Women in the Arab world
|Part of a series on|
|Women in society|
Women in the Arab world live in situations that are rather unique, with special challenges not present in many other parts of the world. In particular, these women have throughout history experienced discrimination and have been subject to restrictions of their freedoms and rights. Some of these practices are based on religious beliefs, but many of the limitations are cultural and emanate from tradition as well as religion.
Arab women before Islam
Many people / writers have discussed the status of women in pre-Islamic Arabia, and their findings have been mixed. Under the customary tribal law existing in Arabia at the advent of Islam, women as a general rule had virtually no legal status. They were sold into marriage by their guardians for a price paid to the guardian, the husband could terminate the union at will, and women had little or no property or succession rights. Other writers, on the contrary, have agreed that women's status in pre-Islamic Arabia was poor, citing practices of female infanticide, unlimited polygyny, patrilineal marriage and others. Saudi historian Hatoon al-Fassi considers much earlier historical origins of Arab women's rights. Using evidence from the ancient Arabian kingdom of Nabataea, she finds that Arab women in Nabataea had independent legal personalities. She suggests that they lost many of their rights through ancient Greek and Roman law prior to the arrival of Islam and that these Greco-Roman constraints were retained under Islam. Valentine M. Moghadam analyzes the situation of women from a marxist theoretical framework and argues that the position of women is mostly influenced by the extent of urbanization, industrialization, proletarization and political ploys of the state managers rather than culture or intrinsic properties of Islam; Islam, Moghadam argues, is neither more nor less patriarchal than other world religions especially Christianity and Judaism.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, women's status varied widely according to laws and cultural norms of the tribes in which they lived. In the prosperous southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, for example, the religious edicts of Christianity and Judaism held sway among the Sabians and Himyarites. In other places such as the city of Makkah (Mecca) -- where the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, was born—a tribal set of rights was in place. This was also true amongst the Bedouin (desert dwellers), and this code varied from tribe to tribe. Thus there was no single definition of the roles played, and rights held, by women prior to the advent of Islam.
The custom of burying female infants alive, comments a noted Qur'anic commentator, Muhammad Asad, seems to have been fairly widespread in pre-Islamic Arabia. The motives were twofold: the fear that an increase in female offspring would result in economic burden, as well as the fear of the humiliation frequently caused by girls being captured by a hostile tribe and subsequently preferring their captors to their parents and brothers.
It is generally accepted that Islam changed the structure of Arab society and to a large degree unified the people, reforming and standardizing gender roles throughout the region. According to Islamic studies professor William Montgomery Watt, Islam improved the status of women by "instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education and divorce." The Hadiths in Bukhari suggest that Islam improved women's status, by the second Caliph Umar saying "We never used to give significance to ladies in the days of the Pre-Islamic period of ignorance, but when Islam came and Allah mentioned their rights, we used to give them their rights but did not allow them to interfere in our affairs", Book 77, Hadith 60, 5843, and Vol. 7, Book 72, Hadith 734.[non-primary source needed]
Arab women after Islam
Islam was introduced in the Arabian peninsula in the seventh century, and improved the status of women compared to earlier Arab cultures.[better source needed] According to the Qur'anic decrees, both men and women have the same duties and responsibilities in their worship of God. As the Qur'an states: "I will not suffer to be lost the work of any of you whether male or female. You proceed one from another".(Qur'an 3:195)
It is true that Islam is still, in many ways, a man's religion. But I think I’ve found evidence in some of the early sources that seems to show that Muhammad made things better for women. It appears that in some parts of Arabia, notably in Mecca, a matrilineal system was in the process of being replaced by a patrilineal one at the time of Muhammad. Growing prosperity caused by a shifting of trade routes was accompanied by a growth in individualism. Men were amassing considerable personal wealth and wanted to be sure that this would be inherited by their own actual sons, and not simply by an extended family of their sisters’ sons. This led to a deterioration in the rights of women. At the time Islam began, the conditions of women were terrible - they had no right to own property, were supposed to be the property of the man, and if the man died everything went to his sons. Muhammad improved things quite a lot. By instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education and divorce, he gave women certain basic safeguards. Set in such historical context the Prophet can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women's rights. 
During the early reforms under Islam in the 7th century, reforms in women's rights affected marriage, divorce and inheritance. Lindsay Jones says that women were not accorded with such legal status in other cultures, including the West, until centuries later. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam states that the general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide and recognizing women's full personhood. "The dowry, previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property." Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a "status" but rather as a "contract", in which the woman's consent was imperative. "Women were given inheritance rights in a patriarchal society that had previously restricted inheritance to male relatives." Annemarie Schimmel states that "compared to the pre-Islamic position of women, Islamic legislation meant an enormous progress; the woman has the right, at least according to the letter of the law, to administer the wealth she has brought into the family or has earned by her own work." William Montgomery Watt states that Muhammad, in the historical context of his time, can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women's rights and improved things considerably. Watt explains: "At the time Islam began, the conditions of women were terrible - they had no right to own property, were supposed to be the property of the man, and if the man died everything went to his sons." Muhammad, however, by "instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education and divorce, gave women certain basic safeguards." Haddad and state that "Muhammad granted women rights and privileges in the sphere of family life, marriage, education, and economic endeavors, rights that help improve women's status in society."
The labor force in the Arab Caliphate were employed from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds, while both men and women were involved in diverse occupations and economic activities. Women were employed in a wide range of commercial activities and diverse occupations. Women's economic position was strengthened by the Qur'an,[need quotation to verify] but local custom has weakened that position in its insistence that women must work within private sector of the world: the home or at least in some sphere related to home. Dr. Nadia YousaF, an Egyptian sociologist now teaching in the United States, states in a recent article on labor-force participation by women of Middle Eastern and Latin American Countries that the "Middle East reports systematically the lowest female activity rates on record" for labor. This certainly gives the impression that Middle Eastern women have little or no economical role, until one notes that the statistics are based on non-agricultural labor outside the home.
In the 12th century, the most famous Islamic philosopher and qadi (judge) Ibn Rushd, known to the West as Averroes, claimed that women were equal to men in all respects and possessed equal capacities to shine in peace and in war, citing examples of female warriors among the Arabs, Greeks and Africans to support his case. In early Muslim history, examples of notable female Muslims who fought during the Muslim conquests and Fitna (civil wars) as soldiers or generals included Nusaybah Bint k’ab Al Maziniyyah, Aisha, Kahula and Wafeira, and Um Umarah.
Contemporary Arab world
In Arabic-speaking countries, no woman has ever been head of state, although many Arabs remarked on the presence of women such as Jehan Sadat, the wife of Anwar Sadat in Egypt, and Wassila Bourguiba, the wife of Habib Bourguiba in Tunisia, who have strongly influenced their husbands in their dealings with matters of state. Many Arab countries allow women to vote in national elections. The first female Member of Parliament in the Arab world was Rawya Ateya, who was elected in Egypt in 1957. Some countries granted the female franchise in their constitutions following independence, while some extended the franchise to women in later constitutional amendments.
Arab women are under-represented in parliaments in Arab states, although they are gaining more equal representation as Arab states liberalise their political systems. In 2005, the International Parliamentary Union said that 6.5 per cent of MPs in the Arab world were women, compared with 3.5 per cent in 2000. In Tunisia, nearly 23 per cent of members of parliament were women. However, the Arab country with the largest parliament, Egypt, had only around four per cent female representation in parliament. Algeria has the largest female representation in parliament with 32 per cent.
In the UAE, in 2006 women stood for election for the first time in the country's history. Although just one female candidate – from Abu Dhabi – was directly elected, the government appointed a further eight women to the 40-seat federal legislature, giving women a 22.5 per cent share of the seats, far higher than the world average of 17.0 per cent.
In the Arab Summit in Tunisia that was held in May 10, 2004, Arab leaders, for the first time, discussed the issue of advancing Arab women as an essential element of the political and economic development of the Arab world.
Furthermore, Arab first Ladies have called for greater empowerment of women in the Arab World so that females could stand in the equal position as males.
The role of women in politics in Arab societies is largely determined by the will of these countries' leaderships to support female representation and cultural attitudes towards women's involvement in public life. Dr Rola Dashti, a female candidate in Kuwait's 2006 parliamentary elections, claimed that "the negative cultural and media attitude towards women in politics" was one of the main reasons why no women were elected. She also pointed to "ideological differences", with conservatives and extremist Islamists opposing female participation in political life and discouraging women from voting for a woman. She also cited malicious gossip, attacks on the banners and publications of female candidates, lack of training and corruption as barriers to electing female MPs. In contrast, one of UAE's female MPs, Najla al Awadhi, claimed that "women's advancement is a national issue and we have a leadership that understands that and wants them to have their rights."
Lebanon recently appointed the first female interior of state minister. This move is unprecedented in the Arab World, as she is the first woman to hold this important position.
The poor representation and solutions
In Jordan, Princess Basma Bint Talal initiated the establishment of the Jordanian National Commission for Women (JNCW) in 1992. The Commission being highest policy-making institute in Jordan, it tackled on women's political, legislative, economic, social, educational, and health rights and issues.
In Lebanon, the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), is striving to eliminate laws, traditions, and customs that are intended to or otherwise result in gender-based discrimination.
The Women's Learning Partnership (WLP) in Morocco proposed a national plan to integrate women into the country's economic development — the Plan d’action National pour l’integration de la Femme au Development (PANDIF).
Lastly in Saudi Arabia, the Nahda Charitable Society for Women seeks the empowerment of women within the framework of Islamic law.
The woman in the Arab countries has the lowest participation in politics in the world, and if she gains a chance for a high position, the soft issues such as social affairs and women's issues are mostly her only choices. This is mostly due to the inherent social patriarchal attributes and the stereotype of the women in this region. This absence in politics poses many problems, such as loss of gender rights, and could increase the social inequalities and thus weakens the quality of life, which are represented in several factors such as poor health, education, economy, and the environment. Some studies confirmed the importance and transformational role that women's quotas provide to women in Arab countries. Yet, working to change the stereotype image of Arab women through official and social media, is one of the proposed solutions to achieve a positive increase in women's political representation in the Arab world.
Women's right to vote in the Arab world
Women were granted the right to vote on a universal and equal basis in Lebanon in 1952, Syria (to vote) in 1949 (Restrictions or conditions lifted) in 1953, Egypt in 1956, Tunisia in 1959, Mauritania in 1961, Algeria in 1962, Morocco in 1963, Libya and Sudan in 1964, Yemen in 1967 (full right) in 1970, Bahrain in 1973, Jordan in 1974, Iraq (full right) 1980, Kuwait in 1985 (later removed and re-granted in 2005) and Oman in 1994. Saudi Arabia in 2015.
According to a report from UNESCO, 34-57% of STEM grads in Arab countries are women, which is much higher than in universities in the US or Europe.
A growing number of firms owned by females start to hire women in executive positions. In fact, in Jordan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, firms run by women are growing their workforces at higher rates than those run by men.
In some of the wealthier Arab countries such as UAE, the number of women business owners is growing rapidly and adding to the economic development of the country. Many of these women work with family businesses and are encouraged to work and study outside of the home. Arab women are estimated to have $40 billion of personal wealth at their disposal, with Qatari families being among the richest in the world.
However, thirteen of the 15 countries with the lowest rates of women participating in their labor force are in the Middle East and North Africa. Yemen has the lowest rate of working women of all, followed by Syria, Jordan, Iran, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Lebanon, Egypt, Oman, Tunisia, Mauritania, and Turkey. Unemployment among women in the Middle East is twice that of men, pointing to low wages, a lack of skills and a belief among some that a woman's place is in the home.
Gender inequality remains a major concern in the region, which has the lowest female economic participation in the world (27% of females in the region participate in the workforce, compared to a global average of 56%).
In Saudi Arabia, women do better than men in science and math. In Iran, research shows that girls have “caught up with boys, reversing their score gap, between 1999 and 2007, in both math and science.” And Jordan has always been a top performer in education, with girls outperforming boys there for decades and women still do not get jobs.
There are three reasons that hold women back from the labor force. Firstly, the socio-economic environment discourages women from working despite encouraging them to get an education, especially in oil-rich Gulf nations. Oil and oil-related revenues perpetuate patriarchal family structures because the state itself is the “patriarch” of its citizens, employing them and providing them with ready income. This means citizens don't have to look for ways to make money outside of state patronage, and may just reinforce already existing conservative gender roles where women stay at home. Oil and oil-related revenues also structure the economy away from female-intensive sectors. Secondly, patriarchal state institution systems often means weak, dependent private sectors that do not want to or can not afford to assume the cost of women's reproductive roles. This seriously hinders women's practical and logistical participation in the labor force. Thirdly, the inhospitable business environment in the private sector discourages women to work. No Arab country has a legal quota for the percentage of women it must include on corporate boards. Only Morocco and Djibouti have laws against gender discrimination in hiring and for equal remuneration for equal work. Algeria has also ruled in favor of equal pay for equal work.
Women could contribute to the country's economy since women's employment can significantly improve household income—by as much as 25 percent—and lead many families out of poverty. It continues that increased household income will not only positively impact MENA economies on the micro-level, but it will bolster economies on the macro level as well.
The Muslim community is often criticized for not providing an equal opportunity for education for females. According to an analytical study on women's education in the Muslim world, it shows that a country's wealth – not its laws or culture – is the most important factor in determining a woman's educational fate. Women in oil-rich Gulf countries have made some of the biggest educational leaps in recent decades. Compared to women in oil-rich Saudi Arabia, young Muslim women in Mali have shown significantly fewer years of schooling.
In Arab countries, the first modern schools were opened in Egypt (1829), Lebanon (1835) and Iraq (1898).
Female education rapidly increased after emancipation from foreign domination around 1977. Before that, the illiteracy rate remained high among Arab women. The gap between female and male enrollment varies across the Arab world. Countries like Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Lebanon, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates achieved almost equal enrollment rates between girls and boys. Female enrollment was as low as 10% in North of Yemen back in 1975. In Unesco's 2012 annual report, it predicted that Yemen won't achieve gender equality in education before 2025. In Qatar, the first school was built in 1956 after a fatwa that states that the Qur'an did not forbid female education.
Over the time period of 1960–1975, the female enrollment ratio in elementary schools grew from 27.9 to 46, 10 to 24.2 for secondary schools.
In terms of college education, in Tunisia, the enrollment jumped from 1,020 people in 1965 to 6,070 in 1977. In Iraq, from 7,625 in 1965 to 28,267 in 1975, in Lebanon from 3,685 in 1965 to I 1,000 in 1971, in Algeria from 1,642 in 1965 to 12,171 in 1975, and in Morocco from 1,089 in 1965 to 8,440 in 1975.
Women have varying degrees of difficulty moving freely in Arab countries. A couple of nations prohibit women from ever traveling alone, while in others, women can travel freely but experience a greater risk of sexual harassment or assault than they would in Western countries.
Women have the right to drive in all Arab countries with Saudi Arabia lifting the ban on June 24, 2018. In Jordan, travel restrictions on women were lifted in 2003. "Jordanian law provides citizens the right to travel freely within the country and abroad except in designated military areas. Unlike Jordan's previous law (No. 2 of 1969), the current Provisional Passport Law (No. 5 of 2003) does not require women to seek permission from their male guardians or husbands in order to renew or obtain a passport." In Yemen, women must obtain approval from a husband or father to get an exit visa to leave the country, and a woman may not take her children with her without their father's permission, regardless of whether or not the father has custody. The ability of women to travel or move freely within Saudi Arabia is severely restricted. However, in 2008 a new law went into effect requiring men who marry non-Saudi women to allow their wife and any children born to her to travel freely in and out of Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, women must travel with their guardians permission and they are not supposed to talk to strange random men, even if their lives are in danger.
In the past, women in Islamic culture were strictly forbidden to travel around without a male chaperone. Today, to some degree, it is permissible, and there is no objection to a woman traveling alone by the various safe routes and means of travel via their venues such as airports, harbors, and safe transportations. As long as a woman's safety is ensured during her trip, the prohibition is lifted.
Adherence to traditional dress varies across Arab societies. Saudi Arabia is more traditional, while countries like Egypt, and Lebanon are less so. Women are required by law to wear abayas in only Saudi Arabia; this is enforced by the religious police. Some allege that this restricts their economic participation and other activities. In most countries, like Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Jordan, Syria and Egypt, the veil is not mandatory. The veil, hijab in Arabic, means anything that hides.
In Tunisia, the secular government has banned the use of the veil in its opposition to religious extremism. Former President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali called the veil sectarian and foreign and has stressed the importance of traditional Tunisian dress as a symbol of national identity.  Islamic feminism counters both sorts of externally imposed dress codes.
Religious views differ on what is considered the proper hijab. This explains the variation in Islamic attire according to geographic location.
Conflation of Muslim and Arab identity
"Arab" and "Muslim" are often used interchangeably. The conflation of these two identities ignores the diverse religious beliefs of Arab people and also overlooks Muslims who are not Arabs. It, "also erases the historic and vast ethnic communities who are neither Arab nor Muslim but who live amid and interact with a majority of Arabs or Muslims." This generalization, "enables the construction of Arabs and Muslims as backward, barbaric, misogynist, sexually savage, and sexually repressive." This type of stereotyping leads to the orientalizing of Arab women and depicts them as fragile, sexually oppressed individuals who cannot stand up for their beliefs.
Arab women's rights
Tunisia is the only Arabic Muslim-majority country to grant women equal rights as men, outlawing polygamy, allowing Muslim women to marry non-Muslim men, and giving them equal inheritance as men.
Egypt is one of the leading countries with active feminist movements, and the fight for women's right's is associated to social justice and secular nationalism. Egyptian feminism started out with informal networks of activism after women were not granted the same rights as their male comrades in 1922. The movements eventually resulted in women gaining the right to vote in 1956.
Although Lebanese laws don't give Lebanese women full rights, Lebanon has a very large feminism movement. NGOs like Kafa and Abaad have served this feminist obligation, and tried several times to pass adequate laws that give Lebanese women their rights. The most talked about right is citizenship by marriage and descent: a woman in Lebanon is not authorised to pass her citizenship to her spouse nor her children. This right is making a buzz in Lebanese society, but isn't widely approved.
Feminists in Saudi Arabia can end up in jail or face a death penalty for their activism. Some of their requests were granted such as not requiring a male guardian to access government services. Women still need a male guardian's approval to travel and marry.
In Libya, a rather conservative Arab country, Khadija Bsekri, a professor, founded in 2011 an organisation called «The Female Amazons of Libya». The organisation launched some campaigns, e.g. against violence against women, to improve the status of migrant shelters, and to strengthen the capacities of activists and media professionals. Its name remembers the mythical Amazons of Libya in prehistoric times.
To continue female empowerment in the Arab world, young Arab women need role models. A lot of the times, these role models can be found through social media.
Some Atheist, 'Women's rights supporters', such as Egyptian activist Sherif Gaber, argue that most of the hostile attitudes towards women in Muslim male culture such as over-sexual/pure-virgin view of Women, and hostile actions such as marriage to preteen girls, physical assault by male relatives, martial rape, infidelity by polygamy, sexual harassment or assault, and forced obedience to a Waly are due to Islam as a religion literally and in accordance with its male-dominant spirit. This is apparent in Muslim majority countries. He compares in the west that women are more protected against violence, including sexual violence than in the Arab countries. This view is not popular in the Arab world as Muslims believe in Islamic sharia law as the non-negotiable word of their God, regardless of the moral dilemma of the Islamic religion and physical or psychological impact on women, and Children.
Prominent Arab women
Lama Al-Sulaiman was one of the first two Saudi women elected office as a board member of the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce (JCC), a prominent center for businesswomen in Saudi Arabia, and is now president of its Khadijah bint Khuwalid Center for Businesswomen. The World Economic Forum recognized her as a Young Arab Leader, and she has been the director of Rolaco Trading and Contracting, the National Institute of Health Services, the National Home Health Care Foundation, and the Economic and Social Circle of the Mecca Region. Al-Sulaiman earned a B.Sc.in Biochemistry from King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia, and holds an M.Sc. in health and nutrition and a Ph.D in biochemical nutrition from King's College at the University of London. Just a week before standing at the JCC election, Ms. Al-Sulaiman won a deadly struggle against breast cancer. At the Sixth Cancer Cure Conference she shared her remarkable story of recovery publicly for the first time. She realized that the best treatment was closeness to God. She followed the appropriate nutritional plan and used alternative medicine to improve physically.
Christine Sfeir was only 22 years old when she moved to Beirut from Montreal, Canada, and opened the first Dunkin' Donuts in Lebanon. Christine is ranked as one of the top 100 Arab Women, and she is also the CEO of Lebanese food chains Semsom and Green Falafel. Since 1997, when Christine opened the first Dunkin Donuts in Lebanon, she has opened more than 30 DD restaurants in the country. She has furthermore expanded her talent in restaurant chains, and on top of being the CEO of the Dunkin' Donuts chain in Lebanon, she is bringing Lebanese cuisine to the United States with the restaurant chain Semsom, and has future plans of opening up in India.
Mona Yousif Almoayyed is a Businesswoman, Philanthropist, Environmentalist and Women's Rights Campaigner who is the Managing Director of one of Bahrain's oldest conglomerates Y.K Almoayyed and Sons.
A Bachelor of Business Administration, Mona has been instrumental in overseeing the business endeavours of the Y K Almoayyed group, leading it meticulously towards its desired destination.
Voted the third most influential Arab Women's List in the MENA region by Forbes Middle East for 2013, Mona is a member of the board of directors for BMMI and Ebda Bank besides other companies. She is well known for her charity work and frequently speaks about the role of women in building a better society today. Mona has been a firm believer of 'Business with a Conscience' principle and is involved in many charitable institutions. Besides her Business and Social Activity, Mona strives to draw a perfect balance between being a mother, housewife and mentor role she plays.
Having been brought up in a conservative environment in the 70's Middle East, the young girl's childhood was simple and disciplined like any middle class Arab girl's upbringing.
Mona Bawarshi is CEO and CMN[disambiguation needed] of Gezairi and an active philanthropist committed to seeing Lebanon and the Arab world prosper. Through her impeccable professional recor—she has even been listed among the Most Influential Arab Women by Forbes—and her work with various organisations, she promotes education and ethics as tools for a better future.
For 36 years, Donna Sultan has played a significant role in positioning KEO International Consultants within the market. During the past 28 years, she has served as the president and chief executive officer of the planning, design, engineering, and project management specialist.
Based out of Kuwait, Sultan led a team of 686 full-time qualified engineers in 2018. Her team currently includes a total of 291 female employees.
Some of the group's training initiatives in 2018 revolved around contract awareness and standard operating procedures. One of KEO International Consultants’ initiatives this year centres on financial commercial management and enterprise resource planning.
Dr. Ismahane Elouafi
Dr. Ismahane Elouafi joined ICBA as Director General in 2012. Prior to that, she had held management positions with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. She also worked as a scientist with several international research organizations, including the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), and International Maize and Wheat Center (CIMMYT).
She is a recipient of many international awards, including the Excellence in Science award from the Global Thinkers Forum (2014), and the National Reward Medal by His Majesty Mohamed VI, the King of Morocco (2014). In 2014, Muslim Science ranked Dr. Elouafi among the 20 Most Influential Women in Science in the Islamic World under the Shapers category, and the CEO-Middle East Magazine listed her among the World's 100 Most Powerful Arab Women in the Science category.
Buthaina Al Ansari
Buthaina Al Ansari, founder and Chairperson of Qatariat T&D Holding Company and Senior Human Resources Director at Ooredoo, delivered a CIRS Monthly Dialogue on the topic of “Sheroes—How Female Leaders are Changing Qatar” on November 17, 2014.
Al Ansari is a member of the MENA Business Women's Networks, an ambassador for Women Leading Change Qatar, a board member of Qatar Business Women's Association, and a Mentor at the Qatar Professional Women's Network Circle.
Abeer Abu Ghaith
Abeer is a technology entrepreneur from Palestine. She has been branded Palestine's first female high-tech entrepreneur. Abeer was the recipient of “Best Technology Enabler and Facilitator” Award given by MEA Women in Technology Awards 2014. Following this award, Abu Ghaith has been selected as one of “The World’s 100 Most Powerful Arabs” and as one of the top 100 Most Powerful Arab Women in the World for 2015 and 2014. Also, she has been selected as one of the 100 Most Powerful Arabs Under 40 for 2015. In addition, she has been selected as one of 21 Young Inspirational Figures who are fighting to make a change in the World based on Huffington Post UK.
Abeer is Founder/CEO of MENA Alliances Group Inc., an International business aimed at providing high quality and value outsourced business and technology solutions faster, easier, trusted and fully localized while creating economic opportunity for talent in the MENA region. Recently, her company has been selected as “Best social impact company” in Metkite competition in Italy. MENA Alliances is an expansion of Abeer's previous business “StayLinked”.
- Arab culture
- Democracy in the Middle East
- Human rights in the Middle East
- Human trafficking in the Middle East
- LGBT in the Middle East
- Sexual taboo in the Middle East
- Arab Christians
- Arab Jews
- Campaign Against Lebanese Rape Law - Article 522
- Egyptian Feminist Union
- Female genital cutting
- Gender apartheid
- Negev Bedouin women
- Rania al-Baz
- Saddeka Arebi
- Sahrawi women
- Shajarat al-Durr
- Women and Memory Forum
- Women in Muslim societies
- Women's political rights in Bahrain
- Duma (2011 film)
- Women's rights in Saudi Arabia
- "'Challenging Inequality: Obstacles and Opportunities Towards Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa'". Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Turner, Brian S. Islam (ISBN 0-415-12347-X). Routledge: 2003, p77-78.
- Beck, lois. and Keddic, Nikki. " Women in the Muslim world", Harvard University Press, London, 1978, p.37.
- Hammond, Andrew; Sara Ledwith (2008-04-30). "Saudi scholar finds ancient women's rights". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 2011-05-29. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
- al-Fassi, Hatoon (2007-07-15). Women in Pre-Islamic Arabia: Nabataea. British Archaeological Reports International Series. British Archaeological Reports. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4073-0095-5.
- Unni Wikan, review of Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East, American Ethnologist, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Nov., 1995), pp. 1078-1079
- Valentine M. Moghadam. Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East. (Lynne Rienner Publishers, USA, 1993) p. 5
- Islam and Women Archived 2013-08-10 at the Wayback Machine Dr. Younus Shaikh
- "Aspects of Pre-Islamic Arabian Society". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Engineer, Asgar Ali, "the Rights of Women in Islam", C. Hurst and company, London, 1992, p.21.
- Maan, Bashir and Alastair McIntosh. "'The whole house of Islam, and we Christians with them...': An interview with 'the Last Orientalist' - the Rev Prof William Montgomery Watt." Internet version from www.alastairmcintosh.com. Also published in The Coracle, the Iona Community, summer 2000, issue 3:51, pp. 8-11.
- Esposito, John L., with DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (2001). Women in Muslim Family Law, 2nd revised Ed. Available here via GoogleBooks preview. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-2908-7 (pbk); pp. 4-5.
- "Women and Islam - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Interview with Prof William Montgomery Watt". www.alastairmcintosh.com. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Esposito (2005) p. 79
- Jones, Lindsay. p.6224
- "Women and Islam - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Khadduri (1978)
- Esposito (2004), p. 339
- Schimmel (1992) p.65
- Maan, McIntosh (1999)
- Haddad, Esposito (1998) p.163
- Maya Shatzmiller, pp. 6–7.
- Maya Shatzmiller (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09896-8, pp. 400–1
- Frfnea, Elizabeth warnock. and Bezirgan, Basima Qatta, "Middle Eastern Muslim women speak", University of Texas Press, Austin, 1994, p.25
- Ahmad, Jamil (September 1994). "Ibn Rushd". Monthly Renaissance. 4 (9). Retrieved 2008-10-14.
- "ABCNEWS.com : The Cost of Women in Combat". www.realnews247.com. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Black, Edwin (2004). Banking on Baghdad: Inside Iraq's 7,000 Year History of War, Profit, and Conflict. John Wiley and Sons. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-471-70895-7.
- Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell (1853). Woman's Record: Or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from "The Beginning Till A.D. 1850, Arranged in Four Eras, with Selections from Female Writers of Every Age. Harper Brothers. p. 120.
- Rao, Mallika (8 April 2014). "Meet The Three Female Medical Students Who Destroyed Gender Norms A Century Ago". Huffington Post.
- "UPDATED: Sabat Istanbuly, Female Student at the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania,1885". AndFarAway. 2013-12-23. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
- Roald, Anne Sofie. "Women in Islam", Routledge, London, 2001, p.185.
- Karam, Azza M. (1998). Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers (snippet view). Handbook series. Vol. 2. Stockholm: International IDEA. p. 44. ISBN 978-91-89098-19-0. OCLC 186101396.
- Legislative Section in the 1950' Constitution of Syria (in Arabic)
- Legislative Section in the 1970' Constitution of Syria (in Arabic)
- Item 21, Section 2 Chapter 1 of the Lebanese Constitution since 1926 (in Arabic)
- Item 62 of the 1971' Egyptian Constitution (in Arabic) inherited from previous versions
- Item 50 of the 1996' Algeria Constitution (in Arabic) inherited from previous versions
- BBC News - Arab women increase MP presence
- 0. "Algerian women claw their way into parliament". english.alarabiya.net.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Dudman, Jane (2 December 2013). "Quotas will ensure more women in parliament". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Inter Press Service - News and Views from the Global South". ipsnews.net.
- Ensour, Waed; Al Maaitah, Hadeel; Kharabsheh, Radwan (2017-10-16). "Barriers to Arab female academics' career development". Management Research Review. 40 (10): 1058–1080. doi:10.1108/mrr-08-2016-0186. ISSN 2040-8269.
- "The World of Parliaments - Issue N°23". www.ipu.org.
- "Countering the Negative Image of Arab Women in the Arab Media: Toward a "Pan Arab Eye" Media Watch Project". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- Bauer, G (2011). Women in executive power: A global overview. New York, NY. p. 10. ISBN 9781136819155.
- York, R (2014-05-04). "Life satisfaction across nations: The effects of women's political status and public pri-orities". Social Science Research. 48 (48): 48–61. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.05.004. PMID 25131274.
- Ben Shitrit, L (2016). "Authenticating representation: Women's quotas and Islamist parties". Politics & Gender. 12 (4): 781–806. doi:10.1017/S1743923X16000027.
- Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "Humanitarian - Thomson Reuters Foundation News". www.alertnet.org. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Women's Suffrage". www.ipu.org. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "Humanitarian - Thomson Reuters Foundation News". www.alertnet.org. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "Humanitarian - Thomson Reuters Foundation News". www.alertnet.org. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Women's Suffrage". www.ipu.org. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Apollo Rwomire (2001). African Women and Children: Crisis and Response. p. 8. ISBN 9780275962180.
- Saudi king: Women will be allowed to vote and run for office, CNN News, September 25, 2011.
- "How women are transforming the Arab world's start-up scene". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- "Women's Empowerment, Arab Style". Economica: Women and the Global Economy. October 2009.
- "The Business of Women Slideshow". Economica: Women and the Global Economy. October 2009.
- EL-SWAIS, MAHA. "Despite high education levels, Arab women still don't have jobs". worldbank.org. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- KANSO, HEBA. "'Men don't want women to work' in the Arab world as female unemployment soars". REUTERS. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- KADI, SAMAR. "Women in MENA happier in the workplace despite enduring gender inequality". The Arab Weekly. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- MASRI, FIRAS. "Why the Arab World should employ more women". MARKAZ. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- McClendon, David; Hackett, Conrad; Potančoková, Michaela; Stonawski, Marcin; Skirbekk, Vegard (June 2018). "Women's Education in the Muslim World: Women's Education in the Muslim World". Population and Development Review. 44 (2): 311–342. doi:10.1111/padr.12142.
- "Economics may limit Muslim women's education more than religion". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- "Education". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 2020-04-11.
- "Education of Women in the Arab World | Middle East & Islamic Studies Collection". middleeast.library.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- "Education of Women in the Arab World | Middle East & Islamic Studies Collection". middleeast.library.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
- "Yemeni Women's Uphill Struggle for Education - Al-Fanar Media". Al-Fanar Media. 2014-06-12. Retrieved 2018-11-30.
- Golkowska, Krystyna Urbisz (2014-09-01). "Arab Women in the Gulf and the Narrative of Change: the Case of Qatar". International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal. 16 (1): 51–64. doi:10.2478/ipcj-2014-0004. ISSN 2300-8695.
- "Post-Adoption Reporting Overview - Intercountry Adoption". travel.state.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Post-Adoption Reporting Overview - Intercountry Adoption". travel.state.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Dar al-Iftaa". Dar al-Ifta al Misriyyah. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- Gorrell, Michael Gorrell (2011). "E-books on EBSCOhost: Combining NetLibrary E-books with the EBSCOhost Platform". Information Standards Quarterly. 23 (2): 31. doi:10.3789/isqv23n2.2011.07. ISSN 1041-0031.
- "cantonrep.com". Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- Arab and Arab American Feminism: Gender, Violence, & Belonging. Syracuse University Press. 2011. pp. xix–xxxix. ISBN 978-0-8156-3223-8.
- "Tunisian women free to marry non-Muslims". BBC News. 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
- Sadek, George (2018-12-04). "Tunisia: Cabinet Approves Bill Requiring Equal Inheritance Shares for Men and Women | Global Legal Monitor". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
- "Independent Lens . SHADYA . Muslim Feminism | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
- "Egyptian feminist movement: a brief history". openDemocracy. 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (2018-08-22). "Saudi Arabia seeks death penalty against female human rights activist". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
- "The high price of feminism in the 'new' Saudi Arabia". Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
- "Prehistoric Amazons Inspire Modern Libyan Women". Al Marsad. 2019-07-18. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
- Naggar, Mona. "Creative and Committed" D+C - Development + Cooperation, 23 August 2019.
- A Message To Every Arab Girl - رسالة لكل بنت عربية, retrieved 2020-02-10
- "Muslim Beliefs About Sharia". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2013-04-30. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
- "Lama Al-Sulaiman". WISE Muslim Women. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "World Lebanese Cultural Union". Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "Mona Almoayyed". Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "Mona Bawarshi, Lebanon, Inspiring People, those who inspire, entrepreneurship". Those Who Inspire. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "2019 CW Power 100: Donna Sultan of Kuwait's KEO is #51". Construction Week Online Middle East. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "Dr. Ismahane Elouafi". International Center for Biosaline Agriculture. 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "Buthaina Al Ansari on Female Leaders in Qatar". Center for International and Regional Studies - Georgetown University in Qatar. 2014-11-20. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "Abeer Abu Ghaith". Womenpreneur Initiative. 2016-09-01. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
- "The story of Abeer Abu Ghaith: a leading young Palestinian businesswoman". www.ilo.org. 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2020-03-05.