Women in Antarctica
There have been women in Antarctica and exploring the regions around Antarctica for many centuries. Oral tradition of Māori explorers reaching Antarctic waters as early as 650 CE, put women on the Antarctic map. The most celebrated "first" for women was in 1935 when Caroline Mikkelsen became the first woman to set foot on one of Antarctica's islands. Early male explorers, such as Richard Byrd, named areas of Antarctica after wives and female heads of state. As Antarctica moved from a place of exploration and conquest to a scientific frontier, women worked to be included in the sciences. The first countries to have female scientists working in Antarctica were the Soviet Union, South Africa and Argentina.
Besides exploring and working as scientists, women have also played supportive roles as wives, fund-raisers, publicists, historians, curators and administrators of organizations and services that support Antarctic operations. Many early women on Antarctica were the wives of explorers. Some women worked with Antarctica from afar, crafting policies for a place they had never seen. Women who wished to have larger roles in Antarctica and on the continent itself had to "overcome gendered assumptions about the ice and surmount bureaucratic inertia. As women began to break into fields in Antarctica, they found that it could be difficult to compete against men who already had the "expeditioner experience" needed for permanent science positions. Women who were qualified for expeditions or jobs in Antarctica were less likely to be selected than men, even after a 1995 study by Jane Mocellin showed that women cope better than men with the Antarctic environment.
Historic barriers against inclusion
Most early policies and practices, including the construction and creation of Antarctic organizations were created initially by men. Women were originally excluded from early exploration in Antarctica based on the attitude that women could not handle the extremes in temperature or crisis situations. Vivian Fuchs, who was in charge of the British Antarctic Survey in the 1960s believed that women couldn't carry heavy equipment and that Antarctic facilities were unsuitable for women. The United States believed for many years that the climate of Antarctic was too harsh for women.
Antarctica was seen by many men as a place where men could imagine themselves heroic conquerors. In Western culture, frontier territories are often associated with masculinity. Antarctica itself was envisioned by many male explorers as a "virginal woman" or "monstrous feminine body" to be conquered by men. Women were often "invoked in terms of place naming and territorial conquest and later even encouraged to have babies in Antarctica." Using women as territorial conquest is probably at its most literal in the way that Argentina and Chile have flown pregnant women to Antarctica to give birth and stake a national claim to the area. Silvia Morella de Palma was the first woman to give birth in Antarctica, delivering 3.4 kg (7 lb 8 oz) Emilio Palma at the Argentine Esperanza base 7 January 1978.
Men enjoyed having a space that was free of women and which in the late 1940s "allowed them to continue the kind of male companionship and adventure they had enjoyed during the Second World War." In one news article about Antarctica written in 1958, the writer describes the use of dazzlement: "On the womanless continent, the purpose of the dazzlement is not to catch the eye of a flirtatious blonde, but to attract spotters in the event that the explorers become lost in the frozen waste." Men's spaces in Antarctica resisted change. In the 1980s, there was an attempt by men to memorialize the "Sistine ceiling" of the Weddell hut in Antarctica as an Australian national heritage site of "high significance." The "Sistine ceiline" was covered in 92 different pornographic pinups of women from the 1970s and 1980s. This represented a "male's only club" in which participants believed women would spoil the "purity of a homosocial work--and play--environment." In 1983, the San Bernardino County Sun newspaper published an article about Antarctica stating that it "is still one of the last macho redoubts, where men are men and women are superfluous." One scientist, Lyle McGinnis, who had been going to Antarctica since 1957 resented women in the field, saying that "men never grouse," but he believed that women complained and needed "comfort." Not all men felt that way. Other men felt that women's presence made life in Antarctica better and one male engineer stated that without women around, "men are pigs." Sociologist Charles Moskos stated that as more women are introduced to a group, there is less aggression and a "more civil culture develops."
Many of the careers in Antarctica are in the sciences, and women faced barriers there as well. As women attempted to work in science, arguments using biological determinism, evolutionary psychology and popular notions of neurobiology were used as excuses as to why there were fewer women in the sciences. These arguments described how "women are ill-adapted on evolutionary grounds for science and the competitive environment of the laboratory." Some women described feeling that they were "a bit of a joke" working in Antarctica, and felt that men regarded them as incapable.
Antarctic exploration and science research was often facilitated by national navies, who often did not want women on their ships. The United States Navy used the excuse that "sanitation facilities were too primitive" on Antarctica as an excuse to bar women. The U.S. Navy also considered Antarctica a "male-only bastion." Admiral George Dufek said in 1956 that "women would join American Teams in the Antarctic over his dead body." He also believed that women's presence on Antarctica "would wreck men's illusions of being heroes and frontiersmen." Military groups also were worried about "sexual misconduct."
As women began to try to become part of Antarctic exploration and research, change was slow. An article run in The Daily Herald newspaper of Chicago in 1974 described women finally coming to Antarctica as integrating the "land with a definite feminine touch." The article describes women's perfumed smells, ways of entertaining guests on Antarctica and the "dainty feet" of Caroline Mikkelsen. Eventually, however, both the "presence and impact of female Antarctic researchers has increased rapidly."
Early women involved in Antarctica
Oral records from Oceania indicate that women explorers, Ui-te-rangiora around 650 CE and Te Ara-tanga-nuku in 1000 CE, may have traveled to the Antarctic regions. The first Western woman to visit the Antarctic region was Louise Séguin, who sailed on the Roland with Yves Joseph de Kerguelen in 1773.
In the early twentieth century, women were interested in going to Antarctica. When Ernest Shackleton advertised his 1914 Antarctic expedition, three women wrote to him, requesting to join, though the women never became part of the journey. In 1919, newspapers reported that women wanted to go to Antarctica, writing that "several women were anxious to join, but their applications were refused." Later, in 1929, twenty-five women applied to the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (BANZARE), and were also rejected. When a British Antarctic Expedition was proposed in 1937, 1,300 women applied to join. None of those 1,300 went to the frozen continent.
The first women involved in exploration of Antarctica were wives and companions of male travelers and explorers. Women accompanied men as "whaling wives" to Antarctic waters. The first women to see the continent of Antarctica was Norwegian Ingrid Christensen and her companion, Mathilde Wegger, both of whom were traveling with Christensen's husband. The first woman to step onto the land of Antarctica, an island, was Caroline Mikkelsen in 1935. Mikkelsen only briefly went ashore, and was also there with her husband. Later, after her husband died, Mikkelsen remarried and didn't talk about her experience in Antarctica in order "to spare his feelings." Christensen went back to Antarctica three times after she first glimpsed the land. She eventually landed at Scullin Monolith, becoming the first woman to set foot on the Antarctic mainland, followed by her daughter, Augusta Sofie Christensen, and two other women: Lillemor Rachlew, and Solveig Widerøe. Because the women believed the landing wasn't an actual "first," they didn't make much of their accomplishment.
In the years of 1946 and 1947, Jackie Ronne and Jennie Darlington were the first women to spend the year in Antarctica. When Ronne and Darlington decided to accompany their husbands in 1946 to Antarctica, men on the expedition "signed a petition trying to stop it happening." Ronne worked as the mission's "recorder." Ronne and Darlington both wrote about their experiences on the ice, and in the case of Darlington's book, about how conflict between team members also "strained relations between the two women." One of the ways that Darlington tried to fit in with the men of the group was to make herself as "inconspicuous within the group as possible." One man, first seeing Darlington arrive at the Antarctic base, "fled in fright, thinking that he'd gone mad." Both women, upon returning from Antarctica downplayed their own roles, letting "their husbands take most of the honour."
Further exploration and science
Women scientists first began researching Antarctica from ships. The first woman scientist, Maria V. Klenova of the Soviet Union, worked on the ships Ob and Lena just off the Antarctic coastline in 1955 to 1956. Klenova's work helped create the first Antarctic atlas. Women served on Soviet Union ships going to Antarctica after 1963. The first women to visit a US station and the first to fly to Antarctica were Pat Hepinstall and Ruth Kelley, Pan Am flight attendants, who spent four hours on the ground at the McMurdo Station on October 15, 1957.
Often women going to Antarctica had to be approved in both official and unofficial ways. An early candidate for becoming one of the first women scientists to go to Antarctica was geologist Dawn Rodley, who had been approved of not only by the expedition sponsor, Colin Bull, but also by the wives of the male team-members. Rodley was set to go in 1958, but the United States Navy, who were in charge of Operation Deep Freeze, refused to take her to Antarctica.
The Navy decided that sending a four-woman team would be acceptable, and Bull began to build a team including Lois Jones, Kay Lindsay, Eileen McSaveney and Terry Tickhill. These four women were part of the group who became the first women to visit the South Pole. Jones's team worked mainly in Wright Valley. After their return, Bull found that several of his male friends resented the addition of women and even called him a "traitor". The first United States all-female team was led by Jones in 1969. Her team, which included the first women to set foot on the South Pole, were used by the navy as a publicity stunt, "paraded around" and called "Powderpuff explorers". The first United States woman to step into in the Antarctic interior in 1970 was engineer Irene C Peden, who also faced various barriers to her working on the continent. Peden describes how a "mythology had been created about the women who'd gone to the coast -- that they had been a problem," and that since they had not published their work within the year, they were "heavily criticized." Men in the Navy in charge of approving her trip to Antarctica were "dragging their feet", citing that there were not women's bathrooms available and that without another female companion, she would not be allowed to go. The admiral in charge of transportation to Antarctica suggested that Peden was trying to go there for adventure, or to find a husband, rather than for her research. Despite her setbacks, including not receiving critical equipment in Antarctica, Peden's research on the continent was successful.
The first U.S. woman to run an Antarctic research station was Mary Alice McWhinnie, who led the McMurdo Station in 1974 and was accompanied by a nun and biologist, Mary Odile Cahoon. United States women in 1978 were still using equipment and arctic clothing designed for men, although "officials said that problem is being quickly remedied." American Ann Peoples became the manager of the Berg Field Center in 1986, becoming the first woman to serve in a "significant leadership role".
British women had similar problems to the Americans. The director of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) from 1959 to 1973 was Vivian Fuchs, who "firmly believed that the inclusion of women would disrupt the harmony and scientific productivity of Antarctic stations." British women scientists started working on curating collections as part of the BAS prior to being allowed to visit Antarctica. Women who applied to the BAS were discouraged. A letter from BAS personnel sent to a woman who applied in the 1960s read, "Women wouldn't like it in Antarctica as there are no shops and no hairdresser." The first BAS woman to go to Antarctica was Janet Thomson in 1983 who described the ban on women as a "rather improper segregation." Women were still effectively barred from using UK bases and logistics in 1987. Women didn't winter-over at the Halley Research Station until 1996, forty years after the British station was established.
Argentina sent four women scientists – biologist Irene Bernasconi, bacteriologist Maria Adela Caria, biologist Elena Martinez Fontes and algae expert Carmen Pujals – to Antarctica in 1969. Later, in 1978, Argentina sent a pregnant woman, Silvia Morello de Palma, to the Esperanza Base to give birth and to "use the baby to stake [their] territorial claims" to Antarctica.
Once Australia opened up travel to Antarctica to women, Elizabeth Chipman, who first worked as a typist at Casey Station in 1976, chronicled all of the women to travel there up to 1984. Chipman worked to find the names of all women who had ever been to or even near Antarctica and eventually donated 19 folio boxes of her research to the National Library of Australia.
Women gain ground
The National Science Foundation (NSF) started long-range planning in 1978, looking towards facilities that could accommodate a population made up of 25% women. In the 1979-1980 season, there were only 43 women on the continent. By 1981, there were nearly one woman for every ten men in Antarctica. In 1983, the ratio was back to 20 men for every woman. In the 1980s, Susan Solomon's research in Antarctica on the ozone layer and the "ozone hole" causes her to gain "fame and acclaim."
In Spain, Josefina Castellví, helped coordinate and also participated in her country's expedition to Antarctica in 1984. Later, after a Spanish base was constructed in 1988, Castellví was put in charge after the leader, Antoni Ballester had a stroke.
The first female station leader on Antarctica is Australian, Diana Patterson, head of Mawson Station in 1989. The first all-female over-wintering group is from Germany and spends the 1990-1991 winter at Georg von Neumayer, with the first German female station leader and medical doctor Monika Puskeppeleit. In 1991 In-Young Ahn is the first female leader of an Asian research station (King Sejong Station), and the first South Korean woman to step onto Antarctica.
There were approximately 180 women in Antarctica in the 1990-1991 season. Women from several different countries were regularly members of over-wintering teams by 1992. The first all-women expedition reached the South Pole in 1993. Diana Patterson, the first female station leader on Antarctica, saw a change happening in 1995. She felt that many of the sexist views of the past had given way so that women were judged not by the fact that they were women, but "by how well you did your job."
Social scientist, Robin Burns, studied the social structures of Antarctica in the 1995-1996 season. She found that while many earlier women struggled, in 1995, there was more acceptance of women in Antarctica. Also by the mid 1990s, one of the station managers, Ann Peoples, felt that a tipping point had been reached and women on Antarctica became more normalized. There were still men in Antarctica who were not afraid to voice their opinion that women should not "be on the ice," but many others enjoyed having "women as colleagues and friends." Women around this time began to feel like it was "taken for granted now that women go to the Antarctic."
Studies done in the early 2000s showed that women's inclusion in Antarctic groups were beneficial overall. In the early 2000s, Robin Burns has found that female scientists who enjoyed their experience in Antarctica were ones who were able to finish their scientific work, to see through the project into completion.
In 2005, writer Gretchen Legler describes how there were many more women in Antarctica that year and that some are lesbians. International Women's Day in 2012 saw more than fifty women celebrating in Antarctica and who made up 70% of the International Antarctic Expedition. In 2013, when the Netherlands opened their first Antarctic Lab, Corina Brussaard was there to help set it up.
Homeward Bound, is a 10-year program designed to encourage women's participation in science that planned to send the first large (78 member) all-women expedition to Antarctica in 2016. The first group consisted of 76 women and arrived in Antarctica for three weeks in December 2016. Fabian Dattner and Jess Melbourne-Thomas founded the project and the Dattner Grant is providing funding, with each participant contributing $15,000 to the project. Homeward bound includes businesswomen and scientists who look at climate change and women's leadership. The plan is to create a network of 1,000 women who will become leaders in the sciences. The first voyage departed South America in December 2016 
An all-woman team of United Kingdom Army soldiers, called Exercise Ice Maiden, started recruiting members in 2015 to attempt to cross the continent under their own power in 2017. If successful, they will be the first military group of women to do so. Exercise Ice Maiden is meant to study "female endurance in extreme conditions."
Currently, women make up 55% of membership in the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS). In 2016, nearly a third of all researchers at the South Pole were women. The Australian Antarctic Program (AAP) makes a "conscious effort to recruit women."
A social media network has recently been created "Women in Polar Science" it aims to connect women working in Arctic and Antarctic science and provides them with a platform to share an exchange knowledge, experiences and opportunities.
Sexual harassment and sexism
When heavy equipment operator, Julia Uberuaga, first went to Antarctica in the late 70s, early 80s, she recalled that "the men stared at her, or leered at her, or otherwise let her know she was unwelcome on the job." Rita Matthews, who went to Antarctica during the same period as Uberuaga said that the "men were all over the place. There were some that would never stop going after you." In 1983, Marilyn Woody described living at McMurdo station and said, "It makes your head spin, all this attention from all these men." Then she said, "You realize you can put a bag over your head and they'll still fall in love with you."
Another scientist, Cynthia McFee, had been completely shut out of the "male camaraderie" at her location and had to deal with loneliness for long periods of time. Martha Kane, the second woman to overwinter at the South Pole, experienced "negative pressure" by the men with "some viewing her as an interloper who had insinuated herself into a male domain."
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, women felt that Antarctic operations were "not at all sympathetic to the needs of mothers, and there is a deep concern lest a pregnant woman give birth in Antarctica."
Sexual harassment is still a problem for women working in Antarctica, with many women scientists fielding unwanted sexual advances over and over again. Women continue to be outnumbered in many careers in Antarctica, including fleet operations and trades.
Some organizations, such as the Australian Antarctic Division, have created and adopted policies in order to combat sexual harassment and discrimination based on gender. The United States Antarctic Program (USAP) encourages women and minorities to apply.
American Lisa Densmore is the first woman to summit Mount Vinson in 1988. In 1993, American Ann Bancroft lead the first all woman expedition to the South Pole. Bancroft, and Norwegian, Liv Arnesen were the first women to ski across Antarctica in 2001.
Honors and awards
In 1975, Eleanor Honnywill becomes the first woman to be awarded the Fuchs Medal from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). The first woman to receive a Polar Medal was Virginia Fiennes, in 1986, who was honored for her work in the Transglobe Expedition. She was also the first woman to "winter in both polar regions." Denise Allen is the first woman awarded the Australian Antarctic Medal in 1989.
- Arctic exploration
- European and American voyages of scientific exploration
- Farthest South
- History of Antarctica
- List of polar explorers
- Timeline of women in Antarctica
- Women in science
- List of Antarctic women
- First women to fly to Antarctica
- "Women in Antarctica: Sharing this Life-Changing Experience", transcript of speech by Robin Burns, given at the 4th Annual Phillip Law Lecture; Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 18 June 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- Dodds 2009, p. 506.
- Bogle, Ariel (11 August 2016). "New Wikipedia Project Champions Women Scientists in the Antarctic". Mashable. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "SANAE IV". Antarctic Legacy of South Africa. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- "Women Scientists Antarctica Bound". Alamogordo Daily News. 24 January 1969. Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Burns 2007, p. 1092.
- Burns 2001, p. 11.
- Dodds 2009, p. 508.
- Burns 2000, p. 167.
- Francis, Gavin (2012). Empire Antarctica: Ice, Silence, and Emperor Penguins. Berkeley, CA: Chatto & Windus. pp. 89, 255. ISBN 9781619021846.
- Dodds 2009, p. 505.
- Hament, Ellyn. "A Warmer Climate for Women in Antarctica". Origins Antarctica: Scientific Journeys from McMurdo to the Pole. Exploratorium. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Lewander 2009, p. 95.
- Davis, Amanda (14 April 2016). "This IEEE Fellow Blazed a Trail for Female Scientists in Antarctica". The Institute. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Collins 2009, p. 515.
- Blackadder 2015, p. 170.
- Dodds 2009, p. 507.
- Montgomery, Ruth (1 November 1958). "Womanless Continent of Snow and Cold". Lincoln Evening Journal. Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Collins 2009, p. 516.
- Glasberg, Elena (2011). "'Living Ice': Rediscovery of the Poles in an Era of Climate Crisis". Women's Studies Quarterly. 39 (3): 229–230 – via Project MUSE.
- Satchell, Michael (5 June 1983). "Women Who Conquer the South Pole". The San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Satchell, Michael (5 June 1983). "Women Who Conquer the South Pole (continued)". The San Bernardino County Sun. Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Legler 2004, p. 37.
- Dean, Cornelia (10 November 1998). "After a Struggle, Women Win A Place 'on the Ice'; In Labs and in the Field, a New Outlook". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Hulbe, Wang & Ommanney 2010, p. 960.
- Burns 2000, p. 173.
- Mills, William James (2003). Exploring Polar Frontiers: A Historical Encyclopedia. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 716–717. ISBN 9781576074220.
- "The First Women in Antarctica". National Science Foundation. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- "Antarctic Women Then & Now". The Antarctic Book of Cooking and Cleaning. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Burns 2001, p. 12.
- Miller, Robert C. (11 February 1974). "Women in Antarctic". The Daily Herald. Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Celebrating Women in Antarctic Research". The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Hulbe, Wang & Ommanney 2010, p. 947.
- Blackadder 2015, p. 171.
- "The first woman in Antarctica". www.antarctica.gov.au. Australian Antarctic Division. 2012. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
- Roldan, Gabriela (2010). "Changes in the Contributions of Women to Antarctic National Programmes" (PDF). PCAS 13 Review. hdl:10092/13909. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Lewander 2009, p. 90.
- Blackadder 2015, p. 172.
- Walker 2013, p. 17.
- Blackadder 2015, p. 173-174.
- Blackadder 2015, p. 174.
- Jesse, Blackadder (2013-01-01). "Illuminations : casting light upon the earliest female travellers to Antarctica".
- Bogen, H. (1957). Main events in the history of Antarctic exploration. Sandefjord: Norwegian Whaling Gazette, page 85
- "Famous Firsts". The Antarctic Sun. United States Antarctic Program. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Long, John (2001). Mountains of Madness: A Scientist's Odyssey in Antarctica. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0309070775.
- Burns 2001, p. 15.
- Rothblum, Weinstock & Morris 1998, p. 2.
- Aston, Felicity (September 2005). "Women of the White Continent". Geographical (Campion Interactive Publishing). 77 (9): 26. Retrieved 25 August 2016 – via EBSCOhost.
- Lewander 2009, p. 93.
- Burns 2007, p. 1094.
- "Pan Am: Way Down South" (PDF). Pan Am Historical Foundation. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- Bull, Colin (13 November 2009). "Behind the Scenes". The Antarctic Sun. United States Antarctic Program. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- "First Women at Pole". South Pole Station. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Legler 2004, p. 36.
- Peden 1998, p. 17.
- Peden 1998, p. 18.
- Peden 1998, p. 19.
- Hudson, Ken (13 January 1978). "Women in Antarctica: No Longer Frozen Out". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Rejcek, Peter (13 November 2009). "Women Fully Integrated Into USAP Over Last 40 Years". The Antarctic Sun. United States Antarctic Program. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Jones, Beth (20 May 2012). "'Women Won't Like Working in Antarctica as There are No Shops and Hairdressers'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Brueck, Hilary (13 February 2016). "Meet the All-Women Team heading to Antarctica This Year". Forbes. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- "Janet Thomson: An 'Improper Segregation of Scientists' at the British Antarctic Survey". Voices of Science. British Library. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Sugden, David (1987). "The Polar and Glacial World". In Clark, Michael J.; Gregory, Kenneth J.; Gurnell, Angela M. (eds.). Horizons in Physical Geology. Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books. p. 230. ISBN 978-0389207528.
- Holmes, Tao Tao (25 February 2016). "How a Baby Staked Argentina's Claim on Antarctica". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Blackadder 2013, p. 90.
- "Guide to the Papers of Elizabeth Chipman". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Rothblum, Weinstock & Morris 1998, p. 5.
- Rossiter 2012, p. 179.
- Guerrero, Teresa (12 June 2013). "La abuela científica regresa a la Antártida". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Blackadder, Jesse (2013). "Heroines of the Ice". Australian Geographic (113). Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via EBSCOhost.
- Burns 2007, p. 1095.
- Havermans, Charlotte (December 2015). "Interview With the Station Leader of the South Korean Research Base King Sejong in Antarctica: Dr. In-Young Ahn" (PDF). Women in Polar Science (2): 8–13. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Blackadder 2013, p. 92.
- Blackadder 2013, p. 94.
- Walker 2013, p. 19-20.
- Tafforin, Carole (2009). "Life at the Franco-Italian Concordia Station in Antarctica for a Voyage to Mars: Ethological Study and Anthropological Perspectives" (PDF). Atntrocom. 5 (1): 71. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- Burns 2000, p. 171.
- Marler, Regina (2005). "Ice Queen". Advocate (952): 77. Retrieved 29 August 2016 – via EBSCOhost.
- Verbitsky 2015, p. 59.
- Postma, Laura; Coelho, Saroja (3 June 2013). "Women Climate Scientists Conquer Antarctica". DW. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- "78 Women Go to Antarctica to Spread Word About Climate Change". TeleSUR. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Spychalsky, Alexandra. "How Networking In Antarctica Could Give Women In STEM Fields The Ultimate Advantage". Bustle. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- Choahan, Neelima (16 July 2016). "Women in Science Journey to Antarctica in Fight to Save the Planet". The Age. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Cormack, Lucy (26 September 2015). "Women in Science: Homeward Bound's Voyage to Antarctica Focuses on Climate Change". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- "Women Set for Epic Trek". Soldiers. 71 (11): 15. November 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2016 – via EBSCOhost.
- Knox, Julie (1 October 2015). "Meet the Army's Ice Maidens". Forces TV. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Verbitsky 2015, p. 58.
- Rothblum, Weinstock & Morris 1998, p. 12.
- Burns 2000, p. 168.
- Hague, Brietta (4 May 2015). "Stories of Sexual Harassment Against Women in Antarctica Highlight Issue in Science Industry". ABC News. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Williams, Lisa Ann. "Women Working on Ice". Transitions Abroad. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- "Jobs and Opportunities". United States Antarctic Program. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Zimmermann, Kim Ann (11 November 2013). "Mount Vinson: Antarctica's Highest Mountain". Live Science. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Gammon, Katharine (28 March 2012). "7 Extreme Explorers". Live Science. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- McKay, Mary-Jayne. "Swimming to America". 60 Minutes. CBS News. Archived from the original on Feb 12, 2003. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "British adventurer Maria Leijerstam achieves world first by cycling to South Pole", The Independent, retrieved 2015-11-04
- Blackadder, Jesse (2013). "Heroines of the Ice" (PDF). Australian Geographic (113): 88–98. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Blackadder, Jesse (2015). "Frozen Voices: Women, Silence and Antarctica" (PDF). In Hince, Bernadette; Summerson, Rupert; Wiesel, Arnan (eds.). Antarctica: Music, Sounds, and Cultural Connections. Canberra: ANU Press.
- Burns, Robin (2000). "Women in Antarctic Science: Forging New Practices and Meanings". Women's Studies Quarterly. 28 (1): 165–180. JSTOR 40004452.
- Burns, Robin (2001). Just Tell Them I Survived!: Women in Antarctica. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1865083827.
- Burns, Robin (2007). "Women in Antarctica: From Companions to Professionals". In Riffenburgh, Beau (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Antarctic. 1. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415970242.
- Collins, Christy (2009). "The Australian Antarctic Territory: A Man's World?" (PDF). Signs. 34 (3): 514–519. doi:10.1086/593379. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- Dodds, Kaus (2009). "Settling and Unsettling Antarctica". Signs. 34 (3): 505–509. doi:10.1086/593340. JSTOR 10.1086/593340.
- Hulbe, Christina L.; Wang, Weili; Ommanney, Simon (2010). "Women in Glaciology, a Historical Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Glaciology. 56 (200): 944–964. doi:10.3189/002214311796406202. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
- Legler, Gretchen (2004). "The Sky, the Earth, the Sea, the Soul". In Allister, Mark Christopher (ed.). Eco-man: New Perspectives on Masculinity and Nature. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0813923048.
- Lewander, Lisbeth (2009). "Women and Civilisation on Ice" (PDF). In Hansson, Heidi; Norberg, Cathrine (eds.). Cold Matters: Cultural Perceptions of Snow, Ice and Cold. Umea: Umea University. pp. 89–102.
- Peden, Irene C. (1998). "If You Fail, There Won't Be Another Woman on the Antarctic Continent for a Generation". In Rothblum, Esther D.; Weinstock, Jacqueline S.; Morris, Jessica F. (eds.). Women in the Antarctic. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0789002471.
- Rothblum, Esther D.; Weinstock, Jacqueline S.; Morris, Jessica F. (1998). "Introduction". Women in the Antarctic. New York: The Haworth Press. ISBN 978-0789002471.
- Rossiter, Margaret W. (2012). Women Scientists in America: Forging a New World Since 1972. 3. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9781421402338.
- Verbitsky, Jane (2015). "Antarctica as a Community". In Wilson, Stacey-Ann (ed.). Identity, Culture and the Politics of community Development. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443871204.
- Walker, Gabrielle (2013). Antarctica: An Intimate Portrait of a Mysterious Continent. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780151015207.