The Women's Institute (WI), a community-based organisation for women, was founded in Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada by Adelaide Hoodless in 1897. It then expanded to Britain, and later to other countries. Many WIs belong to the Associated Country Women of the World organization.
The British WI movement was formed in 1915 in Llanfairpwllgwyngyll (Llanfair PG), Anglesey Wales. It had two clear aims: to revitalise rural communities and to encourage women to become more involved in producing food during the First World War. Since then the organisation's aims have broadened and it is now the largest women's voluntary organisation in the UK. The organisation celebrated its 95th anniversary in 2010 and currently has approximately 208,000 members in 7,000 WIs.
Amongst WI aims and activities are providing women with educational opportunities and the chance to build new skills, enabling them to take part in a wide variety of activities, campaigning on issues that matter to them and their communities.
Women's Institutes in England, Wales, Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man are affiliated with the National Federation of Women's Institutes. In Scotland and Northern Ireland there are similar organisations tied to the WI through the Associated Country Women of the World: the Scottish Women's Rural Institutes and the Women's Institutes of Northern Ireland.
Structure and membership
The national headquarters of the WI in England, Wales, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI), is in London. There is also an office in Cardiff, NFWI-Wales, and a residential college in Oxfordshire, Denman College. The NFWI produces a membership magazine WI Life. WI Enterprises is the trading arm of the organisation and exists to raise funds and provide benefits for members. In 2010, there are approximately 205,000 members of 6,500 Women's Institutes in England, Wales and the islands, linked through the Associated Country Women of the World to other WIs worldwide. (In almost a century, Colonel Richard Stapleton-Cotton and his dog Tinker are the only two males ever to be allowed in as fully paid-up WI members. )
Every individual WI meets at least once a month and there is usually a speaker, demonstration or activity at every meeting for members to learn and develop a range of different skills.
Craft has always played an important role in the WI and thousands of members are involved in a range of different crafts across England and Wales.
The Women's Institute is often associated with food, cooking and healthy eating, and food and cooking form an important part of the WI's history.
The WI movement began at Stoney Creek, Ontario in Canada in 1897 when Adelaide Hoodless addressed a meeting for the wives of members of the Farmers' Institute. WIs quickly spread throughout Ontario and Canada, with 130 branches launched by 1905 in Ontario alone, and the groups flourish in their home province today. As of 2013, the Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario (FWIO) had more than 300 branches with more than 4,500 members.
The first WI meeting in Great Britain took place on 16 September 1915 at Llanfairpwll on Anglesey in Wales. The WI was originally set up in the UK to revitalise rural communities and to encourage women to become more involved in producing food during the First World War.
The WI celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2015 and today plays a unique role in enabling women to gain new skills, take part in wide-ranging activities and campaign on issues that matter to them and their communities. The WI is a diverse organisation open to all women, and there are now WIs in towns and cities as well as villages.
Women's Institutes were formed in Scotland and Northern Ireland independently of those in England and Wales. The first Women's Rural Institute started in Scotland on 26 June 1917, and Madge Watt travelled up from London to speak to a meeting at Longniddry. After the end of the Great War, Watt returned to Canada where she continued as an activist for the interests of rural women. In 1930 she founded the Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW).
After the end of the First World War, the Board of Agriculture withdrew its sponsorship, although the Development Commission financially supported the work of the forming of new WIs and gave core funding to the NFWI until it could become financially independent. By 1926 the Women's Institutes were fully independent and rapidly became an essential part of rural life.
One of their features was an independence from political parties or institutions, or church or chapel, which encouraged activism by non-establishment women, which helps to explain why the WI has been extremely reluctant to support anything that can be construed as war work, despite their wartime formation. During the Second World War, they limited their contribution to such activities as looking after evacuees, and running the Government-sponsored Preservation Centres where volunteers canned or made jam of excess produce. All this produce was sent to depots to be added to the rations.
In 1948 NFWI bought Marcham Park in Berkshire and converted it into a short-stay residential adult education college, called Denman College in honour of Lady Gertrude Denman. Now referred to as Denman, it has grown and developed over the years and is a well-appointed adult education centre attended by approximately 6,000 students each year. It is open to non-members as well as members.
The WI Cookery School at Denman offers a range of over 100 day schools, residential courses and family courses. The courses are tutored by specialists.
New branches of the WI
In 2003, a new-style urban Women's Institute was opened in Fulham, London. This Women's Institute has been successful and the press attention it has generated has led to new WIs with younger female members opening steadily in its wake. There are now 30 branches of the WI in London and new urban branches of the organisation are opening every week across England and Wales.
In April 2010 Zoe Stroud decided to start a new WI in Cowes on the Isle of Wight. Zoe, aged 31 at the time, is believed to be one of the youngest presidents of a WI on the Isle of Wight if not the UK. [The founding president of Buns & Roses WI in Leeds, Georgiana Mannion, was 24 when she formed the group.] At the first meeting over 50 ladies attended. Cowes WI acquired 42 members within a few short months of being created. The average age of Cowes WI is around 40 and activities already completed include wine tasting, fashion styling and breast awareness. Holmfirth WI officially opened in 2013 and gained 80 members that spring. The founding president of Holmfirth WI was 25 when she formed the group and members span all ages, the branch is considered an 'inclusive' one.
In December 2012 Sami Score founded The Iron Maidens WI in Liscard in Merseyside. The branch is considered an 'alternative' one, with many members sporting tattoos, piercings and wildly coloured hair. The branch was opened with the intention of being an option for women interested in rock music, burlesque, goth culture, steampunk, retro and more. Sarah Martindale became president of the branch aged 25 and the current president is 29-year-old China Lou.
Published eight times a year, WI Life is delivered directly to more than 212,500 WI members. WI Life features articles and news stories showcasing the diversity and wide-ranging interests of members.
In keeping with the organisation's eco-friendly philosophy, the magazine is printed on 100 per cent recycled paper, using vegetable, rather than chemical-based, inks. The magazine wrapping is completely biodegradable.
In 2007, Neal Maidment became the first-ever male Editor in the history of WI magazines (which date back to 1919). He resigned from the role in May 2011. The former editor of Pregnancy & Birth Magazine and Health Which? magazine - Kaye McIntosh - is the current editor.
During the 1920s, many WIs started choirs and NFWI set up a music committee and appointed W.H. Leslie, an amateur musician from Llansantffraid, Shropshire, as an advisor.
Mr Leslie held a one-day school for village conductors in London in early 1924. He asked his friend Sir Walford Davies to write an arrangement of Hubert Parry's setting of Jerusalem, for WI choirs. This hymn with its association with the fight for women's suffrage was appropriate for the newly emerging WI movement which was encouraging women to take their part in public life, and to fight to improve the conditions of rural life.
Mr Leslie suggested that Walford Davies' special arrangement for choir and string orchestra should be performed at the Annual General Meeting of NFWI held in the Queen's Hall, London in 1924. He himself conducted the singing, bringing a choir from local WIs with him to lead.
This was so successful that it has been sung at the opening of NFWI AGMs to this day. Many WIs also open meetings by singing Jerusalem. Although it has never actually been adopted as the WI's official anthem, in practice it holds that position.
As part of the 95th anniversary celebration, a 'modern' version of Jerusalem was recorded by The Harmonies, selected from entrants from the 'WI Search for a Star' competition. It was released in 2010 as part of the album Voices of the W.I..
Home-prepared foods are of continuing importance and the institute runs its own markets, WI markets, where home made produce is sold. Modern hygiene regulations have made this activity more complicated, but so entwined are the ideals of the hymn and ongoing self-sufficiency that the ideology of the organisation is often summarised as "Jam and Jerusalem" WI fetes, cookery, and judging have frequently been satirised by Little Britain's "Maggie and Judy" sketches.
- Calendar Girls — 2003 film based on the nude calendar produced by the Rylstone WI.
- Scottish Women's Rural Institutes, Scotland
- Country Women's Association (Australia)
- Irish Countrywomen's Association, Ireland
- Merched y Wawr — Welsh language women's movement similar to the Women's Institute.
- Townswomen's Guild
- Mothers' Union
- The Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW) the largest international organization for both rural and urban women 
- Jam & Jerusalem — a British television sitcom centred around a local WI - though referenced as a Women's Guild. It is known as Clatterford in the US after the fictional West Country town where it takes place.
- National Memorial Arboretum - home to a drystone wall, incorporating two seating areas, dedicated to the Women's Institute.
- Home Fires TV series about a Cheshire WI during World War II.
As of 28 February 2011, this article is derived in whole or in part from thewi.org.uk. The copyright holder has licensed the content in a manner that permits reuse under CC BY-SA 3.0 and GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed. The original text was at "History".
-  www.thewi.org.uk, retrieved 12 March 2014
-  www.thewi.org.uk, retrieved 20 September 2011
-  www.thewi.org.uk, retrieved 12 March 2014
- Fulham WI
-  www.thewi.org.uk, retrieved 1 September 2014
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- Connell, Linda and Stamper, Anne - Textile Treasures of the WI - NNA 2007
- Davies Constance - A Grain of Mustard Seed - Gee and Son Denbigh, 2nd Ed.1989
- Dudgeon, Piers - Village Voices, a portrait of change in England's Green and Pleasant Land Sidgwick and Jackson 1989
- Garner, Gwen - Extra Ordinary Women - WI Books 1995
- Goodenough, Simon - Jam and Jerusalem - Collins 1977 (ISBN 0 00 411807 3)
- Huxley, Gervas - Lady Denman G.B.E. - Chatto and Windus 1961
- Jenkins, Inez - The History of the Women's Institute Movement of England and Wales - OUP 1953
- McCall, Cicely - Women's Institutes - the Britain in Pictures series - Collins 1943
- Robertson Scott, J. W. - The Story of the Women's Institute Movement in England and Wales and Scotland - The Village Press - 1925
- Robinson, Jane - A Force to be Reckoned With: A History of the Women's Institute - Virago 2011 (ISBN 9781844086597)
- Stamper, Anne - Rooms off the Corridor, Education in the WI and 50 years of Denman College - WI Books 1998
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