Women in Armenia
An Armenian woman in national costume poses on a hillside near Artvin (present-day Turkey), circa 1910.
|Gender Inequality Index|
|Maternal mortality (per 100,000)||30 (2010)|
|Women in parliament||10.7% (2012)|
|Females over 25 with secondary education||94.1% (2010)|
|Women in labour force||59% (2014)|
|Global Gender Gap Index|
|Rank||98th out of 149|
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|Women in society|
Women in Armenia have been officially guaranteed gender equality since the establishment of the Republic of Armenia in 1991. This has enabled women to actively participate in all spheres of Armenian life. Armenian women have attained prominence in entertainment, politics and other fields.
Work and business
According to the 2011 Grant Thornton International business survey, 29% of top-level managerial positions in Armenia were occupied by women in 2010. However, this figure declined to 23% in 2011. Based on a report by the United Nations, there were 24 female mayors and community leaders in Armenia in 2011; a further 50 women held lower-level administrative positions.
Although some nationalist feminists from the early 20th century to the present have concocted a view of ancient Armenian society and law as being woman-friendly, there is virtually no evidence for this assertion. The law code of Mkhitar Gos, dating to the 12th century, sought to raise women's status from its former level, however the code explicitly enshrined male domination and forbade divorce, even in the case of domestic violence or marital rape. Its most progressive elements seem to have never been applied in society at large, and in the 18th and 19th centuries both outsider and insider reports overwhelmingly commented on the low status of women in traditional Armenian society. Married women lived as virtual slaves of their husbands' families, although the situation improved gradually with age. During the first year of marriage, they were not permitted to speak to anyone except their husband, and were forbidden from leaving the house. In some villages, these restrictions continued even after the birth of the first child, and may have lasted more than ten years. Female suicide was more common than male suicide, in striking contrast to the situation in the west.
In spite of the inferior position of women in Armenian society, the Armenian Apostolic Church allowed women greater opportunities for assuming clerical roles than most other Christian traditions. Unlike the Eastern Orthodox, however, they were strongly opposed to divorce, and as a result the divorce rate in traditional Armenia has always been among the lowest in the Christian world.
Violence against women
According to the World Health Organization, between 10% and 60% of Armenian women suffered domestic abuse and violence in 2002; the uncertainty of the data was due to the underreporting of domestic violence in Armenia. Underreporting is said to occur because of the treatment of domestic violence as a private family matter. There are no well-established laws against domestic aggression and gender-based prejudice in Armenia. Furthermore, divorcing a husband – even an abusive one – causes "social disgrace", with the families of women who file for divorce or report domestic violence being considered to be shamed. Other contributing factors include Armenian women's lack of, or lower level of, education regarding their rights and how to protect themselves from abuse.
In May 2007, through the legislative decree known as "the gender quota law", more Armenian women were encouraged to get involved in politics. That year, only seven women occupied parliamentary positions. Among these female politicians was Hranush Hakobyan, the longest-serving woman in the National Assembly of Armenia. The relative lack of women in Armenia's government has led to Armenian women being considered "among the most underrepresented" and "among the lowest in the world" by foreign observers. In addition, Armenian women's place in politics is often located in the private sphere. Often their entry in the public sphere is only valued when they reflect the image of the feminine ideal based on social expectations, which continue to put a barrier on the political, social, and economic accessibility for women. In 2015, Arpine Hovhannisyan became the first Armenian Woman to hold the position of Justice Minister in Armenia, a role she held until 2017. Hovhannisyan is also a politician and lawyer.
Health and welfare
In 2010 and 2011, during Women's Month and as part of the "For You, Women" charitable program, the Surb Astvatcamayr Medical Center in the Armenian capital of Yerevan offered free gynecological and surgical services to the women of Armenia for a full month. Women from across the country arrived seeking treatment.
Sex selective abortion
Sex selective abortion is reported as being a problem in the country, due to patriarchal social norms which consider having a son preferable to having a daughter. Nevertheless, due to strong emigration under the form of "brain drain", where young Armenian men go abroad in search of work, there are more young women than men in the country, especially among those in their 20s: women make up 55.8% of the population aged 15–29.
The oldest literary expression by Armenian women available to us today in writing is the poetry of two 8th-century CE women, Khosrovidukht of Goghtn and Sahakdukht of Syunik. Following the Armenian literary renaissance of the 19th century, and the spread of educational opportunities for women, a number of other writers emerged, among them the 19th-century feminist writer Srpouhi Dussap, considered the first female Armenian novelist. She, like her contemporary, Zabel Sibil Asadour, is generally associated with Constantinople and the Western Armenian literary tradition. Zabel Yesayan, also born in Constantinople, bridged the gap with Eastern Armenian literature by settling in Soviet Armenia in 1933. The literary renaissance and its accompanying voice of protest also had its representatives in the East with poet Shushanik Kurghinian(1876–1927) of Aleksandrapol (today, Gyumri). Sylvia Kaputikyan and Maro Markarian are probably the best-known women poets from the Republic of Armenia of the 20th century, and continued the tradition of political speech through poetry.
Notable Armenian women
- Notable Queens and Princesses
- Erato, Roman client Queen from 10 BC until 2 BC with her brother-husband King Tigranes IV
- Ashkhen, wife of Tiridates III of Armenia
- Isabella, Queen of Cilician Armenia (1219–1252)
- Modern Armenian women
- Zabel Yesayan (1878–1943), novelist, translator
- Silva Kaputikyan (1919–2006), one of the best-known Armenian writers of the 20th century
- Gohar Gasparyan (1924–2007), opera singer
- Lusine Zakaryan (1937–1992), soprano
- Galya Novents (1937–2012), stage and film actress
- Hasmik Papian (born 1961), soprano
- Zaruhi Postanjyan (born 1972), politician, activist, member of parliament
- Nazik Avdalyan (born 1986), weightlifter, World champion
- Susianna Kentikian (born 1987), professional boxer, former World Flyweight Champion
- Iveta Mukuchyan (born 1986), singer-songwriter, model, and actress
- Diaspora Armenian women (full Armenian ancestry)
- Diana Abgar (1859-1937), Armenian writer, diplomat, and ambassador to Japan of First Republic of Armenia
- Aurora Mardiganian (1901-1994), author, actress, Armenian Genocide survivor
- Kay Armen (1915–2011), Armenian American singer
- Irene Zazians (1927–2012), Iranian actress
- Sylvie Vartan (born 1944), Bulgarian-born French singer and actress
- Kim Kashkashian (born 1952), Grammy-award-winning American violist
- Angela Sarafyan (born 1983), Armenian American actress
- Tatev Abrahamyan (born 1988), Armenian-born American chess Grandmaster
- Notable women with partial Armenian ancestry
- Cher (born 1946), American singer
- Stephanie (born 1987), Japanese singer-songwriter
- Anna Der-Vartanian (born 1920) first female Master Chief Petty Officer the history of United States Navy
- Sian Elias (born 13 March 1949) chief justice of New Zealand
- Kim Kardashian (born 21 October 1980), American reality star
- Mother Armenia
- Politics of Armenia
- Crime in Armenia
- Union of Producers and Women
- Armenia women's national football team
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- Survey: Women In Armenia Forced Out From The Positions Of Top-Managers. Economy: Arka News Agency.
- Rowe, V. (2003). A History of Armenian Women's Writing, 1880-1922. Cambridge Scholars. p. 86. ISBN 9781904303237. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
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- Reclus, J.J.É.; Ravenstein, E.G.; Keane, A.H. (1878). The earth and its inhabitants. The universal geography, ed. by E.G. Ravenstein (A.H. Keane). J.S. Virtue. p. 151. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- Domestic Violence Against Women in Armenia. United Human Rights Council (UHRC). 26 May 2010.
- Itano, Nicole. Quota Law Puts More Women in Armenia's Election. WeNews. 10 May 2007.
- Beukian, Sevan, 2014, Motherhood as Armenianness: Expressions of Femininity in the Making of Armenian National Identity, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 14 (2):247-269
- "Arpine Hovhannisyan Appointed Justice Minister of Armenia". Asbarez. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "Armenia's justice minister sacked". Tert.am. 17 May 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "Arpine Hovhannisyan". National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- Women in Armenia to Receive Free Medical Treatment for One Month. Epress.am. March 11, 2011.
- "Fears grow over Caucasus selective abortions of girls - BBC News". bbc.com. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
- Gendercide in the Caucasus The Economist (September 13, 2013)
- Michael, M; King, L; Guo, L; McKee, M; Richardson, E; Stuckler, D (2013), The mystery of missing female children in the Caucasus: an analysis of sex ratios by birth order, International perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 39 (2), pp. 97-102, ISSN 1944-0391
- John Bongaarts (2013), The Implementation of Preferences for Male Offspring, Population and Development Review, Volume 39, Issue 2, pages 185–208, June 2013
- Der-Hovanessian, Diana. The Other Voice: Armenian Women's Poetry Through the Ages. Boston: AIWA Press, Armenian International Women's Association. ISBN 0964878747.
- Արդի հայ գրականութիւն (Modern Armenian Literature). Beirut. pp. 134-138.
- Editorial Board (2006). "Սիլվա Կապուտիկյան [Silva Kaputikyan]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Armenian) (2): 328–329.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Women of Armenia.|
- Zohrab Center Book of the Week: The Other Voice: Armenian Women's Poetry Through the Ages. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Women’s Resource Center Armenia
- Armenia: Women Suffer in Silence. Amnesty.org. 13 November 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Women's Organisations Armenia