Wolf Creek (film)

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Wolf Creek
Wolfcreek.png
Australian theatrical release poster
Directed by Greg McLean
Produced by David Lightfoot
Greg McLean
Written by Greg McLean
Starring John Jarratt
Nathan Phillips
Cassandra Magrath
Kestie Morassi
Music by Frank Tétaz
Cinematography Will Gibson
Edited by Jason Ballantine
Production
company
Distributed by
Release date
  • 24 January 2005 (2005-01-24) (Sundance)[2]
  • 3 November 2005 (2005-11-03) (Australia)[3]
  • 25 December 2005 (2005-12-25) (U.S.)
Running time
99 minutes[4]
  • 104 minutes (unrated version)
Country Australia[5]
Language English
Budget AU$1.4 million[6]
Box office AU$35 million
(US$28 million)[7]

Wolf Creek is a 2005 Australian horror film written, co-produced, and directed by Greg McLean, and starring John Jarratt, Nathan Phillips, Cassandra Magrath, and Kestie Morassi. Its plot revolves around three backpackers who find themselves taken captive and subsequently hunted by Mick Taylor, a deranged killer, in the Australian outback. The film was ambiguously marketed as being "based on true events," while its plot bore elements reminiscent of the real-life murders of tourists by Ivan Milat in the 1990s and Bradley Murdoch in 2001, both of which McLean used as inspiration for the screenplay.

Produced on a $1.1 million budget, filming of Wolf Creek took place in South Australia; the film was shot almost exclusively on high-definition video. It had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2005. It was given a theatrical release in Ireland and the United Kingdom in September 2005, followed by a general Australian release in November, apart from the Northern Territory, out of respect for the pending trial surrounding the murder of Peter Falconio.[8] In the United States and Canada, it was released on Christmas Day 2005, distributed by Dimension Films.

Wolf Creek received varied reviews from film critics, with several, such as Roger Ebert and Manohla Dargis, criticizing it for its realistic and unrelenting depictions of violence.[i] Other publications, such as Variety and Time Out, praised the film's grindhouse aesthetics, with the latter calling its straightforward depiction of crime and violence "taboo-breaking."[11] The film was nominated for seven Australian Film Institute awards, including Best Director (for McLean). In 2010, it was included in Slant Magazine's list of the 100 best films of the decade.[12]

Plot[edit]

In Broome, Western Australia, 1999, two British tourists, Liz Hunter and Kristy Earl, are backpacking across the country with Ben Mitchell, an Australian friend from Sydney. Ben buys a dilapidated Ford XD Falcon for their road journey from Broome to Cairns, Queensland via the Great Northern Highway. The night before leaving, they get drunk at a wild pool party and camp out on the beach.

After stopping at Halls Creek for the night, the trio make another stop at Wolf Creek National Park, which contains a giant crater formed by a 50,000-ton meteorite. Hours later, upon returning to their car, the group discovers that their watches have all suddenly stopped and that the car will not start. Unable to solve the problem, they prepare to sit out the night. After dark, a rural man named Mick Taylor comes across them and offers to tow them to his camp to repair the car. Initially hesitant, the group allows Mick to take them to his place, an abandoned mining site several hours south of Wolf Creek. Mick regales them with tall stories of his past while making a show of fixing their car. His manner unsettles Liz, although Ben and Kristy are less concerned. While they sit around a fire, Mick gives the tourists water which he describes as "rainwater from the top end". The water eventually causes the tourists to fall unconscious.

Liz awakens to find herself gagged and tied up in a shed. She manages to break free, but before she can escape from the mining site, she hears Mick torturing Kristy in a garage, and witnesses him sexually assaulting her. Liz sets the now-dismantled Falcon on fire to distract him, and goes to help Kristy while Mick is busy trying to extinguish the blaze. When he returns, Liz manages to shoot Mick with his own rifle, the bullet hitting him in the neck and apparently killing him. The women attempt to flee the camp in Mick's truck. But before they can do so, Mick stumbles out of the garage, revealing the gunshot was non-fatal and that he's still alive. He proceeds to shoot at them with a double-barreled shotgun before giving chase in another car. The women evade Mick by pushing his truck off a cliff and hiding behind a bush, before returning to the mining site to get another car. Liz leaves the hysterical Kristy outside the gates, telling her to escape on foot if she does not return in five minutes.

Liz enters another garage and discovers Mick's large stock of cars as well as an organised array of travellers' possessions, including video cameras. She watches the playback on one of them and is horrified to see Mick "helping" other travellers stranded at Wolf Creek in almost identical circumstances to her own. She then picks up another camera which turns out to be Ben's, and while viewing some of Ben's footage, notices Mick's truck in the background, indicating he'd been following them long before they got to Wolf Creek. She gets into a car and attempts to start it, but Mick appears in the back seat and stabs her through the driver's seat with a bowie knife. Liz crawls out of the car, and Mick hacks Liz's fingers off in one swipe, then headbutts her into near unconsciousness. He then severs her spinal cord with the knife, paralyzing her and rendering her a "head on a stick". He then proceeds to interrogate her as to Kristy's whereabouts.

By dawn, a barefoot Kristy has reached a highway and is discovered by a passing motorist. He attempts to help Kristy, but is shot dead from a distance by Mick, who has a sniper rifle. Mick gives chase in a Holden HQ Statesman, prompting Kristy to take off in the dead man's car. She succeeds in running Mick off the road, but he gets out of the car and shoots out Kristy's back tire, causing the car to roll. Kristy climbs out of the vehicle and attempts to crawl away, but is shot dead by Mick. He bundles Kristy's body into the back of his car, along with the body of the dead motorist, and torches the wrecked car before driving off.

Ben awakens to find himself nailed to a mock crucifix in a mine shaft, with two aggressive, caged Rottweilers in front of him. He manages to extract himself from the crucifix and enters the camp in early daylight. Ben escapes into the outback, but becomes dehydrated, and eventually passes out beside a dirt road. He is discovered by a Swedish couple who take him to Kalbarri, where he is airlifted to a hospital.

A series of title cards states that despite several major police searches, no trace of Liz or Kristy has ever been found. Early investigations into the case were disorganised, hampered by confusion over the location of the crimes, a lack of physical evidence and the alleged unreliability of the only witness. After four months in police custody, Ben was later cleared of all suspicion. He currently lives in South Australia. The film ends with the silhouette of Mick walking into the sunset with his rifle in hand.

Cast[edit]

  • John Jarratt as Mick Taylor
  • Cassandra Magrath as Liz Hunter
  • Kestie Morassi as Kristy Earl
  • Nathan Phillips as Ben Mitchell
  • Guy O'Donnell as Car Salesman
  • Geoff Revell as Graham (gas station attendant)
  • Andy McPhee as Bazza (pervert in petrol station)
  • Aaron Sterns as Bazza's mate
  • Michael Moody as Bazza's older mate
  • Gordon Poole as Old man
  • Guy Petersen and Jenny Starvall as Swedish backpackers who help Ben
  • Greg McLean as Policeman

Production[edit]

Inspiration and screenplay[edit]

Writer-director Greg McLean wrote the screenplay for Wolf Creek in 1997.[13] The original screenplay resembled a straightforward slasher film, and McLean was ultimately displeased with the final product.[13] After seeing media on serial killer Ivan Milat, McLean was inspired to rewrite the screenplay.[13] He later said in subsequent interviews that he crafted the character of Mick Taylor based on archetypal "famous Australian exports" such as Steve Irwin, combined with darker national figures, such as Milat, a sadistic killer who murdered seven people in New South Wales between 1989 and 1993.[14] McLean's revised script was significantly anchored in the character of Mick Taylor: "The movie was really about, 'What would it be like to be stuck in this incredibly isolated place with the most evil character you can possibly imagine, who is also distinctly Australian?'", McLean commented in 2006.[14] Additionally, the July 2001 abduction of British tourist Peter Falconio and the assault of his girlfriend Joanne Lees by Bradley John Murdoch in the Northern Territory was cited as an influence.[15][16]

The film contains several oblique references to these crimes, including the setting of Taylor's mining camp, which is called "Navithalim Mining Co.", a semordnilap variation of "Ivan Mila[h]t".[17]

Casting[edit]

John Jarratt was cast in the role of Mick Taylor after having a meeting with McLean; Jarratt would later recall being significantly impressed by the screenplay, and McLean knew "within ten minutes" of their meeting that he was the right actor for the role.[14] Cassandra Magrath was cast as Liz, as McLean felt she had a "relatable quality" that the character required.[14] Nathan Phillips was cast in the role of Ben; McLean had known Phillips prior, as they had met while preparing to work on a project that ultimately fell through.[14] Kestie Morassi was cast as Kristy after a different actress had to drop out of the film.[14] Incidentally, Morassi was scheduled to take a personal backpacking trip abroad when she was offered the role.[14]

Filming[edit]

The Wolfe Creek Crater is featured prominently in the film

Wolf Creek was a considerably low-budget production, made for around AU$1.4 million, with a minimal crew.[14] Producer Gordon Lightfoot stated that the filmmakers wanted to "mak[e] a 5 million dollar film on a 1 million dollar budget."[14] The film was shot digitally on the HDCAM format and was mostly handheld (aside from a few static composite shots).[14] Filming took place over five weeks[18] in Australia's winter months of 2004 almost entirely in South Australia;[19] aerial shots of the crater, however, show the genuine Wolfe Creek crater.[14] The film is set in a real location; however, the actual meteorite crater location is called "Wolfe Creek", and is located in northern Western Australia. The sequences in which the three main characters ascend the edge of crater were shot on a nondescript hillside in South Australia,[20] while beachfront scenes in the first fifteen minutes of the film were shot in Adelaide, standing in for Broome.[21]

Several strange occurrences happened during the production. One particular location that was used during the shooting of the travellers' drive to Wolf Creek had not seen rainfall in over six years; however, once the crew arrived and shooting proceeded, it rained for three continuous days, forcing the writer, director and actors to incorporate the highly unexpected rainfall into the shooting script.[14] According to McLean, the fact that it was raining and gloomy in an otherwise dry, sunny desert area gave the sequences a feel of "menace."[22]

The rock quarry where Mick's mining site is located was the site of a real-life murder, which stirred up controversy from the local residents who mistook the film as being based on that crime.[23] According to director McLean and others, Jarratt went to extremes in preparing for his role as Mick, in a bid to emulate, as close as possible, the real-life serial killer Ivan Milat: he spent significant time alone in the isolated outback and went for weeks without showering.[14]

Since the film had a relatively low budget, many of the action scenes involved the real actors; for example, after running through the outback barefoot when her character escapes, star Kestie Morassi ended up with hundreds of thorns and nettles in her feet.[24] During the shooting of Morassi's torture scene in the shed, her non-stop screams and crying began to discomfort and unsettle the crew; executive producer Matt Hearn said that the female members of the shooting crew were brought to tears by it, as if someone were actually being tortured.[25]

Post-production[edit]

The original cut of Wolf Creek ran 104 minutes; however, 5 minutes of the film were excised in post-production.[14] The surplus footage in this cut included an additional scene at the beginning of the film after the party sequence, in which Kristy awakens in bed next to Ben at a beach cottage the following morning; this created a romantic subplot between the characters, and was cut from the film for "complicating" matters unnecessarily.[26]

The other additional footage took place when Liz returns to the mining site after leaving Kristy behind; rather than immediately entering the car garage, as she does in the theatrical cut, she finds a revolver and fills it with cartridges, and then explores an abandoned mine shaft in order to search for Ben. She subsequently drops her pistol into the shaft, and climbs down inside to find dozens of decomposing bodies. This explains why, in the theatrical cut, the revolver disappears after she enters the car garage. According to McLean, this scene was cut from the film after test screenings because it was "simply too much", along with all of the other gruesome events that had taken place prior.[27]

Release[edit]

Wolf Creek premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah, United States, on 24 January 2005.[2] Exactly one month prior to the film's Sundance premiere, Dimension Films acquired North American distribution rights for US$3.5 million.[28] It was subsequently screened in Adelaide, Australia in March 2005, followed by screenings at the Melbourne International Film Festival and the Cannes Film Festival.[29]

Marketing[edit]

Wolf Creek was marketed in both Australia and international markets as being "based on a true story", though it is in actuality a composite inspired by several true crimes (including the aforementioned killings by Milat and Murdoch).[17]

Box office[edit]

In Australia, the film opened on 151 cinemas on 3 November 2005, excluding the Northern Territory, out of respect for the pending trial for the murder of Peter Falconio, an event which had served as a partial inspiration for the screenplay.[8][30] The trial for Falconio's accused killer, Bradley Murdoch, was still under way at the time, and for this reason the Northern Territory court placed an injunction on the film's release there in the belief that it could influence the outcome of the proceedings;[8][30] Murdoch was eventually found guilty of murder on 13 December 2005.[17] The film earned AU$1.2 million during its opening weekend,[31] entering the Australian box office at number one.[3] It would go on to gross a total of AU$4,560,118 domestically.[3]

In the United Kingdom, it was given a modest release on 16 September 2005 on 292 screens, and grossed £1,722,870.[32] The film opened on 25 December 2005 in the United States on 1,749 screens, and grossed a total $16,188,180 at the U.S. box office over the following three months.[33] Box Office Mojo cites a worldwide gross of US$27,762,600 (AU$35,172,500, as of 9 March 2006).[33]

Release date
(Australia)
Budget
(AU$)
Box office revenue
(AU$)
U.S. box office rankings
Australia
Australia
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
United States
Other foreign
markets
Worldwide total Release year
(2005)
All time
3 November 2005 $1,400,000[6] $6,244,350[ii] $1,722,870[iii] $22,060,400[iv] $5,164,880[v] $35,172,500[vi] #129[33] #3,749[33]

Note(s)

  • All monetary data is accounted in AUD (see footnotes for conversion information).
  • U.S. box office rankings accurate as of April 2018.

Critical response[edit]

Contemporaneous[edit]

Upon the film's premiere at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2005, Dennis Harvey of Variety praised the film's "richly atmospheric" photography and McLean's direction, comparing it to The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, though noting: "Ending on a rather bleak note, and lacking the kind of false scares or other devices that normally give horror auds an occasional breather, [Wolf Creek] is scary cinema pushed to the brink of punishment. But there’s no question that what it sets out to do, it does alarmingly well."[34]

Paul Byrnes of The Sydney Morning Herald praised Jarratt's performance in the film, ultimately deeming it "exceptional Aussie horror".[35] The Age's Jim Schembri called the film "a cheaply made, highly derivative, blood-soaked splatter film in which a clutch of young people on holiday encounter a psychopath with a love for dismemberment and laughing out loud when he hurts someone", though noted: "What sets [it] apart is the skill with which McLean synthesizes his cinematic sampling into a seamless, deeply seductive narrative. He winks at his references but never takes his eye off his own story or his brilliant modulations of suspense and character tension".[36] In the United Kingdom during its September 2005 theatrical run, The Independent praised the film for its departure from typical genre prototypes.[37] The Guardian film critic Peter Bradshaw awarded it four out of five stars.[38] Time Out wrote of the film: "by making us feel the pain, Greg McLean's ferocious, taboo-breaking film tells us so much more about how and why we watch horror movies".[11]

Critical reviews in the United States varied: Several critics, such as the Chicago Sun-Times's Roger Ebert, lambasted the film's depiction of violence, and with some even walking out of screenings.[39] Ebert awarded the film a zero out of four stars, writing: "It is a film with one clear purpose: To establish the commercial credentials of its director by showing his skill at depicting the brutal tracking, torture and mutilation of screaming young women ... I wanted to walk out of the theatre and ... keep on walking".[10] Similarly, The Seattle Times film critic Moira Macdonald wrote that Wolf Creek was the first film she ever walked out of; she called watching the film "punishment" and wondered how someone's real death inspired this "entertainment".[40] Manohla Dargis of The New York Times noted: "Mr. McLean has apparently watched his share of Val Lewton, the legendary B-movie producer... who could raise shivers just by dimming the lights. Alas, Mr. McLean's commitment to contemporary genre expectations turns out to be unwavering and what follows these imaginative night tremors is just the usual butchery".[9]

Michael Atkinson of The Village Voice wrote of the film: "The ambitions are so paltry that our response should be too: Wolf Creek is unimaginative, light on the grue and heavy on the faux-serious desperation. It's actually something of a Spanish Inquisition–level trial by overacting—the three leads are low-budget dull, but as the anti–Crocodile Dundee, Jarratt is a leering, jeering, winking, colloquialism-belching horror".[41] G. Allen Johnson of the San Francisco Chronicle, however, praised the film's "naturalistic" style, writing: "What's Christmas Day without a good serial killer movie? There are no obnoxious teenagers in Wolf Creek, nor are there ghosts, possessed children, haunted web sites or supernaturally produced videotapes. There isn't even an Asian horror film upon which to base the screenplay. Instead, there is desolation, real terror and one hell of a villain in rural Australia in Greg McLean's energetically gritty bit of low-budget showmanship".[42]

The film magazines Empire[43] and Total Film[44] gave the film 4/5 stars, with Empire calling it "a grimy gut-chiller that unsettles as much as it thrills, violently shunting you to the edge of your seat before clamping onto your memory like a rusty mantrap".[43]

Retrospective[edit]

On the internet review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, Wolf Creek has a "rotten" score of 53% based on 112 reviews with an average rating of 5.5 out of 10. The critical consensus states: "Though Wolf Creek is effectively horrific, it is still tasteless exploitation."[45] The film also has a score of 54 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 26 critics indicating "mixed or average reviews".[46] CinemaScore audience polling gave the film an "F".[47]

Wolf Creek has been cited as one of several films released in the mid-2000s that initiated a "substantial boom" of Australian horror films.[48] Film critics David Edelstein and Bilge Ebiri placed the film at 25th on their list of "the 25 Best Horror Films Since The Shining."[49] In a 2010 retrospective, Slant Magazine included the film in its list of the 100 best films of the past decade.[12]

In A Companion to the Horror Film (2017), film scholar Harry Benshoff cites Wolf Creek as a "distinguished" example of the "torture porn" subgenera, noting its "detailed character development... compelling performances... and sustained use of dread" as key features.[7] Additionally, he praised the film's cinematography and sound design, which "mirrors the development of narrative intensity".[50]

Home media[edit]

In the United States and Canada, the film was released on DVD by Genius Products in April 2006, available in two versions: the standard 99-minute theatrical cut, and the 104-minute "unrated" cut, featuring additional scenes excised in post-production.[51][52] An HD DVD was also released in North American markets on 19 December 2006.[53]

The film was released on Blu-ray in Australia by Roadshow Entertainment on 19 February 2014.[54]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Award Category Subject Result Ref.
AACTA Awards
(2005 AFI Awards)
Best Direction Greg McLean Nominated [55]
Best Original Screenplay Nominated [55]
Best Editing Jason Ballantine Nominated [55]
Best Cinematography Will Gibson Nominated [55]
Best Actress in a Supporting Role Kestie Morassi Nominated [55]
Best Original Music Score Frank Tétaz Nominated [55]
Best Sound Des Kenneally Nominated [55]
Peter Smith Nominated
Pete Best Nominated
Tom Heuzenroeder Nominated
Saturn Award Best Horror Film David Lightfoot Nominated [56]
Greg McLean Nominated

Sequels and spin-offs[edit]

After the success of the first film, McLean postponed plans to immediately work on a sequel in favor of directing Rogue.[57] Production was initially expected to commence in 2011 and John Jarratt was announced to reprise his role of Mick Taylor.[58] In August 2011 Geoffrey Edelsten was announced as a private investor for the movie and that he would be funding A$5 million into the production of Wolf Creek 2 after reading the script. Later that same year, Edelsten withdrew his funding, alleging that he had been misled by McLean and Emu Creek Pictures into believing that he would not be the largest single private investor, a claim the production company denied.[59] Filming and production of Wolf Creek 2 was postponed until late 2012, when additional funding was made available through the South Australian Film Corporation.[60][61]

Filming took place in late 2012 and early 2013 in Australia,[62] and the movie had its world premiere on 30 August 2013 at the Venice Film Festival. The film was given a wide release in Australia on 20 February 2014.[63]

In 2016, the Wolf Creek web television series debuted on Stan. The series saw Jarratt return to his role as Mick Taylor. A second series aired in 2017 and it was confirmed that, despite the series airing, a third film was still planned.[64]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Both Roger Ebert and Manhola Dargis[9] in their reviews of the film criticized the film's presentation of violence, with Ebert writing that he wanted to walk out of the cinema.[10]
  2. ^ According to Box Office Mojo, the film grossed US$4,560,118 in Australia.[3] Currency conversion for 25 December 2005 (its closing Australian date) via OANDA makes for a total Australian gross of AU$6,244,350.
  3. ^ According to Box Office Mojo, the film grossed US$3,040,179 in the United Kingdom,[32] converted as of 2 October 2005 (its closing UK date) via OANDA to GBP$1,722,870.
  4. ^ According to Box Office Mojo, the film earned US$16,188,180 in the United States between 25 December 2005 and 9 March 2006.[33] Currency conversion via OANDA for the date 9 March 2006 (the closing date of the film's U.S. theatrical run) makes for a AU$22,060,400 U.S. gross.
  5. ^ With a worldwide box office gross of AU$35,172,500, the difference after subtracting the AU$ grosses of U.S. and UK box office data leaves a total of AU$5,164,880 accounting for all other international markets.
  6. ^ According to Box Office Mojo, the film grossed US$27,762,600 worldwide.[33] Currency conversion via OANDA for the date 9 March 2006 (the closing date of the film's U.S. theatrical run) makes for a AU$38,026,200 worldwide gross.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shelley 2012, p. 199.
  2. ^ a b "2005 Sundance Film Festival - "Wolf Creek" Premiere". Getty Images. 24 January 2005. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Wolf Creek (2005) - International Box Office Results - Australia". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 14, 2018. 
  4. ^ "WOLF CREEK (18)". Optimum Releasing. British Board of Film Classification. 17 June 2005. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "Wolf Creek's killer weekend". The Sydney Morning Herald. AAP. 7 November 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Goldsmith, Ben; Lealand, Geoff (2010). Directory of World Cinema: Australia and New Zealand. Intellect Ltd. p. 191. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  7. ^ a b Benshoff 2017, p. 351.
  8. ^ a b c Mercer, Phil (16 October 2005). "Australia gripped by Falconio Mystery". BBC News. Retrieved 27 February 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Dargis, Manohla (23 December 2005). "The Fog, the Night, the Outback". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.  closed access publication – behind paywall
  10. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (22 December 2005). "Wolf Creek Movie Review & Film Summary (2005)". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 
  11. ^ a b "Wolf Creek". Time Out London. 13 September 2005. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "Best of Aughts: Film". Slant Magazine. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 26 February 2010. 
  13. ^ a b c Shelley 2012, p. 203.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n The Making of Wolf Creek Documentary. Wolf Creek (DVD). Genius Productions. 2006. 
  15. ^ Bradtke, Birgit. "True Story: The Australian Outback Murder". Outback Australia Travel Guide. Retrieved 26 February 2010. 
  16. ^ "The Wolf Creek Movie: the true story of a murder in the Australian Outback?". Outback Australia: Travel Guide. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  17. ^ a b c Shelley 2012, p. 204.
  18. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:11:11)
  19. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:06:05)
  20. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:26:10)
  21. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:04:58)
  22. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:24:05–25:30)
  23. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:45:19)
  24. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (1:26:40)
  25. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:56:53)
  26. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (0:07:32)
  27. ^ McLean et al. 2006 (1:18:09)
  28. ^ Dunkley, Cathy; Harris, Dana (3 January 2005). "Dimension up a scary 'Creek'". Variety. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  29. ^ "Wolf Creek (2005)". Screen Australia. The Screen Guide. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  30. ^ a b "'Wolf Creek' ban puzzles director". ABC News Australia. 15 December 2005. Retrieved 26 February 2010. 
  31. ^ "Australian Box Office, November 3–6, 2005". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  32. ^ a b "Wolf Creek (2005) - International Box Office Results - United Kingdom". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f "Wolf Creek (2005)". Box Office Mojo. 9 March 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  34. ^ Harvey, Dennis (27 January 2005). "Wolf Creek". Variety. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  35. ^ Byrnes, Paul (4 November 2005). "Wolf Creek". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  36. ^ Schembri, Jim (3 November 2005). "Wolf Creek". The Age. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  37. ^ Barber, Nicholas (18 September 2005). "Film Reviews". The Independent. London. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 
  38. ^ Bradshaw, Peter (16 September 2005). "Wolf Creek". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 
  39. ^ Aveyard, Moran & Vieth 2017, p. 249.
  40. ^ Macdonald, Moira (25 December 2005). "A first: a movie that made this critic walk out". The Seattle Times. Seattle, Washington. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  41. ^ Atkinson, Michael (20 December 2005). "Up a Creek, no Paddle: Chainsaw Ripoff Full of Cruel Claptrap". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. 
  42. ^ Johnson, G. Allen (24 December 2005). "By crikey, camping can be a killer". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 22 December 2017. 
  43. ^ a b Jolin, Dan. "Review of Wolf Creek". Empire Magazine. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  44. ^ Total Film Staff (16 September 2005). "Wolf Creek review". Total Film. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  45. ^ "Wolf Creek". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  46. ^ "Wolf Creek". Metacritic. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  47. ^ "18 of the Most Loved or Hated Movies: Films That Got A+ or F CinemaScores (Photos)". TheWrap. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  48. ^ Ryan, Mark David. "Whither culture? Australian horror films and the limitations of cultural policy" (PDF). Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy (133): 43–55.  Free to read
  49. ^ "The 25 Best Horror Movies Since The Shining". Vulture. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  50. ^ Benshoff 2017, pp. 354–55.
  51. ^ Fuchs, Cynthia (10 April 2006). "Wolf Creek: Widescreen Unrated Edition". PopMatters. Retrieved 30 December 2017. 
  52. ^ Jane, Ian (3 April 2006). "Wolf Creek - Unrated Widescreen Edition". DVD Talk. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  53. ^ Bracke, Peter (3 December 2006). "Wolf Creek HD DVD Review". High-Def Digest. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  54. ^ "Wolf Creek Blu-ray (Australia)". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f g Shelley 2012, p. 205.
  56. ^ Butler, Chris. "Critical Review and Bibliography of the film Wolf Creek". MED231 Australian Cinema. Murdoch University. Retrieved 17 April 2018. 
  57. ^ Quinn, Karl. "Outback serial killer takes the Mickey". The Age. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  58. ^ "John Jarratt to return to Wolf Creek for sequel". Herald Sun. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  59. ^ Hadfield, Shelley (24 December 2011). "Wolf Creek sequel a horror for Dr Geoffrey Edelsten". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney. Retrieved 2 April 2018. 
  60. ^ Barton, Steve (6 September 2012). "Predestination and Wolf Creek 2 Find Funding". Dread Central. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  61. ^ "Greg McLean On Wolf Creek 2". Fangoria. 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 3 October 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  62. ^ Turek, Ryan. "Three Experience Outback Terror in Wolf Creek 2". ComingSoon.net. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  63. ^ Villinger, Craig (6 July 2013). "Wolf Creek 2 in Cinemas Early Next Year". Digital Retribution. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  64. ^ Bullock, Andrew (2 October 2016). "EXCLUSIVE: 'Evil never dies' Wolf Creek to return for second season AND third film". Express. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 

Works cited[edit]

  • Aveyard, Karina; Moran, Albert; Vieth, Errol (2017). Historical Dictionary of Australian and New Zealand Cinema (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-538-11127-7. 
  • Benshoff, Harry M. (2017). A Companion to the Horror Film. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-119-33501-6. 
  • McLean, Greg; Hearn, Matt; Magrath, Cassandra; and Morassi, Kestie (2014). Wolf Creek. Audio commentary (DVD). Genius Products.
  • Shelley, Peter (2012). Australian Horror Films, 1973-2010. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-786-46167-7. 

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