|Initial release||June 23, 1988|
|Stable release||12.2 (December 16, 2020)|
|Written in||Wolfram Language, C/C++, Java|
|Platform||Windows (10), macOS, Linux, Raspbian, online service. All platforms support 64-bit implementations. (list)|
|Available in||English, Chinese, Japanese|
|Type||Computer algebra, numerical computations, information visualization, statistics, user interface creation|
Wolfram Mathematica (usually termed Mathematica) is a software system with built-in libraries for several areas of technical computing that allow symbolic computation, manipulating matrices, plotting functions and various types of data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other programming languages. It was conceived by Stephen Wolfram and is developed by Wolfram Research of Champaign, Illinois. The Wolfram Language is the programming language used in Mathematica.
Wolfram Mathematica is split into two parts: the kernel and the front end. The kernel interprets expressions (Wolfram Language code) and returns result expressions, which can then be displayed by the front end.
The original front end, designed by Theodore Gray in 1988, consists of a notebook interface and allows the creation and editing of notebook documents that can contain code, plaintext, images, and graphics.Notebooks can be used to create slide decks.
Alternatives to the Mathematica front end include Wolfram Workbench—an Eclipse-based integrated development environment (IDE) that was introduced in 2006. It provides project-based code development tools for Mathematica, including revision management, debugging, profiling, and testing.
There is also a plugin for IntelliJ IDEA-based IDEs to work with Wolfram Language code that in addition to syntax highlighting can analyze and auto-complete local variables and defined functions. The Mathematica Kernel also includes a command line front end.
Capabilities for high-performance computing were extended with the introduction of packed arrays in version 4 (1999) and sparse matrices (version 5, 2003), and by adopting the GNU Multi-Precision Library to evaluate high-precision arithmetic.
Version 5.2 (2005) added automatic multi-threading when computations are performed on multi-core computers. This release included CPU-specific optimized libraries. In addition Mathematica is supported by third party specialist acceleration hardware such as ClearSpeed.
In 2002, gridMathematica was introduced to allow user level parallel programming on heterogeneous clusters and multiprocessor systems and in 2008 parallel computing technology was included in all Mathematica licenses including support for grid technology such as Windows HPC Server 2008, Microsoft Compute Cluster Server and Sun Grid.
Connections to other applications, programming languages, and services
Communication with other applications occurs through a protocol called Wolfram Symbolic Transfer Protocol (WSTP). It allows communication between the Wolfram Mathematica kernel and front end and provides a general interface between the kernel and other applications.
Wolfram Research freely distributes a developer kit for linking applications written in the programming language C to the Mathematica kernel through WSTP using J/Link., a Java program that can ask Mathematica to perform computations. Similar functionality is achieved with .NET /Link, but with .NET programs instead of Java programs.
Wolfram Mathematica includes collections of curated data provided for use in computations. Mathematica is also integrated with Wolfram Alpha, an online computational knowledge answer engine which provides additional data, some of which is kept updated in real time. Some of the data sets include astronomical, chemical, geopolitical, language, biomedical and weather data, in addition to mathematical data (such as knots and polyhedra).
BYTE in 1989 listed Mathematica as among the "Distinction" winners of the BYTE Awards, stating that it "is another breakthrough Macintosh application ... it could enable you to absorb the algebra and calculus that seemed impossible to comprehend from a textbook".
- Comparison of multi-paradigm programming languages
- Comparison of numerical analysis software
- Comparison of programming languages
- Comparison of regular expression engines
- Computational X
- Dynamic programming language
- Fourth-generation programming language
- Functional programming
- List of computer algebra systems
- List of computer simulation software
- List of graphing software
- Literate programming
- Mathematical markup language
- Mathematical software
- Wolfram Alpha, a web answer engine
- Wolfram Language
- Wolfram SystemModeler, a physical modeling and simulation tool which integrates with Mathematica
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- Mathematica plugin for IntelliJ IDEA
- Using a Text-Based Interface documentation at wolfram.com
- "JMath: A GNU Readline based frontend for Mathematica". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "Directory listing". Retrieved 18 April 2019.
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- The 21st annual Editors' Choice Awards, Macworld, February 1, 2006.
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- "CUDA and OpenCL support added in Mathematica 8". Retrieved 13 April 2020.
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- Wolfram Symbolic Transfer Protocol (WSTP)
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- .NET/Link: .NET/Link is a toolkit that integrates Mathematica and the Microsoft .NET Framework.
- "mathlink: Write Mathematica packages in Haskell - Hackage". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
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- Wolfram Language Documentation Yelp service Cconnection
- Vernier and Mathematica
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- Mathematica 6 Labs Review Cadalyst Feb 1, 2008
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- Official website
- Mathematica Documentation Center
- Wolfram Open Cloud limited free access to Mathematica via a browser
- Image identification website powered by Mathematica
- Wolfram Demonstrations Project Mathematica based demonstrations
- A little bit of Mathematica history documenting the growth of code base and number of functions over time
- Wolfram Screencast & Video Gallery: Hands-on Start to Mathematica