible Urge to Join". Yale Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Andrews, John. History of the founding of Wolf's Head, Lancaster Press, 1934. Phelps Trust Association archives, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University.
- Bulletin of Yale University, New Haven, 15 October 1932, Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1931 - 1932, pg. 32, Henry Blodget, B.A. 1875, and pg. 44, John Proctor Clarke, B.A. 1878
- Obituary Record of Yale University 1924 - 1925, Bulletin of Yale University, New Haven, Twenty-First Series, August 1, 1925, Number Twenty - Two, Abram Heaton Robertson, B.A. 1872, pg. 1316, Gardner Green, B.A. 1873, pg. 1319
- John Williams Andrews (2008-04-01). "History of the founding of Wolf's Head". Open Library. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- "Changes in Skull and Bones, Famous Yale Society Doubles Size of its House - Addition a Duplicate of Old Building". The New York Times. September 13, 1903. p. 22.
- Oren, Dan. Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale, Second Edition. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2000. pp. 332-333. ISBN 0-300-08468-4.
- Yale Daily News, Phi Beta Kappa to induct 25 students, December 7, 2016, byline Nadrina Ebrahimi
- "Welcome | Yale Phi Beta Kappa". Yale.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
- Secrets of the Tomb, pp. 36, 38.
- Havemeyer, Loomis. "Yale's Extracurricular & Social Organizations, 1780 - 1960" (PDF). Yale Library. pp. 5, 8.
- Robbins, Alexandra. Secrets of the tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths to Power. Back Bay Books, New York and Boston, pp. 61-62. ISBN 0-316-73561-2.
- Andrews, p. 75.
- Joining the Club. p. 22.
- "Tombs and Taps, An inside look at Yale's Fraternities, Sororities and Societies". Conspiracyarchive.com. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- "Phi Beta Kappa - History". Clubs.psu.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
- Stephenson, Louise L. Scholarly Means to Evangelical Ends: The New Haven Scholars and the Transformation of Higher Learning in America.The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986, p. 64; ISBN 0-8018-2695-0.
- Secrets of the Tomb. pp. 48, 50, 127.
- Joining the Club. p. 26.
- Andrews, p. 39.
- Karabel, Jerome. The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York, 2005. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-618-57458-2.
- Andrews, pp. 58-61.
- Andrews, p. 70.
- Secrets of the Tomb, p. 64.
- Secrets of the Tomb, p. 63.
- Andrews, p. 46.
- Caro, Robert. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York City. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1974. p. 38. ISBN 0-394-48076-7.
- Kabaservice, Geoffrey. The Guardians: Kingman Brewster, His Circle, and the Rise of the Liberal Establishment. Henry Holt and Company, New York, 2004. p. 45. ISBN 0-8050-6762-0.
- Secrets of the Tomb. p. 68.
- "Poppycock | Definition of Poppycock by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
- Secrets of the Tomb, pp. 3-4, 67, 84-85.
- The Guardians. p. 155.
- Yale officers: Founding Trustees and their successors,[www.guides.library.yale.edu]
- Moore, Paul. Presences: A Bishop's Life in the City. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, 1997. pp. 55-56; ISBN 0-374-23711-5.
- Yale Alumni Magazine, May/Jun 2015, "The Origins of the tomb: How Skull and Bones found a home", by line David Richards
- "Institution for Social and Policy Studies". Yale.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
- "Yale University Guild of Carillonneurs - Harkness Carillon and Guild Information". Yale.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
- Kelley, Brooks Mather.Yale: A History, Yale University Press, New Haven and London. p. 374. ISBN 0-300-01636-0.
- "Inside Eli, or How to Get On at Yale". Yale56.org. 1955–56. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Secrets of the Tomb. p. 69.
- , "The Guardians". p. 64
- Judith Ann Schiff; Yale Alumni Publications, Inc. (May–June 2008). "How the Colleges Were Born". Yale Alumni Magazine: Old Yale. Archived from the original on 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "Real Shakespeare Treasures For Yale" (PDF). The New York Times, November 20, 1911.
- The Guardians. p. 51.
- "Yale Wolf's Head Admits Women". Deseret News, December 19, 1991.
- Business Insider, Jan. 5, 2016, 5:01 ET, by line Abby Jackson
- "The Skulls and Bones Exposed". Scribd.com. 2009-02-18. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Yale Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT, Class of 1957, pg. 47
- "Memorabilia Yalensis". The Yale Literary Magazine. 84 (6): 269. June 1919. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT - Class of 1929, pg.109
- Yale Pot Pourri and Banner yearbook, Class of 1956, pg. 43
- The Chosen, p. 653.
- Bulletin of Yale University, New Haven 15 October 1932, Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1931 - 1932
- Harvard Crimson, "Yale Society Elections", published May 24, 1895.
- "Mayor Erastus Corning: Albany Icon". Webhome.idirect.com. April 21, 1954. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT - Class of 1895, pg. 183
- Yale Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT - Yale Class of 1952, pg. 39
- Yale Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT - Yale Class of 1949
- Yale Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT - Class of 1954, pg. 35
- "Dem Bones, Dem Bones...and the Magic of Yale", Harvard.edu, August 30, 2004.
- Box/folder number, Mss. A. Conger Goodyear Papers, 1683 - 1964 (bulk 1885 - 1964), Research Library, Buffalo History Museum,
- Joining the Club, p. 182.
- "Memorabilia Yalensis". The Yale Literary Magazine. 61 (9): 409. June 1896. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- The Five Roles of Robert Maynard Hutchins, DePaul University Libraries, Volume 42 Issue 2, Winter 1992, DePaul Law Review, Article 9, Jeffrey O'Connell, Thomas E. O'Connell, footnote 62
- Henderson, Clayton W. The Charles Ives Tunebook - Second Edition, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2008. p. 367; ISBN 978-0-253-35090-9.
- Jay (October 10, 2007). "Fire Dick Jauron!: The Continuing Story of Buffalo Dick". Firedickjauron.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-08-01.[dubious ]
- Joining the Club, pp. 175, 409.
- "Google". Google. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
- Yale Pot Pourri and Banner, Class of 1956, pg. 43
- Andrews, John, The Founding of Wolf's Head Society, Lancaster Press, pg. 70
- "Caltech obituary - Clark". Caltech.edu; accessed September 14, 2016.
- Yale University Banner and Pou Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT, Class of 1924, pg. 89
- Six Yale Societies Elect 90 Members, New York Times, May 8, 1936
- "Yale's Great Oak Sees 'Tap Day' Again", The New York Times. May 21, 1915. p. 8.
- Moore, Honor. The Bishop's Daughter, A Memoir, First Edition, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 2008. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-393-05984-7.
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri, Class of 1967, New Haven, CT, 1967, pg. 244
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT - Class of 1937, pg. 67
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT - Class of 1929, pg. 109
- "Funeral of E.J. Phelps - Ex-President Dwight of Yale Pays a Feeling Tribute to the Dead - Interment in Vermont". New York Times. March 11, 1900. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT, Class of 1924, pg. 89
- The Bridgeport Telegraph, Friday, May 16, 1924, pg. 28 and Saturday, May 17, 1924, pg. 16
- Cedotal, Andrew (April 18, 2006). "Rattling Those Dry Bones". Yale Daily News. Archived from the original on 2011-08-01.
- "Secret Society 2013: Who they are, and how they got in!", yaleherald.com, April 21, 2012; retrieved 2012-12-11.
- Morrisroe, Patricia. Mapplethorpe: A Biography, Random House, New York, 1995. p. 115; ISBN 0-786-74975-X.
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, Class of 1958, New Haven, CT, pg. 61
- > FamousAlumni.asp
- Yale University Banner and Pot Pourri Yearbook, New Haven, CT, Class of 1954, pg. 35
- Insiders and Outsiders in American Historical Narrative and American History, R. Laurence Moore, The American Historical Review (Apr. 1982).
- Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power, Alexandra Robbins, Boston, MA, Little, Brown, 2002. ISBN 0-316-72091
- The Power Elite, C. Wright Mills, Oxford University Press, 1956. ISBN 0-19-513354-4, ISBN 978-0-19-513354-7
- Tycoons: How Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J.P. Morgan invented the American supereconomy, Charles R. Morris, H. Holt and Co., New York, 2005. ISBN 0-8050-7599-2
- On Bullshit, Harry G. Frankfurt, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2005. ISBN 1-400-82653-5
- My Harvard, My Yale, Diana DuBois, editor, Random House, NY, NY, 1982. ISBN 978-0394519203
- Dear Wolf's Head, by Karolina Ksiazek, Yale Daily News weekend section, datelined Thursday, May 2, 2013.