This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on|
Women's empowerment is the process of empowering women.  Empowerment can be defined in many ways, however, when talking about women's empowerment, empowerment means accepting and including people (women) who are on the outside of the decision-making process into it. Women’s empowerment is the most crucial point to be noted for the overall development of a country. Many celebrities are all for girl power such as Liza Koshy and Lilly Singh (who has her own late night show and has won many awards and also raised money for #girllove and other charities) “This puts a strong emphasis on participation in political structures and formal decision-making and, in the economic sphere, on the ability to obtain an income that enables participation in economic decision-making.” Empowerment is the process that creates power in individuals over their own lives, society, and in their communities. People are empowered if they have an access to opportunities without any limitations or restrictions such as in education, profession and in their way of life. Feeling entitled to make your own decisions creates a sense of empowerment. Empowerment includes the action of raising the status of women through education, raising awareness, literacy, and training and also give training related to self defense. Women's empowerment is all about equipping and allowing women to make life-determining decisions through the different problems in society.
Alternatively, it is the process for women to redefine gender roles that allows them to acquire the ability to choose between known alternatives whom have otherwise been restricted from such an ability. There are several principles defining women's empowerment such as, for one to be empowered, they must come from a position of disempowerment. For example: A stripper no longer has to take off her clothes to get money and now is a receptionist for a respectable company. Empowerment stems from self respect. Furthermore, one must acquire empowerment themselves rather than have it given to them by an external party. Other studies have found that empowerment definitions entail people having the capability to make important decisions in their lives while also being able to act on them. Lastly, empowerment and disempowerment is relative to other at a previous time; therefore, empowerment is a process, not a product.
Women empowerment has become a significant topic of discussion in development and economics. It can also point to the approaches regarding other trivialized genders in a particular political or social context.
Women's economic empowerment refers to the ability for women to enjoy their right to control and benefit from the resources, assets, income and their own time, as well as the ability to manage risk and improve their economic status and well being.
Entire nations, businesses, communities and groups can benefit from the implementation of programs and policies that adopt the notion of women empowerment. Empowerment of women is a necessity for the very development of a society, since it enhances both the quality and the quantity of human resources available for development. Empowerment is one of the main procedural concerns when addressing human rights and development.
Women's empowerment and achieving gender equality is essential for our society to ensure the sustainable development of a country. Many world leaders and scholars have argued that sustainable development is impossible without gender equality and women's empowerment. Sustainable development accepts environmental protection, social and economic development, including women's empowerment. In the context of women and development, empowerment must include more choices for women to make on their own.
Economic empowerment increases women's agency, access to formal government programs, mobility outside the home, economical independence, and purchasing power. Policy makers are suggested to support job training to aid in entrance in the formal markets. One recommendation is to provide more formal education opportunities for women that would allow for higher bargaining power in the home. They would have more access to higher wages outside the home; and as a result, make it easier for women to get a job in the market.
Strengthening women's access to property inheritance and land rights is another method used to economically empower women. This would allow them better means of asset accumulation, capital, and bargaining power needed to address gender inequalities. Often, women in developing and underdeveloped countries are legally restricted from their land on the sole basis of gender. Having a right to their land gives women a sort of bargaining power that they wouldn't normally have; in turn, they gain more opportunities for economic independence and formal financial institutions.
Race has a huge impact on women's empowerment in areas such as employment. Employment can help create empowerment for women. Many scholars suggest that when we discuss women's empowerment, discussing the different barriers that underprivileged women face, which makes it more difficult for them to obtain empowerment in society, is important when examining the impact of race in connection to employment. Significantly examining how opportunities are structured by gender, race, and class can transpire social change. Work opportunities and the work environment can create empowerment for women. Empowerment in the workplace can positively affect job satisfaction and performance, having equality in the work place can greatly increase the sense of empowerment. However, women of color do not have the same accessibility and privileges in work settings. They(Women of color) are faced with more disadvantages in the work place. Patricia Parker argues that African American women's empowerment is their resistance to control, standing up for themselves and not conforming to societal norms and expectations. In connection to power, feminist perspectives look at empowerment as a form of resistance within systems of unequal power relations. Within the societal setting of race, gender, and class politics, African American women's empowerment in work environment “can be seen as resistance to attempts to fix meanings of appropriate identity and behavior, where such meanings are interpreted as controlling, exploitative, and other- wise oppressive to African American women.” When talking about women's empowerment, many scholars suggest examining the social injustices on women in everyday organizational life that are influenced by race, class, and gender.
Another popular methodology for women's economic empowerment also includes microcredit. Microfinance institutions aim to empower women in their community by giving them access to loans that have low interest rates without the requirement of collateral. More specifically, they(microfinance institutions) aim to give microcredit to women who want to be entrepreneurs. The success and efficiency of microcredit and microloans is controversial and constantly debated. Some critiques claim that microcredit alone doesn't guarantee women have control over the way the loan is used. Microfinance institutions don't address cultural barriers that allow men to still control household finances; as a result, microcredit may simply be transferred to the husband. Microcredit doesn't relieve women of household obligations, and even if women have credit, they don't have the time to be as active in the market as men.
Political empowerment supports creating policies that would best support gender equality and agency for women in both the public and private spheres. Methods that have been suggested are to create affirmative action policies that have a quota for the number of women in policy making and parliament positions. As of 2017, the global average of women who hold lower and single house parliament positions is 23.6 percent. Further recommendations have been to increase women's rights to vote, voice opinions, and the ability to run for office with a fair chance of being elected. Because women are typically associated with child care and domestic responsibilities in the home, they have less time dedicated to entering the labour market and running their business. Policies that increase their bargaining power in the household would include policies that account for cases of divorce, policies for better welfare for women, and policies that give women control over resources (such as property rights). However, participation is not limited to the realm of politics. It can include participation in the household, in schools, and the ability to make choices for oneself. Some theorists believe that bargaining power and agency in the household must be achieved before one can move onto broader political participation.
Digital skills enhance political empowerment
Digital skills can facilitate women’s engagement with local government and increase their decision-making power in their communities. The Women-gov project in Brazil and India, for instance, has helped women improve their understanding of and communication with local government via ICTs. In Brazil, the project trained female community leaders to access and utilize online data on government health services to better respond to public health concerns in their communities. In India, the project worked with women’s collectives to establish women-run, internet-connected community information centres to facilitate applications for government assistance (including welfare and entitlements), which in turn improved linkages between the collectives, local authorities and public institutions.
Women with digital skills are better able to make their voices heard on local issues and influence the outcome of decisions that affect themselves and their communities. Digital skills can also empower women to participate in political movements. For instance, the anonymity of ICTs may allow some women to avoid limitations on freedom of speech in repressive societies, while collective mobilization through online networks can enable women to campaign on gender-based issues. Studies show an Iraqi women’s group used a multimedia campaign, including an online component, to successfully lobby the Kurdish regional government to outlaw the practice of female genital mutilation. Images taken on mobile phones and distributed via social media have called attention to domestic violence in China and influenced media treatment of court cases on forced abortion.
Measurements And Assessment
Women empowerment can be measured through the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), which shows women's participation in a given nation, both politically and economically. GEM is calculated by tracking "the share of seats in parliament held by women; of female legislators, senior officials and managers; and of female profession and technical workers; and the gender disparity in earned income, reflecting economic independence". It then ranks countries given this information. Other measures that take into account the importance of female participation and equality include: the Gender Parity Index or the Gender-related Development Index (GDI).
Some critiques of GEM is that it is not concerned with factors regarding society, such as gender, religion, cultural context, legal context, and violations of women's rights. Gender empowerment measure attempts to makes a consistent standardized approach to measure women's empowerment; in doing so, it has been critiqued that the GEM doesn't account for variation in historical factors, female autonomy, gender segregation, and women's right to vote.
The Gender-related Development Index (GDI) is a way in which the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) measures the inequality between genders within a country. Some critique of this measurement is that, because GDI calculations rely solely on the achievement distribution between males and females of a population, GDI doesn't measure gender inequality; rather, it measures absolute levels on income, education and health.
A more qualitative form of assessing women's empowerment is to identify constraints to action. This allows for the identification of power relations between genders. Because this is a participatory process, it facilitates conversation on gender discrimination. Comparing constraints on women at a later time also allows for any changes or expansion to be better identified. The evaluation of the development of women's agency allows for an evaluation of actions taken. These assessments must also be based on the action taken by women, and not external groups. External groups can help facilitate women's empowerment, but cannot bestow it on them.
Many of the barriers to women's empowerment and equity lie ingrained in cultural norms. Many women feel these pressures, while others have become accustomed to being treated inferior to men. Even if legislators, NGOs, etc. are aware of the benefits women's empowerment and participation can have, many are scared of disrupting the status of the women and continue to let societal norms get in the way of development.
Research shows that the increasing access to the internet can also result in an increased exploitation of women. Releasing personal information on websites has put some women's personal safety at risk. In 2010, Working to Halt Online Abuse stated that 73% of women were victimized through such sites. Types of victimization include cyber stalking, harassment, online pornography, and flaming. Sexual harassment in particular is a large barrier for women in the workplace. It appears in almost all industries, but is most notable in the following: business, trade, banking and finance, sales and marketing, hospitality, civil service, and education, lecturing and teaching. According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), sexual harassment is a clear form of gender discrimination based on sex, a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women. Furthermore, the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is urging for increased measures of protection for women against sexual harassment and violence in the workplace. 54% (272) had experienced some form of workplace sexual harassment. 79% of the victims are women; 21% were men.
Recent studies also show that women face more barriers in the workplace than do men. Gender-related barriers involve sexual harassment, unfair hiring practices, career progression, and unequal pay where women are paid less than men are for performing the same job. When taking the median earnings of men and women who worked full-time, year-round, government data from 2014 showed that women made $0.79 for every dollar a man earned. The average earnings for working mothers came out to even less—$0.71 for every dollar a father made, according to a 2014 study conducted by the National Partnership for Women and Children. While much of the public discussion of the "wage gap" has focused around women getting equal pay for the same work as their male peers, many women struggle with what is called the "pregnancy penalty". The main problem is that it is difficult to measure, but some experts say that the possibility of having a baby can be enough for employers to push women back from their line. Therefore, women are put in a position where they need to make the decision of whether to maintain in the workforce or have children. This problem has sparked the debate over maternity leave in the United States and many other countries in the world.
However, despite the struggle for equal pay, in Nepal the tech industry[clarification needed] has made progress in helping to encourage equal pay across gender. In March 2016, tech career website Dice released a study of more than 16,000 tech professionals that found that when you compare equivalent education, experience and position, there is no pay gap—and hasn't been for the last six years. However, this industry also struggles to employ women in executive positions. This is partially due to the barrier of sexual harassment and pregnancy that was aforementioned.
Such barriers make it difficult for women to advance in their workplace or receive fair compensation for the work they provide.
Role of education
It is said that education increases "people's self-confidence and also enables them to find better jobs and they can work shoulder to shoulder with men". They engage in public debate and make demands on government for health care, social security and other entitlements". In particular, education empowers women to make choices that improve their children's health, their well-being, and chances of acquiring survival skills. Education informs others of preventing and containing the disease, and it is an essential element of efforts to reduce malnutrition. Furthermore, it empowers women to make choices that can improve their welfare, including marrying beyond childhood and having fewer children. Crucially, education can increase women's awareness of their rights, boost their self-esteem, and provide them the opportunity to assert their rights.
Despite significant improvements in recent decades, education is not universally available and gender inequalities persist. A major concern in many countries is not only the limited numbers of girls going to school but also the limited educational pathways for those that step into the classroom. More specifically, there should be more efforts to address the lower participation and learning achievement of girls in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education.
The Internet use to Empower Women
The growing access of the web in the late 20th century has allowed women to empower themselves by using various tools on the Internet. With the introduction of the World Wide Web, women have begun to use social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter for online activism. Through online activism, women are able to empower themselves by organizing campaigns and voicing their opinions for equality rights without feeling oppressed by members of society. For example, on May 29, 2013, an online campaign started by 100 female advocates forced the leading social networking website, Facebook, to take down various pages that spread hatred about women.
In recent years, blogging has also become a powerful tool for the educational empowerment of women. According to a study done by the University of California, Los Angeles, medical patients who read and write about their disease are often in a much happier mood and more knowledgeable than those who do not. By reading others' experiences, patients can better educate themselves and apply strategies that their fellow bloggers suggest.
With the easy accessibility and affordability of e-learning (electronic learning), women can now study from the comfort of their homes. By empowering themselves educationally through new technologies like e-learning, women are also learning new skills that will come in handy in today's advancing globalized world.
Oftentimes, the internet is very useful as source of empowerment for women through its creation, dispersion, and utilization of hashtags on social media. One prime example of hashtags supporting women empowerment was in 2017 when the #AintNoCinderella hashtag came into existence. This hashtag spread like wildfire on social media after Varnika Kundu (a 29-year-old woman in India) was driving home past midnight on August 4 when she was followed and harassed by two men in a SUV. Kundu was blamed for being out late at night, particularly by the BJP government Vice-President Ramveer Bhatti. This led to women all across India and the world to share pictures of themselves out late at night with the hashtag "#AintNoCinderella" to show that women do not have a particular curfew to which they have to adhere to (like Cinderella did).
The UN came out with a set of goals called the Sustainable Development Goals, or SDGs, to help make the world a better place. Of the 17, the fourth goal works to allow access to education for all people alike. A large effort has been made to include women in schools to better their education. Similarly, the fifth goal focuses on empowering women and girls to achieve gender equality through equal access to various types of opportunities (health care, education, work, etc.).
Domestically, the U.S. empowered women through passings of laws such as allowing women to vote in 1920, banning discrimination based on gender in 1964, banning discrimination against pregnant women in 1978, etc. Additionally, the inclusion of women in politics allowed for more gender equality. The first female speaker of House, the First Lady to run for president, and first women to serve on the Supreme Court were monumental events that proved socially the acceptance of "subservient" women.
The U.S. provides foreign aid to third world countries in various forms, one of which is by providing education programs. There are currently bills in Congress that work to ensure education to girls, one of which is the Protecting Girls' Access to Education Act. These are enacted with the belief that proper education will pull them out of poverty and reduce exploitation.
Another action taken on by the U.S is the PEPFAR program, initiated by the Bush administration in 2003. The U.S. spent more than $1.4 billion in funding sub-Saharan Africa during the duration of the program. This program was taken into effect in response to the global HIV/AIDS crisis, and it promoted abstinence among young girls and women. There was a partnership with DREAMS, and its main purpose with PEPFAR was to allow both girls and women to develop into Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe women. However, there are criticisms that this program did not really do much to reduce HIV risk behavior, and critics such as John Dietrich worried that the context of aid enforced Western beliefs of choosing abstinence before marriage. There was and still is controversy regarding the effectiveness of this program in reducing HIV/AIDS through advocating abstinence and whether this would actually empower women in Africa.
- Wahre und Falsche "Frauen-Emanzipation", an early women's rights essay
- Gender digital divide
- Women empowerment in Nigeria
- Women's rights
- Women in the workforce
This article incorporates text from a free content work. License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from Cracking the code: girls' and women's education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), 11, UNESCO.
This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.5 License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from Mobile phones and literacy: Empowerment in Women's Hands; A Cross-Case Analysis of Nine Experiences, 33, UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO.
This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. Text taken from I'd blush if I could: closing gender divides in digital skills through education, UNESCO, EQUALS Skills Coalition, UNESCO. UNESCO.
- Kabeer, Naila. "Gender equality and women'empoverment: A critical analysis o the third millennium development goal 1." Gender & Development 13.1 (2005): 13-24.
- Mosedale, Sarah (2005-03-01). "Assessing women's empowerment: towards a conceptual framework". Journal of International Development. 17 (2): 243–257. doi:10.1002/jid.1212. ISSN 1099-1328.
- Rahman, Aminur (2013). "Women's Empowerment: Concept and Beyond" (PDF). Global Journal of Human Social Science Sociology & Culture. 13 (6): 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Bayeh, Endalcachew (January 2016). "The role of empowering women and achieving gender equality to the sustainable development of Ethiopia". Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2 (1): 38. doi:10.1016/j.psrb.2016.09.013.
- Baden, Sally; Goet, Anne Marie (July 1997). "Who Needs [Sex] When You Can Have [Gender]? Conflicting Discourses on Gender at Beijing". Feminist Review. 56 (1): 3–25. doi:10.1057/fr.1997.13. ISSN 0141-7789. S2CID 143326556.
- Oxfam (Forthcoming), "Women's Economic Empowerment Conceptual Framework"
- Deneulin, Séverine; Lila Shahani, eds. (2009). "An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency" (PDF). Sterling, VA: Earthscan. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-06-16. Retrieved 2016-09-01.
- Gupta, Kamla; Yesudian, P. Princy (2006). "Evidence of women's empowerment in India: a study of socio-spatial disparities". GeoJournal. 65 (4): 365–380. doi:10.1007/s10708-006-7556-z. S2CID 128461359.
- Mehra, Rekha (November 1997). "Women, Empowerment, and Economic Development". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 554 (1): 136–149. doi:10.1177/0002716297554001009. S2CID 154974352.
- Kabeer, Naila. "Contextualising the Economic Pathways of Women's Empowerment: Findings from a Multi-Country Research Programme." (2011).
- "Regional Organizations, Gender Equality and the Political Empowerment of Women". UNDP. Archived from the original on 2018-04-13. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- Duflo, Esther (2012). "Women Empowerment and Economic Development". Journal of Economic Literature. 50 (4): 1051–1079. doi:10.1257/jel.50.4.1051. hdl:1721.1/82663. JSTOR 23644911. S2CID 17267963.
- Carr, Gloria (February 2011). "Empowerment: A Framework to Develop Advocacy in African American Grandmothers Providing Care for Their Grandchildren". ISRN Nursing. 2011: 531717. doi:10.5402/2011/531717. PMC 3169837. PMID 21994894.
- Parker, Patricia (2003). "Control, Resistance, and Empowerment in Raced, Gendered, and Classed Work Contexts: The Case of African American Women". Annals of the International Communication Association. 27 (1): 257–291. doi:10.1080/23808985.2003.11679028. S2CID 154928053.
- "World Survey on the Role of Women In Development". Women's Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, including Microfinance (PDF) (Report). New York: United Nations. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
- Geleta, Esayas Bekele. "Microfinance and the politics of empowerment: a critical cultural perspective." Journal of Asian and African Studies 49.4 (2014): 413-425.
- Parmar, A. (2003). "Microcredit, Empowerment, and Agency: Re-evaluating the Discourse". Canadian Journal of Development Studies. 24 (3): 461–76. doi:10.1080/02255189.2003.9668932. S2CID 154860254.
- Ellis, Amanda. Gender and economic growth in Kenya: Unleashing the power of women. World Bank Publications, 2007.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. (2000). "Introduction". Women and Human Development: The Capabilities to Approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–33. ISBN 9781139459358.
- The movement to bring women's empowerment is growing with each passing day. The focus of this movement is to raise awareness of the existing social conditions that impede the rights of women and to challenge the prevailing practices of the patriarchal world. Though this is not as serious as a social revolution, it is as important for the growth of a country. This movement has a wide variety of activities that all aim at promoting women empowerment.
- UNESCO, EQUALS Skills Coalition (2019). "I'd blush if I could: closing gender divides in digital skills through education" (PDF).
- Romeo, N. 2016. The chatbot will see you now. New Yorker, 25 December 2016.
- Shulevitz, J. 2018. Alexa, should we trust you? The Atlantic, November 2018.
- Wong, Q. 2017. Designing a chatbot: male, female or gender neutral? Mercury News, 5 January 2017.
- Charmes, Jacques, and Saskia Wieringa. "Measuring women's empowerment: an assessment of the gender-related development index and the gender empowerment measure." Journal of Human Development 4.3 (2003): 419-435.
- Pillarisetti, J.; McGillivray, Mark (1998-06-01). "Human Development and Gender Empowerment: Methodological and Measurement Issues". Development Policy Review. 16 (2): 197–203. doi:10.1111/1467-7679.00059. ISSN 1467-7679.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. (1995). "Introduction". In Martha C. Nussbaum & Jonathan Glover (eds.). Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 1–15. ISBN 9780198289647.
- "World Survey on the Role of Women In Development". Women's Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, including Microfinance (PDF) (Report). New York: United Nations. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
- Sutton, J. & Pollock, S. (2000). "Online Activism for Women's Rights". Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 3 (5): 699–706. doi:10.1089/10949310050191700.
- Morahan-Martin, J. (2000). "Women and the Internet: Promise and Perils". Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 3 (5): 683–691. doi:10.1089/10949310050191683.
- "Statistics". AWARE RSS. AWARE. 22 April 2010. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- Stein, A.I. (2009). "Women Lawyers Blog for Workplace Equality: Blogging as a Feminist Legal Method". Yale Journal of Law and Feminism. 20 (2): 357–408. Archived from the original on 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2016-06-22.
- Safia Samee Ali (April 11, 2016). "'Motherhood Penalty' Can Affect Women Who Never Even Have a Child". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 20, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- UNDP. 2013. Human Development Report. The Rise of the South. Human Progress in a Diverse World; New York, UNDP.
- UNESCO. 2014, 2020. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/2014: Teaching and Learning, Paris, UNESCO.
- UNESCO (2015). Mobile phones and literacy: Empowerment in Women's Hands; A Cross-Case Analysis of Nine Experiences (PDF). 33: UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-100123-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-05-17. Retrieved 2017-05-10.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Cracking the code: girls' and women's education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Paris: UNESCO. 2017. p. 11. ISBN 9789231002335.
- Churchyard, N. (2009). "The Question of Empowerment: Women's Perspective on Their Internet Use". Gender, Technology and Development. 13 (3): 341–363. doi:10.1177/097185241001300302. S2CID 145005984.
- McVeigh, T. (June 6, 2013). "Online Feminist activists of the digital age". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
- Stephan, P. (August 13, 2013). "Breast cancer patients blog their blues away". Breastcancer.about.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
- Radovic-Markovic, M.; Nelson-Porter, B. & Omolaja, M. (2012). "The new alternative women's entrepreneurship education: E-learning and virtual universities" (PDF). International Women Online Journal of Distance Education. 1 (2): 46–54. ISSN 2147-0367. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-09-17.
- Pandey, Geeta (2017-08-09). "Why Indian women are no Cinderellas". Archived from the original on 2019-01-16
- "Ain't no Cinderella: Women hit out at BJP leader for blaming Chandigarh stalking victim". The News Minute. 2017-08-08. Archived from the original on 2019-03-31. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
- "Sustainable development goals - United Nations". United Nations Sustainable Development. Archived from the original on 2018-03-13. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "Education - United Nations Sustainable Development". United Nations Sustainable Development. Archived from the original on 2018-03-14. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "United Nations: Gender equality and women's empowerment". United Nations Sustainable Development. Archived from the original on 2018-03-14. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "Detailed Timeline | National Women's History Project". www.nwhp.org. Archived from the original on 2018-04-28. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- Steve, Chabot (2017-10-04). "H.R.2408 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Protecting Girls' Access to Education Act". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-04-13. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- Cohen, Jon (June 15, 2007). "Bush Boosts AIDS Relief: Cause for Applause and Pause". Science. 316 (5831): 1552. doi:10.1126/science.316.5831.1552. JSTOR 20036459. PMID 17569832. S2CID 43219278.
- "Working Together for an AIDS-Free Future for Girls and Women". www.pepfar.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-05-05. Retrieved 2018-05-04.
- Bendavid, Eran; et al. (May 2016). "Abstinence Funding Was Not Associated With Reductions In HIV Risk Behavior In Sub-Saharan Africa". Health Affairs. 35 (5): 856–63. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0828. PMID 27140992.
- "U.S. Spent $1.4 Billion To Stop HIV By Promoting Abstinence. Did It Work?". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 2018-05-02. Retrieved 2018-05-04.
- Heldman, Caroline; Frankel, Laura Lazarus; Holmes, Jennifer (April–June 2016). ""Hot, black leather, whip" The (de)evolution of female protagonists in action cinema, 1960–2014". Sexualization, Media, and Society. 2 (2): 237462381562778. doi:10.1177/2374623815627789. Pdf. (Includes a section titled "The Empowerment Question").