The Wolf effect (sometimes Wolf shift) is a frequency shift in the electromagnetic spectrum. The phenomenon occurs in several closely related phenomena in radiation physics, with analogous effects occurring in the scattering of light. It was first predicted by Emil Wolf in 1987 and subsequently confirmed in the laboratory in acoustic sources by Mark F. Bocko, David H. Douglass, and Robert S. Knox, and a year later in optic sources by Dean Faklis and George Morris in 1988.
In optics, two non-Lambertian sources that emit beamed energy can interact in a way that causes a shift in the spectral lines. It is analogous to a pair of tuning forks with similar frequencies (pitches), connected together mechanically with a sounding board; there is a strong coupling that results in the resonant frequencies getting "dragged down" in pitch. The Wolf Effect requires that the waves from the sources are partially coherent - the wavefronts being partially in phase. Laser light is coherent while candlelight is incoherent, each photon having random phase. It can produce either redshifts or blueshifts, depending on the observer's point of view, but is redshifted when the observer is head-on.
For two sources interacting while separated by a vacuum, the Wolf effect cannot produce shifts greater than the linewidth of the source spectral line, since it is a position-dependent change in the distribution of the source spectrum, not a method by which new frequencies may be generated. However, when interacting with a medium, in combination with effects such as Brillouin scattering it may produce distorted shifts greater than the linewidth of the source.
- Emil Wolf, "Selected Works of Emil Wolf: With Commentary" (2001) p.638, ISBN 981-02-4204-2.
- James, Daniel F V (1998). "The Wolf effect and the redshift of quasars". Pure and Applied Optics: Journal of the European Optical Society Part A. IOP Publishing. 7 (5): 959–970. arXiv:astro-ph/9807205. doi:10.1088/0963-9659/7/5/006. ISSN 0963-9659. S2CID 17670250.
- Wolf, Emil (1987). "Non-cosmological redshifts of spectral lines". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 326 (6111): 363–365. doi:10.1038/326363a0. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 4337925.
- Wolf, Emil (1987). "Redshifts and blueshifts of spectral lines caused by source correlations". Optics Communications. Elsevier BV. 62 (1): 12–16. doi:10.1016/0030-4018(87)90057-5. ISSN 0030-4018.
- Bocko, Mark F.; Douglass, David H.; Knox, Robert S. (1987-06-22). "Observation of frequency shifts of spectral lines due to source correlations". Physical Review Letters. American Physical Society (APS). 58 (25): 2649–2651. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.58.2649. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 10034809.
- Faklis, Dean; Morris, G. Michael (1988-01-01). "Spectral shifts produced by source correlations". Optics Letters. The Optical Society. 13 (1): 4—6. doi:10.1364/ol.13.000004. ISSN 0146-9592. PMID 19741961.