Women in Albania
Emina Cunmulaj, a female Albanian fashion model.
|Gender Inequality Index|
|Rank||44th out of 152|
|Maternal mortality (per 100,000)||27 (2010)|
|Women in parliament||20.71% (2013)|
|Females over 25 with secondary education||81.8% (2012)|
|Women in labour force||45.0% (2012)|
|Global Gender Gap Index|
|Rank||108th out of 136|
|Women in society|
Women in Albania are European women who live in or are from Albania. The first women's association in Albania was founded in 1909. Albanian women from the northern Gheg region reside within a conservative and patriarchal society. In such a traditional society, the women have subordinate roles in Gheg communities that believe in "male predominance". This is despite the arrival of democracy and the adoption of a free market economy in Albania, after the period under the communist Party of Labour. Gheg Albanian culture is based on the 500-year-old Kanun of Leke Dukagjini, a traditional Gheg code of conduct, where the main role of women is to take care of the children and to take care of the home.
Liberal in the traditional sense, Tosk Albanians, from southern and central Albania, make the majority population of Albanians living within Albania, and minority Albanian population living within the Balkans and greater Europe. The gender and religious discrimination rampant in traditional Gheg Albanian society was absent from traditional Tosk Albanian society, where women were and are seen as equals.
Women are expected to be faithful to their husbands, but married Albanian women are considered the property of their male spouses. Having daughters is less favoured within the patriarchal society of Gheg Albanians.
Prior to World War II, it was common for some Gheg Albanian women to become "live-in concubines" of men living in mountain areas. The importance given by Gheg men to marry themselves to virgin women has led to women paying to have their virginity restored. Despite the risk of infections and inflammations sexually active Gheg women are obtaining covert "simple 20-minute gynaecological" surgery "to become virgins again" in Gheg cities. The same clinics report that some wives are brought in by their husbands because they have failed to bleed on their wedding nights. The clinics are asked to verify the virginity of their wives because there were no blood stains.
The Labs were an Albanian-speaking pastoral nomadic society before the 20th century, unique among the Albanian population as the Sarakatsani were among the Greeks. The Labs of Labëria were notoriously even more harshly patriarchal than the Ghegs. As among the Montenegrins, women in Labëria were forced to do all the drudge work. Additionally, the Labs were known for being the only Albanian people who habitually beat their wives. Much of the negative stereotyping which arose in the 19th century Balkans that Albanians were a harsh, marauding, and violent people come from the brutality and predatory nature of the Lab Albanians.
Gheg sworn virgins
In the past, family units that do not have patriarchs, unmarried Albanian women can take on the role of the male head of the family by "taking an oath of virginity", a role that would include the right to live like a man, to carry weapons, own property, be able to move freely, dress like men, acquire male names if they wish to do so, assert autonomy, avoid arranged marriages, and be in the company of men while being treated like a man.
Due to the giving of greater importance to the desire of having sons than bearing daughters, it is customary that for pregnant Albanian women to be greeted with the phrase "të lindtënjëdjalë", meaning "May a son be born". In northern Albania, such as in Mirditë and nearby mountainous areas, it is part of tradition for Albanian women to be married only after they have been able to give birth to first sons.
The women in central Albania, particularly the women in Elbasan and the nearby regions, are known to cook the sweet tasting ballakume during the Dita e Verës, an annual spring festival celebrated on the 14th of March. On the other hand, Muslim Albanian women, particularly women from the Islamic Bektashi sect cook pudding known as the ashura from ingredients such as cracked wheat, sugar, dried fruit, crushed nuts, and cinnamon, after the 10th day of matem, a period of fasting.
Women's rights in Albanian politics
In 1920 Urani Rumbo and others founded in Gjirokastër, Lidhja e Gruas, (the Women's Union), one of the most important feminist organisations promoting Albanian women's emancipation. They published a declaration in the newspaper Drita, protesting discrimination against women and social conditions. In 1923 Urani Rumbo was also part of a campaign to allow girls to attend the "boy's" lyceum of Gjirokastër.
Under communist government of Albania there was achieved significant progress for women. The number of women deputies in parliament fell from 75 in the last parliament of communist Albania to 9 in the first democratic elections. In turbulent period after 1991 the position of women worsened. There is a religious revival among Albanians which in the case of Muslims sometimes means that women are pushed back to the traditional role of mother and housekeeper.
- "Table 4: Gender Inequality Index". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- "The Global Gender Gap Report 2013" (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
- Francisca de Haan; Krasimira Daskalova; Anna Loutfi (2006). Biographical Dictionary of Women's Movements and Feminisms in Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe: 19th and 20th Centuries. Central European University Press. p. 454. ISBN 978-963-7326-39-4.
...founders (1909) of the first Albanian women's association, Yll'i mengjezit (Morning Star)
- Bilefsky, Dan. "Albanian Custom Fades: Woman as Family Man". The New York Times. NYTIMES.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Elsie, Robert. "Albania". Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Rukaj, Marjola. "Virginity pressures in Albania bring women to the operating table". Women News Network (WNN). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Garnett, Lucy Mary jane and John S. Stuart-Glennie, The Women of Turkey and their Folk-lore, Vol. 2. D. Nutt, 1891.
- de Haan, Franciska; Krasimira Daskalova; Anna Loutfi (2006). Biographical dictionary of women's movements and feminisms in Central, Eastern, and South Eastern Europe: 19th and 20th centuries. G - Reference,Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Central European University Press. pp. 475–77. ISBN 963-7326-39-1.
- Human Rights in Post-communist Albania. Human Rights Watch. 1996. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-56432-160-2.
- Suad Joseph; Afsāna Naǧmābādī (2003). Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Law and Politics. BRILL. p. 553. ISBN 978-90-04-12818-7.
In Albania, there were 73 women out of the 250 deputies in the last communist parliament while in the first post-communist parliament the number of women fell to 9
- Marilyn Rueschemeyer (1 January 1998). Women in the Politics of Postcommunist Eastern Europe. M.E. Sharpe. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-7656-2161-0.
- Miranda Vickers; James Pettifer (1997). Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan Identity. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-85065-290-8.
The religious revival among Muslim Albanians also affected women, as conservative family values gained ground and some women were forced back into the conventional roles of homemaker and mother.
- Ilda Londo. "Career, Beauty and Motherhood" (PDF). Media Diversity Institute. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Women of Albania.|
- Association of Albanian Girls and Women (AAGW)
- Women and Children in Albania, Double Dividend of Gender Equality (PDF), Social Research Centre, INSTAT 2006
- World Vision promotes the equality of women in Albania
- The Women's Program, Open Society Foundation for Albania
- OSCE Presence in Albania, osce.org