Women in war

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For the 1940 film, see Women in War.

The experiences of women in war have been diverse. Historically women have played a major role on the homefront. By the 18th century, some women accompanied armies assigned combat missions, usually handling roles such as cooking and laundry. Nursing became a major role starting in the middle 19th century. The main role in World War I (1914-1918) was employment in munitions factories, farming, and other roles to replace men drafted for the army. Women played an important role in making the system of food rationing work. World War II (1939-1945) marked a decisive turning point, With millions of women handling important homefront roles, such as working in munitions factories and otherwise replacing drafted men. Volunteer roles expanded. The most romantic new change was millions of women in regular military units. Typically they handled clerical roles so that men could be released for combat. Some women (especially in the Soviet Union, Germany, and Britain) were assigned limited combat roles, especially in anti-aircraft units, where they shut down enemy bombers well at the same time being safe from capture. Underground and resistance movements made extensive use of women in support roles. Reaction set in after 1945, and the roles allowed to women was sharply reduced in all major armies. Restarting in the 1970s, women played an increasing role in the military of major nations, including by 2005 roles as combat pilots. The new combat roles were highly controversial, raising issues of gender identity not just for the women, but for the male soldiers whose masculinity seemed to be problematic if women can do the same job.[1]

History[edit]

World War I[edit]

World War II[edit]

Contemporary[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining, eds. A Companion to Women's Military History (2012)

Further reading[edit]

  • Cook, Bernard, ed. Women and War: Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present (2006).
  • Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War (1995)
  • Elshtain Jean, and Sheila Tobias, eds. Women, Militarism, and War (1990)
  • Hacker, Barton C. and Margaret Vining, eds. A Companion to Women's Military History (Brill, 2012), 625pp; 16 long essays by leading scholars stretching from the Ancient to the contemporary world
  • Jones, David. Women Warriors: A History (Brassey's, 1997)
  • Pennington, Reina. Amazons to Fighter Pilots: A Biographical Dictionary of Military Women (2003).
  • Salmonson, Jessica Amanda. The Encyclopedia of Amazons: Women Warriors from Antiquity to the Modern Era (1991).