Women in piracy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Zheng Yi Sao (1775–1844; right) as depicted in 1836

Although the majority of pirates in history have been men,[1] there are around a hundred known examples of female pirates,[2][a] about forty of whom were active in the Golden Age of Piracy.[4] Some women have been pirate captains and some have commanded entire pirate fleets. Among the most powerful pirate women were figures such as Zheng Yi Sao (1775–1844) and Huang Bamei (1906–1982), both of whom led tens of thousands of pirates.[5][6]

In addition to the few that were pirates themselves, women have also historically been more heavily involved in piracy through secondary roles, interacting with pirates through being smugglers, lenders of money, purchasers of stolen goods, tavern keepers and prostitutes, and through having been family members of both pirates and victims.[1][7] Some women also married pirates and turned their homes or establishments into piratical safe havens.[8] Through women in these secondary roles, pirates were strongly supported by the agency of women.[9] Some influential women, including monarchs such as Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558–1603), have also acted as powerful patrons of pirates.[1] Although they have received little academic attention, women still occupy these important secondary roles in contemporary piracy. Piracy off the coast of Somalia is for instance supported to a large extent by on-shore women who participate in transportation, housing and recruitment.[10]

Seafaring in general has historically been a highly masculine-gendered activity.[11] Women who became pirates at times disguised themselves as men in order to do so since they were otherwise rarely allowed on pirate ships. On many ships in the Golden Age of Piracy, women were prohibited by the ship's contract (required to be signed by all crew members) due to being seen as bad luck and due to fears that the male crew members would fight over the women. Many famous female pirates, such as Anne Bonny (1697–?) and Mary Read (1685–1721), accordingly dressed and acted as men.[12] Since the gender of many pirate women was only exposed after they were caught, it is possible that there were more women in piracy than is otherwise indicated by surviving sources.[13]

In addition to historical female pirates, women in piracy have also frequently appeared in legends and folklore. The earliest legendary female pirate is perhaps Atalanta of Greek mythology, who according to legend joined the Argonauts in the years before the Trojan War.[14] Scandinavian folklore and mythology, though the tales themselves are unverified, includes numerous female warriors (shield-maidens) who command ships and fleets.[15] Female pirates have had varying roles in modern fiction, often reflecting cultural norms and traditions. Beginning in the 20th century, fictional pirate women have sometimes been romanticized as symbols of female liberty.[16]

List of named female pirates[edit]

  Disputed historicity or legendary figure

Ancient pirates[edit]

Name Lifespan Active Culture Notes
a.k.a. Elissa
~800 BC Phoenician The legendary founder of Carthage.[17] Sometimes considered a pirate since her legend involves her leading a sea expedition,[17][18] raids,[17] and the kidnapping of a large group of women.[18]
Tchiao Kuo-fu-ja[2]
a.k.a. Ch’iao K’uo Fü Jên
~600 BC Chinese Legendary Chinese pirate who appears in a legend wherein she and her crew liberates a captive young woman named P’ao.[19]
Queen Artemisia I of Caria 480 BC Greek Queen of the city-state of Halicarnassus. The earliest historical female pirate, Artemisia captained a fighting ship[20] and led the most famous pirate fleet in the Mediterranean.[21] She participated in the second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC), fighting alongside Xerxes I of the Achaemenid Empire.[20]
Queen Teuta of the Ardiaei 231–228 BC Illyrian Queen regent of the Ardiaei tribe, active in the Adriatic Sea. Sanctioned a number of pirate attacks against the Roman Republic and fought against the Romans in the First Illyrian War (229–228 BC).[22][23]

Vendel and Viking Age[edit]

Name Lifespan Active Culture Notes
Princess Sela c. 420[24] Norwegian Appears in the Gesta Danorum.[25][b] Sister of the Norwegian king Koller, with whom she quarreled, and led her own raids both in sea and land. Killed by the Jutish king-turned-pirate Aurvandill after she attempted to avenge her brother.[24]
Alf and Alfhild
a.k.a. Alvid; Altilda; Atwilda; Alvilda
c. 550[30] Geatish Appears in the Gesta Danorum.[b] Her story is akin to a fairy tale and she consequently appears to be a mythical figure.[30][31] Daughter of the Geatish king Synardus. Turned to piracy to escape an enforced marriage and led an all-female pirate crew. Eventually tracked down and defeated by her intended spouse, whereafter she married him on account of his prowess in battle.[30]
Groe c. 550[30] Geatish Appears in the Gesta Danorum.[b] One of the women accompanying Afhild.[32]
Stikla 8th century? Norwegian Appears in the Gesta Danorum.[25][b] Shield-maiden and pirate[31] who alongside her sister Rusila fought against the Norwegian ruler Olov for control of his kingdom.[25][33] Defeated and killed by Olov's forces who were aided by the Danish king Harald Wartooth.[33]
Rusila 8th century? Norwegian Appears in the Gesta Danorum.[b] Sister of Stikla, fought with her against Olov and Harald.[25][33]
Veborg c. 770[15] Danish Briefly mentioned in the Gesta Danorum.[b] Longship captain who was killed in battle.[25] Participated in the legendary Battle of Brávellir.[34]
Hetha c. 770[15] Danish Briefly mentioned in the Gesta Danorum.[b] Longship captain who became the ruler of Zealand.[25] Participated in the legendary Battle of Brávellir.[34]
Wisna c. 770[15] Danish Briefly mentioned in the Gesta Danorum.[b] Longship captain who became a standard-bearer and lost her right hand in battle.[25] Participated in the legendary Battle of Brávellir.[34]
Rusla, "Red Daughter" 8th/9th century? Norwegian Appears in the Gesta Danorum.[b] Sometimes conflated with Rusila but appears to be a distinct figure.[25] Sister of the Norwegian ruler Tesondus, who had been deposed by the Danish king Omundus. Angered at the Danish conquest and her brother being content with it, she fought against both but was ultimately defeated.[25]
Lagertha 9th century Norwegian Appears in the Gesta Danorum.[b] Viking shield-maiden who accompanied and later married the legendary hero and king Ragnar Lodbrok.[25]

Medieval and Renaissance pirates[edit]

Name Lifespan Active Culture Notes
Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians c. 870–918 911 Anglo-Saxon Ruler of Mercia. Became a military leader after her husband's death in battle against the Danes in 911. Took command of the fleets to rid the seas of the Viking raiders. Sometimes referred to as a pirate.[4]
Joanna of Flanders, "the Flame"
a.k.a. Joanna of Montfort
c. 1295–1374 1341–1347 French / Breton Duchess of Brittany by marriage to John of Montfort. Famous and admired in Brittany for her skills as a warrior and military leader. Fought alongside her troops against the French in the War of the Breton Succession (1341–1365), at points commanding great fleets in naval battles. Sometimes referred to as a pirate.[35]
Jeanne de Clisson, "Lioness of Brittany"
a.k.a. Jeanne de Belleville
1300–1359 1343–1350s French / Breton French/Breton noblewoman. Turned to piracy to avenge her husband Olivier IV de Clisson. who was executed as a traitor during the War of the Breton Succession. Purchased three ships, which she commanded, and attacked French ships off the coast of Normandy. Ended her pirate career after she remarried to the English knight Walter Bentley in the 1350s.[36]
Elise Eskilsdotter d. 1483 1455–1470s Norwegian Norwegian noblewoman who turned to piracy to avenge her husband Olav Nilsson. Attacked ships in the seas near Bergen.[4]
Grace O'Malley
a.k.a. Gráinne Ní Mháille, Granuaile
c. 1530–1603 16th century Irish Daughter of a local chieftain in Connacht. Her family ran both a legitimate shipping business and a piracy business. Inherited her father's lands (Umhaill), becoming a powerful Irish ruler. With her three ships and two hundred men, O'Malley plundered ships both from England and from other parts of Ireland. She became so prolific that Queen Elizabeth I put a reward on her head and considered sending the royal fleet against her. Captured by the English in 1577 but released in a hostage exchange and continued to engage in piracy. Entered into English service as a privateer in 1593.[37]
Sayyida al Hurra 1485–1561 1515–1542 Moroccan Ruler of the western coasts of Morocco for over thirty years and a powerful Barbary corsair, operating out of Tétouan. Allied with the Ottoman corsair Oruç Reis, who operated out of Algiers. Raided Christian ships from Spain, regaining wealth her family had lost during the expulsions of Muslims from Spain. Much of the wealth was used to revive Tétouan. Earnt the title al-Hurra (a woman who exercises power) and later married Ahmed el Outassi, Sultan of Morocco. Wishing to retain her political influence, she forced Outassi to travel to Tétouan for the wedding, the only time in Moroccan history a royal wedding was not held in the capital.[38]
Mary Wolverston, Lady Killigrew
a.k.a. Elizabeth Killigrew; Old Lady Killigrew
fl. 1525–1587 16th century English Daughter of the pirate Philip Wolverston, who educated her in piracy in her youth.[39] Married into the Cornish Killigrew family, owners of Arwenack. Among other businesses, the Killigrews ran a criminal enterprise of seizing ships and hiding stolen goods and bribed officials to look the other way.[40][41] Wolverston was actively involved in the family's piracy. In 1582, she led pirate crews on her own pirate attacks against a Spanish[39][40][42] and then a German ship.[40] Wolverston was thereafter imprisoned and sentenced to death by Queen Elizabeth I but was ultimately pardoned.[40][42][43]
Dorothy Monk, Lady Killigrew 16th century English Daughter-in-law of Mary Wolverston. Also charged with having engaged in piracy.[44][45]
Elizabetha Patrickson fl. 1634 17th century English Raided English ships alongside her husband William. Indicted on piracy, robbery, and murder charges on 10 March 1634 in an English court. She was tortured into a confession and later hanged.[46]

Golden Age of Piracy[edit]

Name Lifespan Active Culture Notes
Charlotte de Berry 1636–? 17th century English Reportedly kidnapped and forced to go to sea, whereafter she organized a mutiny, took control of the ship and began a pirate career of her own.[47] She is likely fictional since her earliest known mention in a literary work dates to 1836.[48]
Jacquotte Delahaye fl. 1656 Mid-17th century Haitian or Spanish Legendary pirate whose story differs between accounts, sometimes said to have been motivated by revenge and other times said to have wished to earn wealth to support her family. Supposedly rose to command a hundred pirates. Depending on the account said to have either continuously dressed as a man or to have taken a male alias after faking her death. Likely fictional as she first appears only in accounts written significantly later than her purported lifespan.[48]
Christina Anna Skytte 1643–1677 1657–1668 Swedish A baroness who is said to in 1657 have joined her brother Gustav Skytte, who secretly owned a pirate ship. Together they assaulted ships in the Baltic Sea. Fled the country to escape the authorities in 1663 but returned and retired from piracy in 1668. Her role in the piracy is somewhat disputed since the relevant court documents (which confirm the piracy of her brother and fiancé) do not explicitly mention her.[49]
Neel Cuyper
a.k.a. Cornelia; Nellie Cowper; Santa Rubia
c. 1655–1695 Late 17th century Dutch Served on Dutch merchant ships masquerading as a man. Captured by pirates who recruited her on account of her experience. After some time with the pirates, Cuyper was discovered to be a woman, whereafter she was disembarked together with her share of the loot at Tortuga. Later founded a resort for pirates at Labadee in Haiti, eventually becoming known as the "Queen of Labadee Bay". Killed by during a 1695 raid by English and Spanish forces.[50]
Mrs. Beare fl. 1684–1689 Late 17th century English or Jamaican Full name unknown. Wife of the pirate John Phillip Beare, Mrs. Beare, originally from Jamaica. She joined him on pirate voyages, frequently donning men's clothing. She is described as a woman with a promiscuous reputation. [51]
Anne Dieu-le-Veut 1661–1710 Late 17th century French According to legends the wife of the Dutch pirate Laurens de Graaf, whom she is said to have accompanied on pirate raids. Her legend conflicts with known historical information on Laurens de Graaf's life;[48] although documentary evidence confirms her as a real person, she only married de Graaf after he is believed to have left his pirate life behind him.[52]
Ingela Gathenhielm 1692–1729 1711–1721 Swedish Married the shipowner and privateer Lars Gathenhielm, who also operated a pirate business. Ingela was deeply involved in her husband's business and took charge of it after Lars died in 1718.[53]
Maria Lindsey 1740s–1760s English Prostitute who married the pirate Eric Cobham.[54] Thought to have been insane, she joined Cobham and they assembled a pirate crew together. They conducted pirate attacks together in New England and Newfoundland; Cobham's memoirs portray Lindsey as ruthless in how she dealt with captives.[55]
Anne Bonny
a.k.a. Anne Bonney; Ann Fulford
1697–? 1719–1720 Irish Primarily known through Captain Charles Johnson's 1724 book A General History of the Pyrates;[56] though much of her story is of uncertain veracity, contemporary records confirm her existence and that she was convicted for piracy.[57] According to Johnson's story, she married the pirate/privateer James Bonny and had an affair with pirate John "Calico Jack" Rackham,[56] whose pirate crew she joined in 1719.[58] Also part of Rackham's crew was another female pirate, Mary Read. Captured and convicted in late 1720 but escaped execution through pointing out that she was pregnant, whereafter her further fate is unknown.[59]
Mary Read 1685–1721 ?–1720 English Primarily known through Captain Charles Johnson's 1724 book A General History of the Pyrates;[57][60] though much of her story is of uncertain veracity, contemporary records confirm her existence and that she was convicted for piracy.[57] Turned to piracy after a ship she was on was captured by pirates. Joined the crew of John "Calico Jack" Rackham in 1719,[61] which Anne Bonny was also part of.[59] Captured and convicted in late 1720 but escaped execution through pointing out that she was pregnant. Died of a fever in prison in 1721, perhaps related to childbirth complications.[60]
Martha Farley
a.k.a. Mary Farley; Mary Harvey; Mary Farlee
fl. 1726 Early 18th century English? Tried for piracy in Virginia alongside three men in 1726; whereas all men were executed, Farley was spared by the court.[13] Though Farley does not appear to have taken an active militant role alongside the men, she was present during at least one capture of a ship and is thought to have aided in eavesdropping on the conversations of the prisoners.[62]
Mary Critchett
a.k.a. Mary Crickett; Mary Crichett
d. 1729 Early 18th century English Tried for piracy in Virginia alongside a crew of five men in 1729 and executed.[13] Critchett and the others had been felons who escaped and stole a ship in the Rappahannock River before making their way into the Chesapeake Bay, where they captured another ship.[63]
Martha Herring fl. 1714–1735 1714–1715 English? Daughter of a captain killed in 1714 a mutiny by her lover Sandy Gordon, who turned to piracy. Herring continued to follow Gordon aboard the Flying Scot. Gordon was killed in 1715 and Herring then stayed behind on the island on which the two were married.[64]
Flora Burn fl. 1741 18th century American She served as one of the 35 sailors aboard the American privateer ship, HMS Revenge, during the year 1741. The ship was operating on the eastern coast of North America. She held a one-and-three-quarter share of the bounty within the crew.[65][66]

18th–19th centuries[edit]

Name Lifespan Active Culture Notes
Sarah Bishop c. 1759 - c. 1809 1778–1780 American Bishop was captured onto a British privateer ship during a raiding party in 1778 and became a crew member. Her duties included standing watch, handled the ship's wheel, and performed sexual services. She became the captain's wife, and after two years in captivity, she managed to escape by going overboard. Later, she became a hermit in Ridgefield, Connecticut.[64] [67]
Rachel Wall c. 1760–1789 1781–1782/1789 American One of the most notorious American pirates and perhaps the earliest female pirate to be born in America itself.[68] Partook in the capture and plunder of several ships in 1781–1782 through luring them with false distress. Sole survivor after her ship came under attack and thereafter ostensibly retired from piracy. Alleged to have continued to rob ships during the night. Imprisoned and then hanged in 1789 after she assaulted a woman and stole her bonnet.[69]
Zheng Yi Sao
a.k.a. Ching Shih; Cheng I Sao
1775–1844 1801–1810 Chinese Wife of the pirate Zheng Yi.[5] Participated in his piracy from the time of their marriage in 1801 onwards.[70] After her husband's death in 1807, she took command of his powerful Red Flag Fleet and dominated the South China Sea both militarily and politically. Enforced various pirate codes, including making the rape of female captives punishable by death.[71] At the height of her power in 1805 she commanded 400 junks and between 40,000 and 60,000 pirates.[72] After facing significant opposition from government authorities as well as major powers such as the East India Company and the Portuguese Empire she surrendered in 1810 and was allowed to retire in peace.[73]
Jossabee fl. 1804 Early 19th century Algerian Mentioned by the French author H. Mesnik in his book Les femmes pirates (1804), wherein he claimed to have lived with her for a time.[74]
Margaret Jordan
a.k.a. Margaret Croke
fl. 1809 Early 19th century Irish Wife of the pirate Edward Jordan. Tried for piracy and murder following a violent dispute with investors over the schooner The Three Sisters. Found innocent and released by the court so that she could care for her children.[75] Despite this it is almost certain that she assisted her husband in his piracy, and that she thus was a pirate herself.[76]
Lucia Allen
a.k.a. Lucie; Lucille; Señora del Norte
fl. 1821 Early 19th century American Friend and perhaps mistress of the pirate captain Pierre Lafitte. Recorded to have accompanied Lafitte on a pirate voyage and raid in the summer of 1821. Might have died in childbirth in November that year.[77]
Johanna Hård
a.k.a. Johanna Jungberg
1789–1851 1823 Swedish In popular remembrance considered the last Swedish pirate. Lived on Vrångö Island and was the widow of a bookkeeper.[78] Lived off of smuggling and running speakeasy. Accused of piracy in 1823, Hård was found not guilty and the veracity of the accusation remains unknown.[79]
Ng Akew
a.k.a. Aku
fl. 1849 19th century Chinese Part of the crew of an American gunpowder and opium-trader on the ship Ruparell,[80] having been purchased as a slave by its captain James Bridges Endicott.[81] Known for a series of events in 1849 when she personally smuggled opium[81] and acted as the representative of a pirate fleet to negotiate with Captain Lockyer of the British navy ship HMS Medea.[80]
Eliza Welsh 1806–after 1871 Middle 19th century Spanish Lived with a Captain Graham aboard HMS Devonshire who became a pirate. Welsh accompanied him and partook in his piracies. Captured by the British navy, whereafter Graham was hanged in London and Welsh was placed in a prison camp in Tasmania, where she spent twenty years.[82]
Sadie Farrell, "Sadie the Goat" fl. 1869[83] 1850s–1869s Irish American[84] River pirate who led the Charlton Street Gang in the rivers surrounding New York City, raiding ships, villages and small towns and flying a Jolly Roger flag.[85] She earnt her nickname before becoming a pirate; it derived from her strategy to headbutt people in the stomach, whereafter one of her male companions would rob the now grounded victim.[86][87]

20th century[edit]

Name Lifespan Active Culture Notes
Lo Hon-cho
a.k.a. Lo Honcho
1921–1922 Chinese Took charge of a pirate fleet after her husband’s death in 1921,[88] probably in her mid-20s. Earnt a ruthless reputation through her attacks in the region surrounding Beihai. Commanded 64 junks at the height of her power. Captured by the Chinese military in October 1922.[89]
Lai Choi San
a.k.a. Lai Sho Sz’en
fl. 1931–1939 1920s–1930s Chinese Active in the South China Sea and the East China Sea, commanded 12 junks. Her historicity, or at least the historicity of her exploits, are disputed since she is mainly known from the report I Sailed with Pirates (1931) by Aleko Lilius, a journalist of dubious repute. She appears to have been a real figure since she is also mentioned in a later report by a war journalist during the Sino-Japanese War.[90]
Tan Chin Chiao, "Golden Grace"
a.k.a. T'ang Ch'ên Ch'iao
fl. 1935 Early 20th century Chinese Also called the "Queen of the Pirates". Commanded several pirate ships, arrested in Daya Bay in 1935.[30] Recorded to have proclaimed herself the "mortal enemy of the West".[6]
P’en Ch’ih Ch’iko fl. 1936 Early 20th century Chinese Commanded over a hundred pirates in 1936.[6]
Ki Ming
a.k.a. King Mi; Ching Mi
Early 20th century Chinese Attacked and tried to seize the RMS Empress of Canada in Manila, aided by a gang of her crewmembers hidden among the steerage passengers.[91]
Huang Bamei, "Two Guns"
a.k.a. Huang P’ei-mei; Huang P'emei
1906–1982 1931–1951 Chinese Active along the coasts of the Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces in the 1930s. Her gang, among other local criminal gangs, was recruited by the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China at the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, although she was of dubious allegiance.[92] Huang's fleet grew considerably during the war; at her height she commanded 50,000 pirates and 70 ships.[6][93] After the war she returned to piracy, raiding around Lake Tai. Recruited by the military again in 1949 to fight in the Chinese Civil War. Largely retired from maritime activities in 1951.[92]
Sister Ping 1949–2014 1970s–1990s Chinese Operated out of Guangzhou as an owner and financer of pirate ships in the South China Sea. Also known for smuggling Chinese immigrants into the United States and Europe. Was convicted in the United States and sentenced to 35 years in prison.[5]
Linda 20th century Filipino Full name unknown. Pirate responsible for several raids along the Philippine coasts,[54][94] encountered by the French sailor Frances Guillain.[94]
Susan Frani 1990s Filipino Member of the pirate crew of Emilio Changco, whom she had an intimate relationship with. Perhaps the sole female member of the crew.[95][96] The Changco crew operated in the 1980s and 1990s and hijacked numerous ships in Philippine waters.[97]

Pirate women in fiction[edit]

Jean Peters as the fictional pirate Anne Providence in Anne of the Indies (1951)

Historical fictional depictions of pirate women have often reflected stereotypes of their times concerning not only women but also women in power.[98] Depictions of female pirates in A General History of the Pyrates (1724) for instance showcase a degree of unease.[98] Illustrations in a Dutch 1725 edition of the book depict female pirates as unpleasant and bare-chested, trampling on figures representing justice and commerce.[98] Pirate fiction grew increasingly popular in the mid-18th century and among the many tales written were novels starring female pirates.[99] Several such narratives with women pirates and warriors were often highly formulaic, with the women going to sea or war in order to either win or regain the affection of a man.[100] Some tales saw female pirates exceeding their male counterparts in courage, skill and virtue.[99] Some works, such as Fanny Campbell, the Female Pirate Captain (1844), included great adventures but also ended with the central woman finding a man and settling down, perhaps an attempt to not conflict too much with traditional notions of femininty.[101]

In the 20th century, fictional pirate women sometimes became symbols of feminism and female liberty; whereas male pirates were often used to tell stories of escape from wage slavery, female pirates illustrated escape from gender subordination.[16] Such romanticization of pirates, whether male or female, is not grounded in history since pirates were typically violent criminals, thieves and murderers.[102] An early work in this tradition is F. Tennyson Jesse's Moonraker (1927), wherein the pirate captain Lovel is revealed to be a woman with strong ideals on female liberty.[16] Still, there also continued to be stories wherein women were seduced by pirates, such as the 1944 film Frenchman's Creek, and films wherein female pirates seduced men, such as Anne of the Indies (1951).[16] Anne Providence, the main character of Anne of the Indies, was the first famous female pirate in film.[103]

The female pirate is sometimes cast as a feminist, or even an anarchist, icon.[16] Ulrike Ottinger's 1978 film Madame X: An Absolute Ruler is about several women from different career backgrounds joining the pirate crew of "Madame X" above the Chinese ship Orlando[104] and was inspired by the Chinese pirate women of the early 20th century.[105] Among the various messages of the film were a critique of patriarchal and hierarchical power structures.[104] The Pirates of the Caribbean film series includes several female pirates,[106] most notably Elizabeth Swann. Although Swann is included in some stereotypical scenes and begins as a damsel in distress, she is turned into a courageous pirate and heroine over the course of the film series.[107] Both Swann and the other female pirate Anamaria are depicted in Pirates of the Caribbean as cross-dressing, recalling real historical pirate women who did the same.[103]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The exact number differs depending on whether legendary figures are included and on how "pirate" is defined. Some scholars for instance include mythological figures such as Atalanta and privateers such as Louise Antonini (1771–1861) and Julienne David (1773–1843).[2] Some figures once viewed as pirates, such as Charlotte Badger (1778–after 1843) have also been demonstrated to have been victims of highly fictionalized sensationalism.[3]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Although there were Viking warrior women,[25][26][27] attested both by military equipment found in the graves of women and texts describing women as among the Viking invaders,[15] the women named in the Gesta Danorum are considered legendary and unverified on account of the unreliability of the work itself. The Gesta Danorum was written in the 12th/13th century partially as a work of royal propaganda[28] and is not considered a reliable historical account for the centuries before its own time, though portions of it may be distorted retellings of earlier sources.[29]


  1. ^ a b c Powell 2015, Chapter 6.
  2. ^ a b c Zuidhoek 2022, p. 3.
  3. ^ Hardie 2019, p. 84.
  4. ^ a b c Hollick 2017, Were Women There in the Golden Age of Piracy?.
  5. ^ a b c Zuidhoek 2022, p. 163.
  6. ^ a b c d Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, pp. 54–55.
  7. ^ Pennell 2001, p. 284.
  8. ^ Pennell 2001, pp. 289–290.
  9. ^ Gilmer 2019, p. 372.
  10. ^ Gilmer 2019, pp. 371–372, 383.
  11. ^ Appleby 2013, p. 191.
  12. ^ Pennell 2001, pp. 285, 303.
  13. ^ a b c Rediker 2011, p. 112.
  14. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, p. 48.
  15. ^ a b c d e Mueller-Vollmer & Wolf 2022, p. 216.
  16. ^ a b c d e Parker 2013, Pirate Utopianism.
  17. ^ a b c Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, p. 69.
  18. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, p. 273.
  19. ^ Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, p. 31.
  20. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, p. 43.
  21. ^ Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, p. 81.
  22. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, pp. 768–769.
  23. ^ Stanley et al. 1995, p. 74.
  24. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, p. 707.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Duncombe 2017, Gatekeepers of Valhalla.
  26. ^ Hedenstierna-Jonson et al. 2017, p. 853.
  27. ^ Price et al. 2019, pp. 189–192.
  28. ^ Hermanson 2013, p. 110.
  29. ^ Sawyer 2003, p. 17.
  30. ^ a b c d e Zuidhoek 2022, pp. 27–28.
  31. ^ a b Sharp 2002, p. 22.
  32. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, p. 352.
  33. ^ a b c Harrison Lindbergh 2017, p. 262.
  34. ^ a b c Mondschein 2017, p. 151.
  35. ^ Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, pp. 117–120.
  36. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, p. 79.
  37. ^ Sharp 2002, pp. 31–37.
  38. ^ Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, pp. 97–99.
  39. ^ a b Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, p. 149.
  40. ^ a b c d Sharp 2002, pp. 42–47.
  41. ^ Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, p. 146.
  42. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, p. 782.
  43. ^ Klausmann, Meinzerin & Kuhn 1997, p. 151.
  44. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, p. 549.
  45. ^ Probasco 2017, p. 223.
  46. ^ Druett 2001, pp. 52–53.
  47. ^ Compton 2013, p. 48.
  48. ^ a b c Duncombe 2017, The Golden Age.
  49. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, p. 725.
  50. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, p. 212.
  51. ^ Zuidhoek 2022, p. 75.
  52. ^ Little 2016.
  53. ^ Streifert Eikeland 2014, p. 371.
  54. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, p. 493.
  55. ^ Edwards 2012, pp. 54–55.
  56. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, p. 98.
  57. ^ a b c Stefoff 2014, p. 19.
  58. ^ Stefoff 2014, p. 21.
  59. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, pp. 98–99.
  60. ^ a b Zuidhoek 2022, p. 657.
  61. ^ Stefoff 2014, p. 20.
  62. ^ Theophilus 2013, p. 225.
  63. ^ Theophilus 2013, pp. 225–226.
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