Women's association football
Women's association football, more commonly known as Women's football or Women's soccer, is the most prominent team sport played by women around the globe. It is played at the professional level in numerous countries throughout the world and 176 national teams participate internationally.
The history of women's football has seen major competitions being launched at both the national and international levels. Women's football has faced many struggles throughout its history. Although its first golden age occurred in the United Kingdom in the early 1920s, when one match achieved over 50,000 spectators, The Football Association initiated a ban in 1921 that disallowed women's football games from the grounds used by its member clubs. The ban stayed in effect until July 1971.
- 1 History
- 2 Active competitions
- 3 Youth tournaments
- 4 Intercollegiate
- 5 Attire
- 6 Hooliganism
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Early women's football
Women may have been playing "football" for as long as the game has existed. Evidence shows that an ancient version of the game (Tsu Chu) was played by women during the Han Dynasty (25–220 CE). Two female figures are depicted in Han Dynasty (25–220 CE) frescoes, playing Tsu Chu. There are, however, a number of opinions about the accuracy of dates, the earliest estimates at 5000 BCE. Reports of an annual match being played in Scotland are reported as early as the 1790s. The first match recorded by the Scottish Football Association took place in 1892 in Glasgow. In England, the first recorded game of football between women took place in 1895.
Association football, the modern game, also has documented early involvement of women. In Europe, it is possible that 12th-century French women played football as part of that era's folk games. An annual competition in Mid-Lothian, Scotland during the 1790s is reported, too. In 1863, football governing bodies introduced standardized rules to prohibit violence on the pitch, making it more socially acceptable for women to play. The most well-documented early European team was founded by activist, Nettie Honeyball, in England in 1894. It was named the British Ladies' Football Club. Nettie Honeyball is quoted, "I founded the association late last year , with the fixed resolve of proving to the world that women are not the ‘ornamental and useless’ creatures men have pictured. I must confess, my convictions on all matters where the sexes are so widely divided are all on the side of emancipation, and I look forward to the time when ladies may sit in Parliament and have a voice in the direction of affairs, especially those which concern them most."  Honeyball and those like her paved the way for women's football. However the women's game was frowned upon by the British football associations, and continued without their support. It has been suggested that this was motivated by a perceived threat to the 'masculinity' of the game.
Women's football became popular on a large scale at the time of the First World War, when employment in heavy industry spurred the growth of the game, much as it had done for men fifty years earlier. The most successful team of the era was Dick, Kerr's Ladies of Preston, England. The team played in the first women's international matches in 1920, against a team from Paris, France, in April, and also made up most of the England team against a Scottish Ladies XI in 1920, and winning 22-0.
Despite being more popular than some men's football events (one match saw a 53,000 strong crowd), women's football in England suffered a blow in 1921 when The Football Association outlawed the playing of the game on Association members' pitches, on the grounds that the game (as played by women) was distasteful. Some speculated that this may have also been to envy of the large crowds that women's matches attracted. This led to the formation of the English Ladies Football Association and play moved to rugby grounds.
The Munitionettes' Cup
In August 1917, a tournament was launched for female munition workers' teams in northeast England. Officially titled the Tyne Wear & Tees Alfred Wood Munition Girls Cup, it was popularly known as The Munitionettes' Cup. The first winners of the trophy were Blyth Spartans, who defeated Bolckow Vaughan 5–0 in a replayed final tie at Middlesbrough on 18 May 1918. The tournament ran for a second year in season 1918–19, the winners being the ladies of Palmer's shipyard in Jarrow, who defeated Christopher Brown's of Hartlepool 1–0 at St James' Park in Newcastle on 22 March 1919.
The English Ladies' Football Association Challenge Cup
Following the FA ban on women's teams on 5 December 1921, the English Ladies' Football Association was formed. A silver cup was donated by the first president of the association, Len Bridgett. A total of 24 teams entered the first competition in the spring of 1922. The winners were Stoke Ladies who beat Doncaster and Bentley Ladies 3-1 on 24 June 1922.
The Championship of Great Britain and the World
In 1937 and 1938, the Dick, Kerr's Ladies F.C. played Edinburgh City Girls in the "Championship of Great Britain and the World". Dick Kerr won the 1937 and 38 competitions with 5-1 score lines. The 1939 competition however was a more organised affair and the Edinburgh City Girls beat Dick Kerr in Edinburgh 5-2. The City Girls followed this up with a 7-1 demolition of Glasgow Ladies Ladies in Falkirk to take the title.
The 'revival' of the women's game
The English Women's FA was formed in 1969 (as a result of the increased interest generated by the 1966 World Cup), and the FA's ban on matches being played on members' grounds was finally lifted in 1971. In the same year, UEFA recommended that the women's game should be taken under the control of the national associations in each country.
During the 1970s, Italy became the first country with professional women's football players on a part-time basis. In 1985, the United States national soccer team was formed and in 1989, Japan became the first country to have a semi-professional women's football league, the L. League - still in existence today.
The 21st century
At the beginning of the 21st century, women's football, like men's football, is growing in both popularity and participation as well as more professional leagues worldwide. From the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup tournament held in 1991 to the 1,194,221 tickets sold for the 1999 Women's World Cup visibility and support of women's professional football (soccer) has increased around the globe.
However, as in other sports, women have struggled for pay and opportunities equal to male football players. Major league and international women's football has enjoyed far less television and media coverage than the men's equivalent. In spite of this, the popularity and participation in women's football continues to grow.
UEFA Women's Championship
Unofficial women's European tournaments for national teams were held in Italy in 1969  and 1979 and won by Italy and Denmark, but there was no formal international tournament until 1982 when the first UEFA European Competition For Representative Women's Teams was launched. The 1984 Finals was won by Sweden. This competition name was succeeded by the UEFA Women's Championship and today, is commonly referred to as the Women's Euro. Norway won, in the 1987 Finals. Since then, the UEFA Women's Championship has been dominated by Germany, which has won eight out of nine events, interrupted only by Norway in 1993. Germany's 2013 win was their sixth in a row.
Women's World Cup
Prior to the 1991 establishment of the FIFA Women's World Cup, several unofficial world tournaments took place in the 1970s and 1980s, including the FIFA's Women's Invitation Tournament 1988, which was hosted in China.
The first Women's World Cup was held in the People's Republic of China, in November 1991, and was won by the United States. The third Cup, held in the United States in June and July 1999, drew worldwide television interest and a final in front of a record-setting 90,000+ Pasadena crowd, where the United States won 5–4 on penalty kicks against China.
Copa Libertadores de América de Fútbol Femenino
The Copa Libertadores de Fútbol Femenino (Women's Libertadores Cup) is the international women's football club competition for teams that play in CONMEBOL nations. The competition started in the 2009 season in response to the increased interest in women's football. It is the only CONMEBOL club competition for women, and it is sometimes called the Copa Libertadores Femenina.
Since 1996, a Women's Football Tournament has been staged at the Olympic Games. Unlike in the men's Olympic Football tournament (based on teams of mostly under-23 players), the Olympic women's teams do not have restrictions due to professionalism or age.
England and other British Home Nations are not eligible to compete as separate entities because the International Olympic Committee does not recognise their FIFA status as separate teams in competitions. The participation of UK men's and women's sides at the 2012 Olympic tournament was a bone of contention between the four national associations in the UK from 2005, when the Games were awarded to London, to 2009. England was strongly in favour of unified UK teams, while Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland were opposed, fearing adverse consequences for the independent status of the Home Nations within FIFA. At one stage it was reported that England alone would field teams under the UK banner (officially "Great Britain") for the 2012 Games. However, both the men's and women's Great Britain teams eventually fielded some players from the other home nations. (See Football at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Women's tournament)
The Football Association Women’s Challenge Cup (FA Women's Cup)
After the lifting of the F.A. ban, the now defunct Women's Football Association held its first national knockout cup in 1970–71. It was called the Mitre Trophy which became the FA Women's Cup in 1993. Southampton WFC was the inaugural winner. From 1983 to 1994 Doncaster Belles reached ten out of 11 finals, winning six of them. Chelsea are the current holders and the most successful club with a record 13 wins. Despite tournament sponsorship by major companies, entering the cup actually costs clubs more than they get in prize money. In 2015 it was reported that even if Notts County had won the tournament outright the paltry £8,600 winnings would leave them out of pocket. The winners of the men's FA Cup in the same year received £1.8 million, with teams not even reaching the first round proper getting more than the women's winners.
In 2002, FIFA inaugurated a women's youth championship, officially called the FIFA U-19 Women's World Championship. The first event was hosted by Canada. The final was an all-CONCACAF affair, with the USA defeating the host Canadians 1-0 with an extra-time golden goal. The second event was held in Thailand in 2004 and won by Germany. The age limit was raised to 20, starting with the 2006 event held in Russia. Demonstrating the increasing global reach of the women's game, the winners of this event were North Korea. The tournament was renamed the FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup, effective with the 2008 edition won by the USA in Chile. The current champions are Germany, who won in Canada in 2014.
In 2008, FIFA instituted an under-17 world championship. The inaugural event, held in New Zealand, was won by North Korea. The current champions at this level are Japan, who won in Costa Rica in 2014.
In the United States, the intercollegiate sport began from physical education programs that helped establish organized teams. After sixty years of trying to gain social acceptance women's football was introduced to the college level. In the late 1970s, women's club teams started to appear on college campus, but it wasn't until the 1980s that they started to gain recognition and gained a varsity status. Brown University was the first college to grant full varsity level status to their women's soccer team. The Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) sponsored the first regional women's soccer tournament at college in the USA, which was held at Brown University. The first national level tournament was held at Colorado College, which gained official AIAW sponsorship in 1981. The 1990s saw greater participation mainly due to the Title IX of 23 June 1972, which increases school's budgets and their addition of women's scholarships.
"Currently there are over 700 intercollegiate women's soccer teams playing for many types and sizes of colleges and universities. This includes colleges and universities that are members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), and the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA)."
In 2004, FIFA President Sepp Blatter suggested that women footballers should "wear tighter shorts and low cut shirts... to create a more female aesthetic" and attract more male fans. His comment was criticized as sexist by numerous people involved with women's football and several media outlets worldwide.
In September 2008, FC de Rakt women's team (FC de Rakt DA1) in the Netherlands made international headlines by swapping its old kit for a new one featuring short skirts and tight-fitting shirts. This innovation, which had been requested by the team itself, was initially vetoed by the Royal Dutch Football Association on the grounds that according to the rules of the game shorts must be worn by all players, both male and female; but this decision was reversed when it was revealed that the FC de Rakt team were wearing hot pants under their skirts, and were therefore technically in compliance. Denying that the kit change was merely a publicity stunt, club chairman Jan van den Elzen told Reuters:
The girls asked us if they could make a team and asked specifically to play in skirts. We said we'd try but we didn't expect to get permission for that. We've seen reactions from Belgium and Germany already saying this could be something for them. Many girls would like to play in skirts but didn't think it was possible.
21-year-old team captain Rinske Temming said:
We think they are far more elegant than the traditional shorts and furthermore they are more comfortable because the shorts are made for men. It's more about being elegant, not sexy. Female football is not so popular at the moment. In the Netherlands there's an image that it's more for men, but we hope that can change.
In June 2011, Iran forfeited an Olympic qualification match in Jordan, after trying to take to the field in hijabs and full body suits. FIFA awarded a default 3–0 win to Jordan, explaining that the Iranian kits were "an infringement of the Laws of the Game", due to safety concerns. The decision provoked strong criticism from Mahmoud Ahmadinejad while Iranian officials alleged that the actions of the Bahraini match delegate had been politically motivated. In July 2012, FIFA approved the wearing of hijab in future matches.
In 2000, during the Women's African Cup of Nations final, Nigeria scored a controversial goal that many felt was offside. South African fans began throwing bottles at Nigerian players and started fights. Riot police had to come in and the game was abandoned. The Cup was awarded to Nigeria.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Women's association football.|
- Women's association football around the world
- International competitions in women's football
- List of women's association football clubs
- Women's sports
- Title IX
- Bend It Like Beckham
- She's the Man
- "The FIFA Women's World Ranking". FIFA.
- "The FIFA World Ranking". FIFA.
- "Trail-blazers who pioneered women's football". BBC News. 3 June 2005. Retrieved 2010-02-19.
- Grainey, Timothy F. (2012). Beyond Bend It Like Beckham: The Global Phenomenon of Women's Soccer. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803240368.
- "Genesis of the Global Game". The Global Game. Retrieved 22 May 2006.
- "The Chinese and Tsu Chu". The Football Network. Retrieved 1 May 2006.
- "A Brief History of Women's Football". Scottish Football Association. Archived from the original on 8 March 2005. Retrieved 18 November 2013. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "SFA" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Football history: Winning ways of wedded women"
- The FA - "Women's Football- A Brief History"
- BBC Sport - "How women's football battled for survival"
- "Women’s involvement with soccer was part of the emancipation process". SoccerTimes. Retrieved 4 May 2006.
- Mårtensson, Stefan (June 2010). "Branding women’s football in a field of hegemonic masculinity". Entertainment and Sports Law Journal 8.
- Leighton, Tony (10 February 2008). "FA apologies for 1921 ban". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Witzig, Richard (2006). The Global Art of Soccer. CusiBoy Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 0977668800. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- BBC Sport - "Trail-blazers who pioneered women's football"
- Newsham, Gail (2014). In a League of Their Own. The Dick, Kerr Ladies 1917-1965. Paragon Publishing.
- Storey, Neil R. (2010). Women in the First World War. Osprey Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 0747807523.
- Adie, Kate (2013). Fighting on the Home Front: The Legacy of Women in World War One. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 1444759701. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Taylor, Matthew (2013). The Association Game: A History of British Football. Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 1317870085. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Williams, Jean (2014). A Contemporary History of Women's Sport, Part One: Sporting Women, 1850-1960. Routledge. ISBN 1317746651. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Brennan, Patrick (2007). "The English Ladies' Football Association". Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Murray, Scott (2010). Football For Dummies, UK Edition. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0470664401.
- University of Leicester fact sheet on women's football
- Jeanes, Ruth (10 September 2009). "Ruff Guide to Women & Girls Football". Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Mike Ryan, The First Coach of the U.S. WNT Passes Away at 77". United States Soccer Federation. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- McIntyre, Scott (17 July 2012). "Japan's second-class citizens the world's best". SBS. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Edwards, Elise (4 August 2011). "NOT A CINDERELLA STORY: THE LONG ROAD TO A JAPANESE WORLD CUP VICTORY". Stanford University Press. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "The women's game's incessant growth". FIFA. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "Dodd: Women’s football deserves a blueprint for growth". FIFA. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "FIFA Women's World Cup History". FIFA. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "50 facts about the FIFA Women's World Cup™" (PDF). FIFA. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
- "Women’s Football" (PDF). FIFA. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Gibson, Owen (8 September 2009). "Men's and women's football: a game of two halves". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "Football - England women 'refuse to sign' FA contracts in wage dispute". Eurosport. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "No increase in women's sport coverage since the 2012 Olympics". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "The incredible growth of women's soccer". FIFA. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "Coppa Europa per Nazioni (Women) 1969". Rsssf.com. 19 March 2001. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Inofficial European Women Championship 1979". Rsssf.com. 15 October 2000. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Women's World Cup". Rsssf.com. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation — Women's FIFA Invitational Tournament 1988". Rsssf.com. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- Plaschke, Bill (10 July 2009). "The spirit of 1999 Women's World Cup lives on". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Murphy, Melissa (2005). "HBO documentary features Hamm, U.S. soccer team". USA Today. The Associated Press. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Copa Libertadores Femenina". Soccerway. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "England to go solo with 2012 Olympic team?". ESPNsoccernet. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
- Laverty, Glenn (1 June 2014). "Kelly Smith stars as Arsenal retain The FA Women's Cup". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- BBC article on the sponsership situation
- Prize money list on the FA website
- "Match Report: Nigeria–Germany, FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup Canada 2014". FIFA. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Match Report: Japan–Spain, FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup Costa Rica 2014". FIFA. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Christenson, Marcus (16 January 2004). "Soccer chief's plan to boost women's game? Hotpants". London: the Guardian. Retrieved 2007-02-09.
- "Women footballers blast Blatter". British Broadcasting Corporation. 16 January 2004. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Tidey, Will (31 May 2013). "Sepp Blatter's Most Embarrassing Outbursts". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- "Football: Said and Done, The Observer (London); Sep 21, 2008; David Hills; p. 15". Guardian. 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Iran's women footballers banned from Olympics because of Islamic strip". London: Guardian. 3 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- "Mahmoud Ahmadinejad blasts Fifa 'dictators' as Iranian ban anger rises". London: Guardian. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- Mohammad Davari (6 June 2011). "http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110606/sp_soccer_afp/afpoly2012fbliriwomenreligion_20110606164816". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- Homewood, Brian (5 July 2012). "Goal line technology and Islamic headscarf approved". Reuters.
- Alistair Potter (30 June 2011). "Cash-strapped Russian team to play in bikinis to bring back fans". Metro. Retrieved 2011-07-30.
- Sébastien Duret (14 February 2008). "Africa - Women's Championship 2000". RSSSF.com. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "African Women's Cup Final Abandoned After Riot". Ghana Web. 25 November 2000. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- David J. Williamson (1991). Belles of the ball: The Early History of Women's Association Football. R&D Associates. p. 100. ISBN 0-9517512-0-4.
- Gail J Newsham (1997). In a League of Their Own! The Dick, Kerr Ladies 1917-1965. London: Scarlet Press. ISBN 1-85727-029-0.
- Jean Williams (2003). A Game for Rough Girls?: a history of women's football in England. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-26338-2.
- FIFA: Women's Football
- Women's Football History
- Women's Soccer United: Home of Worldwide Women's Football