Women in brewing
Women have been active in brewing since ancient times. Though Western societies have viewed brewing as a male-dominated field for the last 150 years, traditionally, it was an activity engaged in by women. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that brewing was an outcropping of gathering or baking traditions, which were predominantly women's roles throughout the world. From the earliest evidence of brewing in 7000 BCE, until the commercialization of brewing during industrialization, women were the primary brewers on all inhabited continents. In many cultures, the deities, goddesses and protectors of brewers were female entities who were associated with fertility.
From the middle of the 18th century, many women were barred from participating in alcohol production and were relegated to roles as barmaids, pub operators, bottlers or secretaries for breweries. In less industrialized areas, they continued to produce homebrews and traditional alcoholic beverages. From the mid-20th century, women began working as chemists for brewing establishments. Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, they began re-entering the field as craft brewers.
In many Western societies, brewing has been seen as a "man's domain"; however, ethnographic studies and archaeological records indicate that brewing alcohol was primarily an activity engaged in by women, until the industrialization of brewing began. In some areas, the tradition arose because brewing was a by-product of gathering, while in others, it fell within the domain of baking. From the 18th century onwards, women were increasingly barred from the business of brewing, except as barmaids or "publicans", licensees running pubs. By the 19th century, few women were employed in brewing with the exception of labor for auxiliary functions, such as bottling and secretarial posts. In the 20th century, women began to work in a limited capacity in laboratories, but aside from a few exceptions such as Susannah Oland in Canada, women were excluded from directing brewing operations. Professional female brewers in Western society before the trade became "masculinized", were referred to as "brewsters".
Archaeologists have confirmed that a beverage dated to 7000–6600 B.C. and brewed in the Neolithic settlement of Jiahu, is the oldest known grog. Analysis on pottery shows the chemical makeup of the drink was from a combination of honey mead, mixed with a concoction of rice, grapes, and hawthorn fruit—creating a mixed beer and wine beverage. Though the process used to break down the rice grain, whether chewing or malting, is unknown, women in both Japan and Taiwan in the modern age still engage in chewing rice to begin the fermentation process for making alcohol. In Chinese legend, Yi Di, wife of Yu the Great, is credited with making the first alcohol from rice grains. A female divine being in Ainu mythology known as Kamui Fuchi was the protector of brewing and brewers prayed to her and offered libations to ensure the warding off of evil spirits which might spoil the batch.
In ancient Sumeria, brewing was the only profession that was "watched over by a female deity", namely Ninkasi. A tablet found dating back to 1800 BCE contains the Hymn to Ninkasi which is also basically a recipe for Mesopotamian beer. Sumerian beer was made from bippar, a bread made from twice-baked barley, which was then fermented. In ancient Babylon, women worked as baker-brewers and were often engaged in the commercial distribution of beer. Archaeologists believe that the Sumerians and Babylonians were responsible for spreading brewing processes into Africa. Brewing in ancient Egypt followed a method similar to Sumerian beer, often using the same dough as a base for both beer and bread. Brewing was considered the province of Egyptian women, "especially the steps of grinding the grain and straining the mash". The goddess Hathor was considered to have invented brewing and Hathor's temple at Dendera was known as "the place of drunkenness". Another Egyptian goddess, Tenenet, was worshiped as beer's deity and hieroglyphics on tombs depict images of women both brewing and drinking the beverage. Other African societies also credited women with creating beer. For example, the Zulu fertility goddess, Mbaba Mwana Waresa, is revered for her invention, as is the Dogon deity, Yasigi, who is often depicted dancing with a beer ladle to symbolize her role of distributing the beer made by women in ceremonial gatherings. Women in Burkina Faso have been making mash of fermented sorghum into beer for some 5,500 years. In Tanzania, both women and men help harvest and create different kinds of brew, including ulanzi and pombe. Women in Tanzania have traditionally been the "sole marketers" of drinks, and many use the money they make by selling alcohol to supplement their incomes.
As early as 1600 BCE, Maya civilizations were using cacao beans to produce beer, long before it was used to make the non-alcoholic cocoa. Though actual production methods are unknown, Friar Landa described the process of preparing beverages as involving grinding maize and cacao to a paste before adding liquids and spices. Agriculture was within man's realm in the Mayan world, but food preparation belonged to women. On an ancient ceramic vase, chocolate preparation shows a woman pouring the substance between two vessels to create the highly desired foam favored by the Maya. Pre-Columbian Andean women chewed maize (occasionally using cassava or quinoa) to break down the starch and then spit it out to begin fermentation. Chicha, the resulting drink, is still widely available in Latin America. In the Wari Empire, archaeological evidence has indicated that elite Wari women brewers ran the breweries and that tradition carried forward into Incan society. Throughout the Andean region and Mesoamerica, women were the chief producers of alcoholic beverages. During the 15th century in Peru, women's lives among the Xauxa people of the Upper Mantaro Valley were changed by the process of producing chicha. After the Xauxa were conquered by the Inca, women were forced to work harder to produce more alcohol. In Mexico, a female deity, "Mayahuel" was revered among the Aztec for having discovered how to extract agave sap for the manufacture of pulque. After the Spanish invasion, women in Brazil and Mexico, as well as throughout Andean territories, became not only producers of alcoholic beverages, but also its main market vendors.
Traditional Germanic societies were reported by the Romans to drink ale, made predominantly of fermented honey, produced by women. Until monasteries took over the production of alcoholic beverages in the 11th century, making it a profession for monks and nuns, brewing was the domain of tribal Germanic women. Migratory Germanic tribe women typically brewed their meads and ales in the forest, to avoid pillages by invaders. Their beverages did not contain hops, which were first recommended as an additive by St. Hildegard of Bingen. Because hops served as a preservative, beer's suitability for consumption became longer, though the addition of hops also increased the cost of brewing. In the decades before the Black Death in Europe, many households required a large amount of ale, because of a lack of potable water and expense of other beverages. Women used the opportunity of brewing to make extra money at home. In Brigstock, some women obtained licenses to brew over several months. Women in northern England were the main brewers for the community. As elsewhere in Europe, the founding of guilds often forced women out of the brewing industry; however, in Haarlem in the Netherlands, because women were allowed to inherit guild membership from spouses, many continued in the profession. Data collected on the period between 1518 and 1663, showed that 97 brewsters, three-quarters of whom were widows, were operating among a total of 536 brewers in the city.
For around a thousand years in Finland, women brewsters created a beer called sahti in villages throughout the country. The recipe usually contained hops, juniper twigs, and barley and rye grains which had been malted and then smoked in a sauna. Finnish legends include the story of Louhi in the Kalevala, a woman who brewed beer by mixing bear's saliva with honey. Raugutiene, was a Baltic and Slavic goddess, who was the protector of beer. Alan D. Eames, a beer anthropologist, wrote an article in 1993 stating that the Norse Vikings, allowed only women to brew their ale. Archaeologists have uncovered graves of pre-Viking Nordic people which indicate that women were the ones who made and served alcohol. In the grave of the "Egtved Girl", a bucket of grog buried at her feet showed that the drink was made from a mixture of wheat, rye and barley as a base and included cranberries, honey, and lingonberries, as well as herbs, including birch resin, bog myrtle, juniper, and yarrow, to spice the drink. Danish women were the primary brewers until the establishment of guilds in the Middle Ages. While guilds controlled production for the crown and military, as well as for those in cities, women continued to be the primary brewers in the countryside. Even within the guilds, while higher positions were occupied by men, many of their wives held lower positions; in addition, there is evidence to suggest that the majority of the brewing performed by these families was carried out by the wives. Beer was supplied to Temple Newsam, Yorkshire, by local woman Elizabeth Pease for over thirty years, during the eighteenth century (1728-1758). Pease brewed ale, strong beer, table beer, and small beer; however, because she brewed seasonally, her income was inconsistent and she was quite poor.
Over a long period of time, throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, brewing in Europe changed from being a women's profession to one dominated by men, although women were still involved in the sale of beer. As women were forced out of brewing, the creation of a new ideology about women brewers took place which included "the construction of women as incapable of brewing; the link of this construction to the witch; and the position of widows as both brewers and ale-sellers". Popular depictions of alewives described them as witch-like, untrustworthy, corrupt and grotesque. In Ballad on an Ale-Seller, John Lydgate describes an alewife "who uses her charms to induce men to drink". The alewife in the popular poem The Tunning of Elynour Rummyng by John Skelton, is "strikingly vicious and nasty". Other depictions of alewives in England showed them "condemned to eternal punishment in hell". However, "it is difficult ot tell whether alewives or women who brewed beer were accused of witchcraft directly.".
Women of Native American societies in North America including the Apache, Maricopa, Pima, and Tohono O'odham brewed a Saguaro cactus beer or wine, called tiswin for rituals. Apache women also produced a product made from corn, which was similar to Mexican beers, known as tulpi or tulapa which was used in girls' puberty rites. The puberty ceremony includes four days of prayer, fasting, consumption of ritual food and drink, and runs dedicated to the White Painted Lady, an Apache deity. The Coahuiltecan and other tribes from their Texas vicinity made an intoxicant from yucca and the red beans of the mountain laurel.
In the North American colonies women continued with homebrewing which, for at least a century, was the predominant means of beer production. While Thomas Jefferson may have been famous for his brewing, Martha Jefferson was equally renowned for her wheat beer. The first commercial brewster in the Thirteen Colonies was Mary Lisle, who inherited her father's brewery in 1734 and operated it until 1751. In 1713, Elizabeth and John Haddon built a three-story brick mansion called New Haddonfield Plantation, where Elizabeth Haddon managed the family property and her husband tended to his missionary journeys; the Brew House she built in 1713 still stands in the backyard. Although the first recorded commercial female brewer in the Colonies was Mary Lisle, who inherited her father’s Philadelphia brewpub in 1734, there is reason to believe that across the river in South Jersey, Haddon was running a more-than-average homebrew operation.
In Canada, Susannah Oland, an Englishwoman who immigrated to Canada in 1865, and her husband established a popular brewery called the Navy and Army Brewery. After her husband died, Oland established a brewery of her own, though she concealed her gender by naming the business "S. Oland Sons and Company," using her initials to hide the fact that she was a woman. She was the creator of a beer recipe which became the basis for founding Canada's oldest independent brewery, Moosehead Brewery.
In Australia evidence points to indigneous labor divisions with men responsible for hunting and women tending to gathering and food preparation. Aboriginal women prepared alcoholic beverages from flowers. Flowers were steeped in water, or pounded to extract the nectar and mixed with honey ants to ferment.
From the beginning of industrialization to the 1960s and early 1970s, most women were moved out of the brewing industry, though throughout the world, they continued to homebrew following ancestral methods. "The main obstacles that women continue to face in [the] industry include perceptions of taste, media influence, and preconceived notions about their skill and ability", according to journalist Krystal Baugher.
American women such as Jill Vaughn and Rebecca Bennett have been successful at becoming top brewmasters at Anheuser-Busch, where they developed brands such as Bud Light Platinum, Shock Top and the Straw-Ber-Rita. I. Patricia Henry is the first African American woman to manage a major American brewery Miller Brewing Company, now MillerCoors, in Eden, NC. Suzanne Stern Denison and Jane Zimmerman worked at and invested in Sonoma, California’s long-shuttered New Albion Brewing, established in 1976 and the first new brewery in America since Prohibition; Jack McAuliffe is most often the only person mentioned as founder. Hart Brewing was co-founded by Beth Hartwell and Tom Baune in 1984 in Kalama, Washington; they were early pioneers of craft brewing in the Pacific Northwest and Hart was the first known woman to co-own a brewery in the post-Prohibition era. Mari Kemper and husband Will opened Thomas Kemper Brewing on Bainbridge Island (near Seattle) in 1985 and now co-own Chuckanut Brewery & Kitchen in Bellingham. Mellie Pullman is a professor at Portland State University; where she became the first known female brewmaster in the United States when she took a job at Schirf Brewing in Park City, Utah in 1986. Carol Stoudt founded Stoudts Brewing Company in Adamstown, Pennsylvania in 1987; she was one of the first female brewmasters since Prohibition in the country and the nation's first known female sole proprietor. Teri Fahrendorf was the third female craft brewmaster in the country; she worked as a brewer at Golden Gate Brewery and Triple Rock Brewery in Berkeley, California, Steelhead Brewery in Eugene, Oregon. Fahrendorf later founded the Pink Boots Society. Kim Jordan co-founded New Belgium Brewing Company with husband Jeff Lebesch in 1991 in Fort Collins, Colorado. Leah Wong Ashburn took over for father Oscar Wong, who opened Highland Brewing Co. in 1994; it is one of one of North Carolina’s oldest breweries. Mariah and Sam Calagione co-founded Dogfish Head Craft Brewery in 1995. Natalie and Vinnie Cilurzo, Russian River Brewing's original brewer, acquired the rights to the brand and opened a brewpub in Santa Rosa, California in 2004. Other women opened early craft breweries in America and have served in numerous capacities other than as the brewer. These include Marcy Larson, who co-founded the Alaskan Brewing Company with husband Geoff in 1986 in Juneau, Alaska; Irene Firmat, who founded Full Sail Brewing Company in 1987 in Hood River, Oregon; Rose Ann Finkel co-founded Pike Brewing Company with husband Charles Finkel in Seattle, Washington in 1989 (and Merchant du Vin in 1978); and Deborah Carey, who founded New Glarus Brewing Company with husband Daniel in 1993 in New Glarus, Wisconsin.
More recently, women in America have opened breweries across the country. Ting Su, her husband Jeremy Raub, and her father-in-law, Steven Raub, opened Eagle Rock Brewery in Los Angeles in 2009; they are considered founders of the craft brewing scene there. CEO and head brewer Eilise Lane learned to brew beer in the Northwest and now runs the Scarlet Lane Brewing Company in 2014 in Indiana. Kate Power, Betsy Lay, and Jen Cuesta co-founded Lady Justice Brewing in 2016 in Aurora, Colorado; their brewery donates to human rights and social justice organizations, specifically supporting organizations that benefit women and girls. In 2018, brewers Celeste Beatty and Briana Brake co-founded Rocky Mount Brewing, which is a "brewery incubator" space for new brewers in Rocky Mount, North Carolina. Brake owns and brews for her company, Spaceway Brewing, which she started in 2018. Beatty, who opened the Harlem Brewing Company in New York in 2000, is the first known Black woman to own a brewery in the United States in the post-Prohibition era. Carol Pak is the founder of Makku, America's first canned craft makgeolli company (she calls it "Korean rice beer"); the business was started in New York City in 2018 and is hand-crafted in Maine. In 2019, Tamil Maldonado Vega co-founded Raices Brewing in Denver, Colorado; it is a Latino owned and operated brewery that also acts as a reference center for those interested in learning about Latin culture. In 2016, Shyla Sheppard and Missy Begay founded Bow and Arrow Brewing Co. in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which is known for drawing on indigenous ingredients for their beers; it is the only known Native woman-owned brewery in the U.S.
Among Canada's women brewers are Emily Tipton, co-owner and brewmaster of Boxing Rock Brewing, and Kellye Robertson, who began her career at Garrison Brewing before heading the brewing team at Spindrift Brewing.
There are several women involved in the brewing business in Mexico City, Mexico. Elizabeth Rosas is the co-founder of Cervecería Calavera and head of branding and marketing; she and husband Gilbert Nielsen started the brewery in 2008. Lucía Carrillo is the co-founder and brewer of Cervecería Itañeñe, which opened in 2011. Cervecería Dos Mundos (“Two Worlds Brewery”) was co-founded in 2014 by British-Mexican couple Caroline King and David Meza in the Iztapalapa neighborhood of Mexico City. Antonieta Carrión founded Casa Cervecera Madrina in 2014 and is likely the first female sole owner and brewer of a cervecería in Mexico City; she is also one of the founding members of the Adelitas beer collective. Jessica Martínez opened Cervecería Malteza in 2014. Sandra Navarro is a founding partner and lead brewer at the Turulata Brewing Company, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Paz Austin is the General Director for the Mexican Association of Beer Makers (ACERMEX).
In Latin America, chicha is still widely produced by women and consumed daily by adults and children, as it typically has a low alcohol content. In Ecuador women harvest yucca, boil the roots, pound it into a paste and then chew the paste, in much the same way as their ancestors did, to break down the starches and begin the fermentation process. Peruvian women make their version of chicha using the same method, but with corn. In Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, among Amazonian Indians, chicha, made from corn, or algarroba beer made from carob seed, as well as beer produced from mixing corn or manioc with apples, melons, papaya, pears, pumpkin, quince, strawberries and sweet potatoes are brewed by women. Bolivian women make beer from roasted barley, which is then chewed to begin the fermentation process and is served daily as a dietary supplement.
In 2013, Sara Barton, owner and director of Brewster's Brewery, won the Brewer of the Year award, becoming the first woman to receive the honor bestowed annually by the British Guild of Beer Writers. Emma Gilleland, who heads the supply chain at Marston's Brewery, the leading independent brewer in Britain, was called the most influential brewer in the UK by the BBC.
A noted German brewster, who is also Bavaria's last mastebrewer nun, Sister Doris Engelhard, has been creating beer at Mallersdorf Abbey for over 40 years. Other female Bavarian brewers are Sigi Friedmann of Friedmann's Brewery (German: Brauerei Friedmann) in Gräfenberg and Gisela and Monika Meinel of the Meinel-Bräu Brewery in Hof. An de Ryck is one of the few women brewers in Belgium. She has run the De Ryck Brewery (Dutch: Brouwerij De Ryck) since the 1970s, winning several awards for the beers she has produced. Rosa Merckx became the first official female brewmaster and operations director in Belgium when she took over the Liefmans Oudenaarde brewery in 1972, where she had worked since 1946.
In 2015, the BBC's "100 Women" project, honored Leimin Duong, a Vietnamese-Australian woman, who brews strawberry beer, as one of the most influential women of the year. In Australia, the first all-female brewery in the country, Two Birds Brewing, has won multiple awards for their beers, but in 2016, owners Jayne Lewis and Danielle Allen were honored with the Champion trophy for Medium Australian Brewery by the Australian International Beer Awards.
In many traditional African cultures, beer is still made only by women and often their sole source of attaining economic autonomy. For example, in Cameroon women of the Gbaya people make a traditional beer from maize and sorghum called amgba, which is a dietary staple and women of the Mafa people brew bilbil – called dong-long in the Tupuri language, uzum in the Giziga language, and zom in the Mafa language – from millet. Both originated as ritual drinks for ceremonies, but now are used as a means of economic survival for many women. Sorghum beers produced by women in other African nations include bili bili in Chad, burkutu or pito in Ghana and Nigeria, chibuku or doro in Zimbabwe, dolo in Burkina Faso, ikigage in Rwanda, kaffir in South Africa, merissa in Sudan, mtama in Tanzania, and tchoukoutou in Benin and Togo. In South Africa’s Xhosa and Zulu ethnicities, women were traditionally in charge of brewing umqombothi, a homemade beer made from maize malt, sorghum malt, yeast, and water. Umqombothi is prepared over an open fire and poured into a large drum called a gogogo.
In African commercial breweries, though women are often partners with their spouses, only about six are operated by women brewers. One of these, Apiwe Nxusani-Mawela, is a brewer, brewery owner and the first black South African accredited as a trainer for the Institute of Brewing and Distilling and as a certified beer judge for the South Africa Beer Judging Certification Program. Another is Thea Blom, who began as a chef and then added a craft brewery to her business, Oakes Brew House, and hired brewer Happy Sekanka to create the firm's beers. Josephine "Fina" Uwineza, a restaurateur in Rwanda began evaluating whether opening the first craft beer brewery in the country could be used as a platform to empower women and offer them employment. In 2016, she partnered with the Ontario Craft Brewers Association to explore creating the venture.
In Nepal, as they have for centuries, women brew raksi, a pungent distilled alcoholic beverage made from rice. It was originally used for ceremonial purposes in Hindu and Buddhist rites, but is such a key part of customary life in the Kathmandu valley, that authorities routinely ignore legal prohibitions against production and consumption. Women traditionally engage in the month-long brewing process and sell their excess raksi to restaurants. Other important Nepali brewed drinks are Chhyang, Jaandh, Thon, and Tongba, (known by various names and spellings), which are traditionally made by women. Made in both Nepal and Tibet, the drinks are made from barley, rice or millet. After soaking the grain in water, it is steamed and then mixed with a starting agent known as marcha, which is prepared from either wheat flakes (called mana) or rice or millet flour (known as manapu). The recipe for making marcha is sometimes a highly guarded secret and passed on only to daughters-in-law.
In Japan, after the commercialization of brewing, sake brewers, known as tōji (Japanese: 杜氏) were for generations, migrants who traveled between breweries and worked during the winter season. As sake sales declined along with the number of trained tōji, owners started brewing themselves. Though still a male-dominated field, as of 2015, there are approximately 20 female tōji brewing in Japan and The Women's Sake Industry Group has been formed to increase their numbers. Emi Machida (Japanese: 町田恵美さん) has run her family's 130-year-old brewery for ten years as the masterbrewer and has won seven gold medals for her sake from the Annual Japan Sake Awards. Miho Imada (Japanese: みほ いまだ) is noted for her Hiroshima-style junmai ginjo method which uses very soft water, low temperatures and a slow fermentation process to bring out the fruity flavors and aromatics. Minoh Brewing, which opened in 1997 near Osaka, is run by Kaori Oshita.
The Pink Boots Society is an organization that supports women working in the beer industry. It was founded by Teri Farhrendorf, who was in turn inspired by an early brewmaster, Carol Stoudt, who launched her own brewery in 1987. There are Pink Boots Society chapters in Canada, Australia and the United States. The Female Beer Tasters in Mexico is an NGO created in 2012 to promote the culture and education of beer; in 2020, it had over 2,000 members with representatives and coordinators in 15 cities in Mexico and San Diego, California. Adelitas Cerveceras, a collective of 130 Mexican women that was established in 2019, promotes the participation of women in the beer industry through a support and career network.
Bière de Femme, in North Carolina, was founded in 2017 as an event to bring women in the beer industry together, but also to meet consumers and craft beer enthusiasts of all genders. FemAle Brew Fest, a Florida beer festival, was established in 2016 to support the growth of women in brewing. In Sweden, they produced a beer named "We Can Do It", modeled on the Rosie the Riveter poster by Westinghouse in 2015. The goal was to create a beer made by women, which was not fruity or mild, but rather based on a scientific review of what women actually wanted to drink.
- Wolfe 2016.
- Eber 2000, p. 7.
- Dietler 2006, p. 236.
- Anderson 2005.
- Katz 2012, p. 273.
- Mark 2011.
- Blocker, Fahey & Tyrrell 2003, pp. 88–90, 682.
- Joseph 2014, p. 14.
- Schell 2013.
- McGovern 2010.
- China Daily 2010, p. 1.
- Munro 2013, pp. 93–95.
- Hornsey 2003, pp. 87–88.
- Hornsey 2003, p. 88.
- Nurin 2015.
- Jones 2011, p. 848.
- Hornsey 2003, p. 64.
- Auset 2009, p. 54.
- Kohn 2013, p. 23.
- Hackett & Abiodun 1998, p. 38.
- Kutalek 2011, pp. 159–160.
- Wilkie 2016, p. 342.
- Gavin, Pierce & Pleguezuelo 2003, p. 246.
- McClusky 2010, p. 26.
- Caballero, Finglas & Toldrá 2015, p. 353.
- Britt 2005.
- Jennings 2014, pp. 29–30.
- Jennings 2014, p. 30.
- Carey Jr. 2015, p. 5.
- Carey Jr. 2015, p. 13.
- More 2012, p. 185.
- Salisbury 2001, p. 134.
- German Beer Institute 2005.
- Hornsey 2003, p. 331.
- Unger 2004, p. 4.
- van Dekken 2004, pp. 6–7.
- Bryant 2014.
- Cullen 2010.
- Pappas 2014.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark 2012.
- Bennett 1996, pp. 67–68.
- News, Travel. "Beer, glorious beer: Leeds celebrates Yorkshire brewing heritage with one-off exhibitions". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- Barlow, Ellen; Post, 1-03-18. "How beer and brewing kept the country house running at Temple Newsam". Museum Crush. Retrieved 11 January 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Hester 1996, p. 303.
- Hester 1996, p. 304.
- Earnshaw 2000, p. 25.
- Bennett 1996, p. 123.
- Bennett 1996, p. 124.
- Abbott 1996, p. 3.
- Medicine 2007, p. 21.
- Abbott 1996, pp. 3–4.
- Madeson 2016.
- Ronnenberg 2016, p. 173.
- "Elizabeth Haddon". History of American Women. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "Was Elizabeth Haddon New Jersey's First Female Brewer?". New Jersey Monthly. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Bender, Annie (22 October 2015). "Women beer-makers throughout history celebrated at Waterloo Region Museum". CBC Radio Canada. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Fallon & Enig 2000.
- Baugher 2013.
- Smith 2014.
- Nurin, Tara (10 March 2020). "Female Brewing Pioneers and Innovators Talk Gender Equality in Craft Brewing". CraftBeer.com. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Hart Brewing Company – McMenamins Blog". blog.mcmenamins.com. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Brewing A National Image Kalama's Mom-And-Pop Brewery Schemes To Hit The Big Time | The Spokesman-Review". www.spokesman.com. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Pyramid at Thirty". Beervana. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Pyramid Breweries Inc. | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- Trail, Tap. "Women in Craft Beer: Mari Kemper". Tap Trail. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- Jones, Kendall (18 July 2012). "Chuckanut: Seems Like More Than 4 Years Because It has Been". Washington Beer Blog. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "The Nation's First Woman Brewmaster – McMenamins Blog". blog.mcmenamins.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- "These 10 women are changing the craft beer industry in the United States". Matador Network. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "with Teri Fahrendorf". All About Beer. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "Great Western's Teri Fahrendorf recalls 30 years in the beer industry". The Columbian. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "Eugene's Steelhead Brewing". brewpublic.com. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Sorvino, Chloe. "New Belgium's Kim Jordan Talks About What It Takes To Be America's Richest Female Brewer". Forbes. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- "Pull Up A Stool With Leah Wong Ashburn of Highland Brewing Co". All About Beer. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- "Mariah Calagione: Brewing at the Beach". Women's Daily Post. 27 July 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- George, Pam (13 August 2020). "Dogfish Head turns 25 this year. Here are 25 fun facts about it". Town Square Delaware. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Mariah Calagione: Delaware Women in Business". Delaware Today. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Russian River's Natalie Cilurzo on the Rise of Women in Beer". Russian River's Natalie Cilurzo on the Rise of Women in Beer. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Natalie Cilurzo". www.ssualumni.org. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "The Evolving Role of Female Brewers and Their Contributions to Beer". CraftBeer.com. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Guarente, Gabe (22 June 2020). "Seattle Beer World Mourns the Loss of Beloved Pike Brewing Co-founder Rose Ann Finkel". Eater Seattle. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "Ting Su's Feminist Revolution Is Still Shaking Up LA's Beer Scene". Ting Su's Feminist Revolution Is Still Shaking Up LA's Beer Scene. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
- Biggers, Ashley M. "Meet the women who are changing the US brewing industry". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "The Brewery Where Your Beer Money Supports Female Causes". CraftBeer.com. 19 August 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Female Brewers Launch Black-Owned Brewery at Rocky Mount Mills". Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "Briana Brake and Celeste Beatty on Ghosts and Beauty in Rocky Mount". CraftBeer.com. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "Briana Brake and Celeste Beatty on Ghosts and Beauty in Rocky Mount". CraftBeer.com. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Gmoser, Justin. "Meet the first black woman to own a brewery in the US". Insider. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "Carol Pak on building America's first craft makgeolli company | Heritage Radio Network". heritageradionetwork.org. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "This Brewer Wants America to Fall in Love With Makgeolli". This Brewer Wants America to Fall in Love With Makgeolli. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Boat, Team Rock The (8 November 2019). "Carol Pak | Bringing History & Tradition to Millennials Through Makgeolli". Rock The Boat. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- "5 female brewers who are shaking up the craft beer industry". SilverKris. 2 February 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
- Kaowthumrong, Patricia (31 January 2020). "How Raíces Is Making Latin American Beer and Culture More Accessible". 5280. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Inside Bow & Arrow Brewing Co, Where Two Native American Women Are Shaking Up Albuquerque's Craft Brewing Scene". www.vice.com. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- White 2015.
- Meek & McDonald 2016.
- "In Mexico City, Women Are Taking Over Craft Beer". In Mexico City, Women Are Taking Over Craft Beer. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "These Five Women Are Revolutionizing the Craft Beer Game in Mexico". www.vice.com. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Amanda Gomez (17 January 2020). "Women brewers in Arizona and Mexico release bi-national beer in Tucson". KVOA. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "All-Female Craft Beer Collaboration Across the Border". Visit Tucson. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- Tuenge 2013.
- Pietschmann 2004, p. 232.
- Pietschmann 2004, p. 233.
- Winterman 2014.
- Conrad 2014.
- Hamilton 2014.
- Hampson 2013, p. 92.
- Flanders Today 2010.
- "Women in Brewing Part 3: (R)Evolution". Short Finger Brewing Co. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- Phạm 2015.
- Australian Brews News 2016.
- Cotterell 2016.
- Lyumugabe et al. 2012, p. 523.
- Lyumugabe et al. 2012, pp. 509–510.
- "Black Female Brewers Are Reclaiming Craft Beer in South Africa". Black Female Brewers Are Reclaiming Craft Beer in South Africa. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
- Taylor 2014.
- Wu 2016.
- Cowan 2016.
- The Hindustan Times 2014.
- Malla 2010.
- Shrestha 2010.
- Tamang 2016, p. 102.
- Gingold 2015.
- Arnold 2015.
- Wilgus, Jeremy (3 November 2018). "Minoh Beer: A father's dream, a daughter's reality". The Japan Times. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- Marcus, Lilit. "Is this the coolest brewery in Asia?". CNN. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- Builder, Maxine (18 November 2015). "Why Women Are Leading Korea's Craft Beer Movement". Vice. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- Belle 2016.
- Garrison 2011.
- Lewis 2016.
- "Impetuosa, the craft beer brewed by Mexican women". El Universal (in Spanish). 20 February 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "Biere de Femme". Pink Boots Society. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- "FemAle Brew Fest 2020 Announces a Growing List of Participants". CraftBeer.com. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- Crouch 2015.
- Abbott, Patrick J. (1996). "American Indian and Alaska Native Aboriginal Use of Alcohol in the United States" (PDF). American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research. 7 (2): 1–13. doi:10.5820/aian.0702.1996.1. ISSN 1533-7731. PMID 8935245. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Anderson, Ray (2005). "The Transformation of Brewing: An Overview of Three Centuries of Science and Practice". Brewery History. 121: 5–24. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Arnold, Amanda (25 May 2015). "Meet the 3 Female Sake Brewers Running Japan". Saveur. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Auset, Brandi (2009). The Goddess Guide: Exploring the Attributes and Correspondences of the Divine Feminine. Woodbury, Minnesota: Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 978-0-7387-1551-3.
- Baugher, Krystal (11 November 2013). "Women and Beer: A 4,500-Year History Is Coming Full Circle". The Atlantic. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Belle, Rachel (16 November 2016). "Women in the Beer Industry Find Community With Pink Boots Society". My Northwest. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Bennett, Judith M. (1996). Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300–1600. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195073904.
- Blocker, Jack S.; Fahey, David M.; Tyrrell, Ian R. (2003). Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia. I: A-L. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-833-4.
- Britt, Robert Roy (14 November 2005). "Elite Women Made Beer in Pre-Incan Culture". Live Science. New York City, New York. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Bryant, Duncan (2014). "Sahti: One of the World's Oldest Beer Styles". American Homebrewers Association. Boulder, Colorado. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Caballero, Benjamin; Finglas, Paul M.; Toldrá, Fidel, eds. (2015). Encyclopedia of Food and Health. 1: A-Che. Waltham, Massachusetts: Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-12-384953-3.
- Carey Jr., David (April 2015). "Alcohol in the Atlantic". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. 1. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199366439.013.32. ISBN 9780199366439. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Conrad, Tom (29 October 2014). "Sister Doris: Europe's last beer-making nun". CNN. Atlanta, Georgia. Archived from the original on 8 November 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Cotterell, Gareth (15 July 2016). "South African women making it big in the world of brewing". CNBC Africa. Johannesburg, South Africa. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Cowan, Samantha (25 September 2016). "In Rwanda, Craft Beer Opens the Door to Female Empowerment". Take Part. Beverly Hills, California: Participant Media. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Crouch, David (8 February 2015). "Revolution brewing as Sweden's first beer made by women goes on sale". The Guardian. London, England. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Cullen, Kevin (9 March 2010). "Brewing a Viking Era Ale". The Distant Mirror. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Discovery World. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2016. Blog author is an archaeologist at Discovery World in Milwaukee, Wisconsin: with references .CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- Dietler, Michael (September 2006). "Alcohol: Anthropological/Archaeological Perspectives". Annual Review of Anthropology. 35: 229–249. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.35.081705.123120. ISSN 0084-6570.
- Earnshaw, Steven (2000). The Pub in Literature: England's Altered State. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0719053047.
- Eber, Christine (2000). Women and Alcohol in a Highland Maya Town: Water of Hope, Water of Sorrow (revised ed.). Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-292-72104-3.
- Fallon, Sally; Enig, Mary G. (1 January 2000). "Australian Aborigines: Living Off the Fat of the Land". Weston A. Price Foundation. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Ganava, André (2008). Millet beer brewing and its socio-economic role in the lives of Mafa women in the far north province of Cameroon (PDF). Munin (master's degree). Tromsø, Norway: The Arctic University of Norway. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- Garrison, Mark (27 October 2011). "The Hops Ceiling". Slate. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Gavin, Robin Farwell; Pierce, Donna; Pleguezuelo, Alfonso (2003). Cerámica Y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, Museum of International Folk Art. ISBN 978-0-8263-3102-1.
- Gingold, Naomi (11 September 2015). "Brewing sake in Japan is becoming a woman's game – again". Public Radio International. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Hackett, Rosalind; Abiodun, Rowland (1998). Art and Religion in Africa. London, England: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-8264-3655-9.
- Hamilton, Tracy Brown (2 October 2014). "The Meditations of Europe's Last Brewmaster Nun". The Atlantic. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Hampson, Tim (2013). World Beer. London, England: DK Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-4654-2263-7.
- Hester, Marianne (1996). "Patriarchal Reconstruction and Witch Hunting". In Barry, Jonathan; Hester, Marianne; Roberts, Gareth (eds.). Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 288–308. ISBN 978-0521552240.
- Hornsey, Ian Spencer (2003). A History of Beer and Brewing. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0854046300.
- Jennings, Justin (2014). "A Glass for the Gods and a Gift to My Neighbor". In Pierce, Gretchen; Toxqui, Aurea (eds.). Alcohol in Latin America: A Social and Cultural History. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press. ISBN 9780816530762.
- Jones, Alana R. (2011). "Women in Brewing". In Oliver, Garrett (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Beer. New York City, New York: Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 848–850. ISBN 978-0-19-536713-3.
- Joseph, Andrew (April 2014). "Upwardly Mobile". Canadian Packaging. 67 (4): 14–19. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014.
- Katz, Sandor Ellix (2012). The Art of Fermentation: An In-Depth Exploration of Essential Concepts and Processes from around the World. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60358-364-0.
- Kohn, Rita (2013). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Beer Tasting. London, England: Dorling Kindersley Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-61564-352-3.
- Kutalek, Ruth (2011). "Ritual Use of Beer in South-West Tanzania". In Schiefenhovel, Wulf; Macbeth, Helen (eds.). Liquid Bread: Beer and Brewing in Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Berghahn. ISBN 9781782380344.
- Lewis, Carly (1 November 2016). "Thinking Outside the Keg". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Lyumugabe, François; Gros, Jacques; Nzungize, John; Bajyana, Emmanuel; Thonart, Philippe (2012). "Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review" (PDF). Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement. 16 (4): 509–530. ISSN 1370-6233. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- Madeson, Frances (2 September 2016). "Apache Puberty Rites: 6 Girls Attain Womanhood". Indian Country Today. Washington D.C. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- Malla, Yesha (September 2010). "Jaandh: An Integral Part of Nepali Culture". ECS Nepal. No. 107. Kupondole, Lalitpur District, Nepal: ECS Media. ISSN 1729-2751. Archived from the original on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- Mark, Joshua J. (2 March 2011). "Beer in the Ancient World". World History Encyclopedia. Horsham, England. Archived from the original on 12 September 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Medicine, Beatrice (2007). Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Altamira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0571-3.
- McClusky, Laura (5 July 2010). Here, Our Culture Is Hard: Stories of Domestic Violence from a Mayan Community in Belize. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-78819-0.
- McGovern, Patrick (8 March 2010). "Prehistoric China: The Wonders That Were Jiahu The World's Earliest Fermented Beverage". Penn Museums. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Meek, Shawn; McDonald, Chris (8 June 2016). "Craft Community: Spindrift Brewing". The Chronicle Herald. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- More, Anna (2012). Baroque Sovereignty: Carlos de Siguenza Y Gongora and the Creole Archive of Colonial Mexico. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0655-5.
- Munro, Neil Gordon (2013). Ainu Creed & Cult. IV. New York, New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-16535-1.
- Nurin, Tara (18 February 2015). "How Women Brewsters Saved the World". Craft Beer & Brewing Magazine. ISSN 2334-119X. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Pappas, Stephanie (14 January 2014). "Ancient Nordic Grog Intoxicated the Elite". Live Science. New York City, New York. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Phạm, Jennifer (20 November 2015). "Leimin Duong được BBC vinh danh là 1 trong 100 phụ nữ có ảnh hưởng nhất 2015" [Leimin Duong was honored as one of the BBC's 100 Most Influential Women in 2015]. Việt ÚC Times (Vietnam Australia Times) (in Vietnamese). Sydney, Australia. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Pietschmann, Richard J. (2004). "He'll Have Another". In Haddad, Annette; Doggett, Scott (eds.). Travelers' Tales Brazil: True Stories. San Francisco, California: Travelers' Tales. pp. 230–236. ISBN 978-1-932361-05-6.
- Ronnenberg, Herman Wiley (2016). Material Culture of Breweries. New York, New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-42479-8.
- Salisbury, Joyce E. (2001). Encyclopedia of Women in the Ancient World. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-092-5.
- Schell, Allison (26 April 2013). "Women + Beer: A Forgotten Pairing". Alexandria, Virginia: National Women's History Museum. Archived from the original on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Shrestha, Arpan (August 2010). "To Drink or Not To Drink: Local Beverages of Nepal". ECS Nepal. No. 37. Kupondole, Lalitpur District, Nepal: ECS Media. ISSN 1729-2751. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- Smith, Jacqueline (30 May 2014). "How These Women Became Top Brewmasters at One of the World's Biggest Beer Companies". Business Insider.
- Tamang, Jyoti Prakash (2016). Ethnic Fermented Foods and Alcoholic Beverages of Asia. New Delhi, India: Springer India. ISBN 978-81-322-2800-4.
- Taylor, Darren (4 December 2014). "South Africa's 'All-girl' Brewery Wins Fans". Voice of America. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Tuenge, Ryan (23 April 2013). "Coming Full Circle: Women in Beer". The Growler. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Unger, Richard W. (2004). Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3795-5.
- van Dekken, Marjolein (27 March 2004). Female brewers in Holland and England. Fifth European Social Science History Conference. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: International Institute of Social History.
- White, Evelyn C. (22 February 2015). "More women are taking up brewing craft, including an African-American award-winner". The Chronicle Herald. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Wilkie, Laurie A (2016). Strung Out on Archaeology: An Introduction to Archaeological Research. New York City, New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-41951-0.
- Winterman, Denise (23 January 2014). "Beer: The women taking over the world of brewing". BBC News Magazine. London, England. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Wolfe, Wes (10 February 2016). "Brewing Beer for Art". The Free Press. Kinston, North Carolina. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- Wu, Leslie (27 October 2016). "Brewing Change in Rwanda with a Woman-Owned Craft Beer Facility". Forbes. Jersey City, New Jersey. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Beer and Danish Microbreweries". Denmark. Copenhagen, Denmark: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. 2012. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Chinese Alcohol, Chinese Spirits". China Daily. Beijing, China. 27 October 2010. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Nepal housewives break laws to cook up potent brew". The Hindustan Times. New Dehli, India. AFP. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Three Millennia of German Brewing". Newbury, Massachusetts: German Beer Institute. 2005. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Two Birds celebrates five years". Australian Brews News. Australia. 9 June 2016. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "A woman's place is in the brewery". Flanders Today. Groot-Bijgaarden, Belgium. 19 May 2010. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.