Women in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom

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Constance Markievicz was the first woman elected to the British Parliament

The representation of women in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom has been an issue in the politics of the United Kingdom at numerous points in the 20th and 21st centuries. Originally debate centred on whether women should be allowed to vote and stand for election as Members of Parliament. The Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 gave women over 21 the right to stand for election as a Member of Parliament. The United Kingdom has had three female Prime Ministers: Margaret Thatcher (1979–1990), Theresa May (2016–2019), and Liz Truss (2022). The publication of the book Women in the House by Elizabeth Vallance in 1979 highlighted the under-representation of women in Parliament.[1] In more modern times concerns about the under-representation of women led the Labour Party to introduce and, decades later, abandon all-women short lists, something which was later held to breach discrimination laws.

Between 1918 and 2022, a total of 560 women have been elected as Members of the House of Commons. As of December 2022 there are 224 women in the House of Commons, the second-highest ever. This is a new all-time high at 35% and is the first time that female representation in the House of Commons is at more than a third.[2] The previous number was 208, set in 2017, which accounted for 32% of members elected or re-elected that year.[3] Additionally, at the 2019 general election more female than male Labour MPs were elected or re-elected (104 women out of 202 MPs in total) – the first time in Labour's history that this has happened.[4][5] The female member of Parliament with the longest period of continuous service is currently informally known as the Mother of the House.

Suffrage[edit]

In 1832 Henry Hunt became the first MP to raise the issue of women's suffrage in the House of Commons,[6] followed in 1867 by John Stuart Mill. Following this attempts were made to widen the franchise in every Parliament.[7]

Women gained the right to vote with the passing of the Representation of the People Act 1918 after World War I. This gave the vote to women over the age of 30. However, the Speakers Conference which was charged with looking into giving women the vote did not have as its terms of reference, consideration to women standing as candidates for Parliament. However, Sir Herbert Samuel, the former Liberal Home Secretary, moved a separate motion on 23 October 1918 to allow women to be eligible as Members of Parliament. The vote was passed by 274 to 25 and the government rushed through a bill to make it law in time for the 1918 general election.[8] This bill did not specify any age restriction, unlike the voting bill.[9] This later led to a number of incidents of women under the age of 30, who were not allowed to vote, standing for Parliament, notably the 27-year-old Liberal Ursula Williams standing in 1923.[10]

Landmarks and records[edit]

Political firsts for women in House of Commons[edit]

Records[edit]

Margaret Beckett is the longest serving female MP in the history of the House of Commons. She was an MP for Lincoln from 10 October 1974 until 7 April 1979, and has served as MP for Derby South since 9 June 1983, most recently being re-elected on 12 December 2019.

Harriet Harman is the longest continuously serving female MP in the history of the House of Commons. She was MP for Peckham from 28 October 1982 until 1 May 1997, and has served as MP for Camberwell and Peckham since 1 May 1997, most recently having been re-elected on 12 December 2019. On 13 June 2017 Harman was dubbed "Mother of the House" by Prime Minister Theresa May, in recognition of her status as longest continuously serving woman MP (though she was not the longest serving MP overall, and would therefore not gain any official duties).

Female MPs with over 25 years' service[edit]

As of 2022, there are 36 women (out of a total of 560) who have served 25 years or more service in the House of Commons, either continuously or cumulatively.

Party Name Constituency Year elected Year left Length of continuous term Length of cumulative term
Labour Diane Abbott[a] Hackney North and Stoke Newington 1987 Still serving 35 years, 7 months
Conservative Nancy Astor[b] Plymouth Sutton 1919 1945 25 years, 6 months
Labour Margaret Beckett[c] Lincoln & Derby South 1974 & 1983 1979 & Still serving 39 years, 7 months 44 years, 1 month
Speaker[d] Betty Boothroyd[e] West Bromwich & West Bromwich West 1973 2000 27 years, 4 months
Labour Karen Buck Regent's Park and Kensington North & Westminster North 1997 Still serving 25 years, 8 months
Labour Barbara Castle[f] Blackburn East & Blackburn 1945 1979 33 years, 9 months
Labour Ann Clwyd[g] Cynon Valley 1984 2019 35 years, 6 months
Change UK[h] Ann Coffey Stockport 1992 2019 27 years, 6 months
Labour Yvette Cooper[g] Pontefract and Castleford & Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford 1997 Still serving 25 years, 8 months
Labour Freda Corbet Camberwell North West & Peckham 1945 1974 28 years, 7 months
Labour Gwyneth Dunwoody[i] Exeter, Crewe & Crewe and Nantwich 1966 & 1974 1970 & 2008 34 years, 1 month 38 years, 3 months
Labour Angela Eagle[j] Wallasey 1992 Still serving 30 years, 9 months
Labour Maria Eagle[k] Liverpool Garston & Garston and Halewood 1997 Still serving 25 years, 8 months
Conservative Janet Fookes[l] Merton and Morden & Plymouth Drake 1970 1997 26 years, 9 months
Conservative Cheryl Gillan[m] Chesham and Amersham 1992 2021 28 years, 11 months
Labour Harriet Harman[n] Peckham & Camberwell and Peckham 1982 Still serving 40 years, 2 months
Labour Judith Hart[o] Lanark & Clydesdale 1959 1987 27 years, 7 months
Labour Margaret Hodge[p] Barking 1994 Still serving 28 years, 7 months
Labour Kate Hoey[q] Vauxhall 1989 2019 30 years, 6 months
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman[r] Lancaster 1970 1997 26 years, 9 months
Conservative Jill Knight[s] Birmingham Edgbaston 1966 1997 31 years
Conservative Eleanor Laing[t] Epping Forest 1997 Still serving 25 years, 8 months
Labour Jennie Lee[u] North Lanarkshire & Cannock 1929 & 1945 1931 & 1970 24 years, 10 months 27 years, 6 months
Labour Joan Lestor[v] Eton and Slough & Eccles 1966 & 1987 1983 & 1997 17 years, 1 month 26 years, 11 months
Labour[w] Megan Lloyd George[x] Anglesey & Carmarthen 1929 & 1957 1951 & 1966 22 years, 4 months 31 years, 6 months
Conservative Theresa May[y] Maidenhead 1997 Still serving 25 years, 8 months
Labour Siobhain McDonagh Mitcham and Morden 1997 Still serving 25 years, 8 months
Labour Dawn Primarolo[z] Bristol South 1987 2015 27 years, 9 months
Labour Joan Ruddock[aa] Lewisham Deptford 1987 2015 27 years, 9 months
Independent[ab] Clare Short[ac] Birmingham Ladywood 1983 2010 26 years, 10 months
Labour Ann Taylor[ad] Bolton West & Dewsbury 1974 & 1987 1983 & 2005 17 years, 10 months 26 years, 5 months
Conservative Margaret Thatcher[ae] Finchley 1959 1992 32 years, 5 months
Labour Joan Walley Stoke-on-Trent North 1987 2015 27 years, 9 months
Conservative Irene Ward[af] Wallsend & Tynemouth 1931 & 1950 1945 & 1974 23 years, 11 months 37 years, 7 months
Conservative Ann Winterton Congleton 1983 2010 26 years, 10 months
Labour Rosie Winterton[ag] Doncaster Central 1997 Still serving 25 years, 8 months

Current representation[edit]

As of December 2022, there are 224 female MPs in the House of Commons.

Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons[2] 649 224 35% 100%
Conservative 356 88 25% 39%
Labour 195 102 52% 46%
SNP 44 16 36% 7%
Liberal Democrats 14 9 64% 4%
DUP 8 1 13% <1%
Sinn Féin 7 2 29% <1%
Plaid Cymru 3 1 33% <1%
SDLP 2 1 50% <1%
Alba 2 0 0% 0%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
Alliance 1 0 0% 0%
Independent 15 3 20% 1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%


In February 2018 the Electoral Reform Society reported that hundreds of seats were being effectively 'reserved' by men, holding back women's representation. Their report states that 170 seats are being held by men first elected in 2005 or before – with few opportunities for women to take those seats or selections. Broadly speaking, the longer an MP has been in Parliament, the more likely they are to be male.[16][17]

Winner's gender by number of MPs[16][17]
MP for this seat since: Total Female Male % F % M
2001 or before 143 21 122 14.7% 85.3%
2005 or before 212 42 170 19.8% 80.2%
2010 or before 380 93 287 24.5% 75.5%
2015 or before 545 167 378 30.6% 69.4%
2018 or before 650 208 442 32.0% 68.0%
2019 (all MPs)[2] 650 220 430 33.9% 66.1%

Current female Cabinet members (Conservative Party)[edit]

Historic representation[edit]

2019 election[edit]

In the 2019 general election, 220 women were elected, making up 34% of the House of Commons, up from 208 and 32% before the election.[18]

As elected in the 2019 general election[18]
Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 220 34% 100%
Conservative 365 87 24% 40%
Labour 202 104 51% 47%
SNP 48 16 33% 7%
Liberal Democrats 11 7 64% 3%
DUP 8 1 13% <1%
Sinn Féin 7 2 29% <1%
Plaid Cymru 4 1 25% <1%
SDLP 2 1 50% <1%
Alliance 1 0 0% 0%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%

Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2019 election[edit]

  • Suella Braverman[ai] - Attorney General for England and Wales (2020–22)[aj]
  • Thérèse Coffey – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2019–22)/Health and Social Care & Deputy Prime Minister (2022)
  • Michelle Donelan – Secretary of State for Education (2022)
  • Nadine Dorries – Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport
  • Baroness Evans of Bowes Park – Leader of the House of Lords
  • Amanda Milling – Minister Without Portfolio
  • Priti Patel – Secretary of State for the Home Department
  • Chloe Smith – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2022)
  • Anne-Marie Trevelyan – Secretary of State for International Development (2020)/International Trade and President of the Board of Trade (2021–22)/Transport (2022)
  • Liz Truss – Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Developmental Affairs (2021–22)/Prime Minister (2022)

2017 election[edit]

In the 2017 general election, 208 women were elected, making up 32% of the House of Commons, up from 191 and 29% before the election.[3]

As elected in the 2017 general election[19][20]
Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 208 32% 100%
Conservative 317 67 21% 32%
Labour 262 119 45% 57%
SNP 35 12 34% 6%
Liberal Democrats 12 4 33% 2%
DUP 10 1 10% <1%
Sinn Féin 7 2 29% <1%
Plaid Cymru 4 1 25% <1%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
Independent 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%

Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2017 election[edit]

  • Theresa May – Prime Minister
  • Liz Truss – Secretary of State for International Trade/President of the Board of Trade
  • Thérèse Coffey – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2019)
  • Baroness Evans of Bowes Park – Leader of the House of Lords
  • Penny Mordaunt – Secretary of State for Defence
  • Karen Bradley – Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
  • Andrea Leadsom – Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
  • Priti Patel – Secretary of State for the Home Department
  • Theresa Villiers – Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Nicky Morgan – Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport
  • Esther McVey – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2018)
  • Amber Rudd – Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2018–19)

2015 election[edit]

In the 2015 general election, 191 women were elected, making up 29% of the House of Commons, up from 141 and 23% before the election.[19]

Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 191 29% 100%
Conservative 330 68 21% 36%
Labour 232 99 43% 52%
SNP 56 20 36% 10%
Liberal Democrats 8 0 0% 0%
DUP 8 0 0% 0%
Sinn Féin 4 0 0% 0%
Plaid Cymru 3 1 33% <1%
SDLP 3 1 33% <1%
Ulster Unionist 2 0 0% 0%
UKIP 1 0 0% 0%
Green 1 1 100% <1%
Independent 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%

Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2015 election[edit]

  • Theresa May – Secretary of State for the Home Department
  • Justine Greening – Secretary of State for International Development
  • Nicky Morgan – Secretary of State for Education and Minister for Women and Equalities
  • Baroness Stowell of Beeston – Leader of the House of Lords
  • Theresa Villiers – Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
  • Liz Truss – Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2014–16)/Justice (2016–17)
  • Amber Rudd – Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change

2010 election[edit]

As elected in the 2010 general election.

Political party
Number of MPs Number of female MPs Percentage of party's MPs Percentage of female MPs
House of Commons 650 143 22% 100%
Conservative 306 49 16% 34%
Labour 258 81 31% 57%
Liberal Democrats 57 7 12% 5%
DUP 8 0 0% 0%
SNP 6 1 17% 0.7%
Sinn Féin 5 1 20% 0.7%
Plaid Cymru 3 0 0% 0%
SDLP 3 1 33% 0.7%
Alliance 1 1 100% 0.7%
Green 1 1 100% 0.7%
Independent 1 1 100% <1%
  Speaker
1 0 0% 0%

[21]

Female Cabinet members appointed after the 2010 election[edit]

A total of 46 female ministers have held Cabinet positions since the first, Margaret Bondfield, in 1929. Tony Blair's 1997 Cabinet had five women and was the first to include more than two female ministers at one time. The highest number of concurrent women Cabinet ministers under Tony Blair was eight (36 per cent), then a record from May 2006 to May 2007. Other women have attended Cabinet without being full members, including Caroline Flint, Anna Soubry and Caroline Nokes. Some who have attended Cabinet have subsequently, or previously been full Cabinet ministers, including Tessa Jowell, Liz Truss and Andrea Leadsom.

Women Cabinet ministers 1929–present
1929–31 Margaret Bondfield (Lab) Margaret Bondfield 1919.jpg
1945–47 Ellen Wilkinson (Lab) Ellen Cicely Wilkinson.jpg
1953–54 Florence Horsbrugh (Con) Flo horsbrugh.jpg
1964–70/74–76 Barbara Castle (Lab) No image.svg
1968–69 Judith Hart (Lab) No image.svg
1970–74/79–90 Margaret Thatcher (Con) Margaret Thatcher at White House (cropped).jpg
1974–79 Shirley Williams (Lab) Regius Professorship Lecture (15648721150).jpg
1982–83 Baroness Young (Con) No image.svg
1992–97 Gillian Shephard (Con) Official portrait of Baroness Shephard of Northwold crop 2.jpg
1992–97 Virginia Bottomley (Con) Official portrait of Baroness Bottomley of Nettlestone crop 2.jpg
1997–2007
(attended Cabinet 2008–09)
Margaret Beckett (Lab) Official portrait of Rt Hon Margaret Beckett MP crop 2.jpg
1997–2001 Ann Taylor (Lab) Official portrait of Baroness Taylor of Bolton crop 2, 2019.jpg
1997–98/2007–10 Harriet Harman (Lab) Official portrait of Rt Hon Harriet Harman QC MP crop 2.jpg
1997–2001 Mo Mowlam (Lab) No image.svg
1997–2003 Clare Short (Lab) Clare Short at the Energy Conference 2015 crop.jpg
1998–2001 Baroness Jay of Paddington (Lab) Official portrait of Baroness Jay of Paddington crop 2, 2019.jpg
2001–03 Helen Liddell (Lab) Official portrait of Baroness Liddell of Coatdyke crop 2.jpg
2001–02 Estelle Morris (Lab) Official portrait of Baroness Morris of Yardley crop 2, 2019.jpg
2001–07 Hilary Armstrong (Lab) Official portrait of Baroness Armstrong of Hill Top crop 2, 2019.jpg
2001–07 Patricia Hewitt (Lab) Patricia Hewitt.jpg
2001–07/09–10
(attended Cabinet 2007–09)
Tessa Jowell (Lab) Tessa Jowell Cropped.jpg
2003–07 Baroness Amos (Lab) Valerie Amos DFID 2013.jpg
2004–08 Ruth Kelly (Lab) RuthKellyMP.jpg
2006–09 Hazel Blears (Lab) Hazel Blears, June 2009 2 cropped.jpg
2006–09 Jacqui Smith (Lab) Jacqui Smith crop.jpg
2007–08 Cathy Baroness Ashton of Upholland (Lab) Catherine Ashton, Head of the European Defence Agency, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy & Vice-President of the European Commission (13468295505).jpg
2008–10 Yvette Cooper (Lab) Official portrait of Rt Hon Yvette Cooper MP crop 2.jpg
2008–10 Baroness Royall of Blaisdon (Lab) BaronessRoyallPortrait.jpg
2010–12 Caroline Spelman (Con) Official portrait of Dame Caroline Spelman crop 2.jpg
2010–12 Cheryl Gillan (Con) Official portrait of Rt Hon Dame Cheryl Gillan MP crop 2.jpg
2010–12 Baroness Warsi (Con) Official portrait of Baroness Warsi (cropped).jpg
2010–19 Theresa May (Con) Theresa May (2016) (cropped).jpg
2011–18 Justine Greening (Con) Official portrait of Justine Greening crop 2.jpg
2012–14 Maria Miller (Con) Official portrait of Rt Hon Maria Miller MP crop 2.jpg
2012–16/19–20 Theresa Villiers (Con) Theresa Villiers Official Portrait.jpg
2014–16 (as Nicky Morgan)/19–20 Baroness Morgan of Cotes (Con) Official Portrait of Baroness Morgan of Cotes.jpg
2014–17/19–22
(attended Cabinet 2017–19)
Liz Truss (Con) Official portrait of Elizabeth Truss crop 2.jpg
2014–16 Baroness Stowell of Beeston (Con) Official portrait of Baroness Stowell of Beeston crop 2, 2019.jpg
2015–18/18–19 Amber Rudd (Con) Official portrait of Amber Rudd crop 2.jpg
2016–22 Baroness Evans of Bowes Park (Con) Official portrait of Baroness Evans of Bowes Park crop 2.jpg
2016–19 Karen Bradley (Con) Karen Bradley MP 2015.jpg
2016–17/19–20
(attended Cabinet 2017–19)
Andrea Leadsom (Con) Official portrait of Rt Hon Andrea Leadsom MP crop 2.jpg
2016–17/19–22 Priti Patel (Con) Official portrait of Rt Hon Priti Patel MP crop 2.jpg
2017–19/22– Penny Mordaunt (Con) Penny Mordaunt in 2019 (cropped).jpg
2018/19
(attended Cabinet 2019–20)
Esther McVey (Con) Official portrait of Esther McVey crop 2.jpg
2019– Thérèse Coffey (Con) Official portrait of Dr Thérèse Coffey crop 2.jpg
2020/21–22 Anne-Marie Trevelyan (Con) Official portrait of Mrs Anne-Marie Trevelyan crop 2.jpg
2021–22 Nadine Dorries (Con) Official portrait of Ms Nadine Dorries crop 2.jpg
2022–
(attended Cabinet 2021–22)
Michelle Donelan (Con) Official portrait of Michelle Donelan MP crop 2.jpg
2022– Kemi Badenoch (Con) Official portrait of Mrs Kemi Badenoch crop 2.jpg
2022–
(attended Cabinet 2020–21/21–22)
Suella Braverman (Con) Official portrait of Suella Braverman MP crop 2.jpg
2022– Gillian Keegan (Con) Official portrait of Gillian Keegan MP crop 2.jpg
2022 Chloe Smith (Con) Official portrait of Chloe Smith MP crop 2.jpg
Women junior ministers in the Cabinet
1968–69 Judith Hart (Lab)
2007–09 Caroline Flint (Lab) Official portrait of Caroline Flint crop 2.jpg
2007–09 Beverley Hughes (Lab) Beverley Hughes 3.jpg
2007–10 Baroness Scotland of Asthal (Lab) PatriciaScotland2a.jpg
2009–10 Dawn Primarolo (Lab) Official portrait of Baroness Primarolo crop 2.jpg
2009–10 Rosie Winterton (Lab) Rosie Winterton OfficialPortrait.jpg
2014–16 Baroness Anelay of St Johns (Con) Official portrait of Baroness Anelay of St Johns, 2020.jpg
2015–16 Anna Soubry (Con) Official portrait of Anna Soubry crop 2.jpg
2018–19 Caroline Nokes (Con) Official portrait of Rt Hon Caroline Nokes MP crop 2.jpg
2018–19 Claire Perry (Con) Claire perry (cropped).jpg
2020–21 Amanda Milling (Con) Official portrait of Amanda Milling MP crop 2.jpg
2022 Vicky Ford (Con) Official portrait of Vicky Ford MP crop 2.jpg
2022 Wendy Morton (Con) Official portrait of Wendy Morton MP crop 2.jpg
2022– Victoria Prentis Official portrait of Victoria Prentis MP crop 2.jpg

All-women shortlists[edit]

All-women shortlists are a method of affirmative action which has been used by the Labour Party to increase the representation of women in Parliament. As of 2015, 117 Labour MPs have been elected to the House of Commons after being selected as candidates through an all-women shortlist.[22] In 2002 this method of selection was ruled to breach the Sex Discrimination Act 1975. In response to this ruling the Sex Discrimination (Election Candidates) Act 2002 legalised all-women short lists as a method of selection. The Equality Act 2010 extends this exemption from discrimination law to 2030.

Ahead of the next general election, HuffPost reported in March 2022 that Labour stopped using all-women shortlists, citing legal advice that continuing to use them for choosing parliamentary candidates would become an "unlawful" practice again under the Equality Act.[23]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ PC. First and longest–serving female BME MP in British history.
  2. ^ CH. The first female MP to take her seat in the House of Commons. As the wife of Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor, she was known as Viscountess Astor throughout her Parliamentary career.
  3. ^ DBE
  4. ^ Served as a Labour MP, 1973–1992.
  5. ^ OM, PC, Hon. FSLL. First female Speaker of the House of Commons. She was made a life peer as Baroness Boothroyd, of Sandwell in the County of West Midlands, in 2001.
  6. ^ Wife of Edward Castle, Baron Castle. She was made a life peer as Baroness Castle of Blackburn, in 1990.
  7. ^ a b PC
  8. ^ Served as a Labour MP, 1992–February 2019, then as a Change UK MP until Parliament dissolved for the 2019 general election in November 2019.
  9. ^ Daughter of Morgan Phillips & Norah Phillips, Baroness Phillips. Mother of Tamsin Dunwoody.
  10. ^ DBE
  11. ^ Twin sister of Angela Eagle, also a long-serving female MP.
  12. ^ DBE. Served as a Deputy Speaker from 1992–1997. She was made a life peer as Baroness Fookes, of Plymouth in the county of Devon, in 1997.
  13. ^ DBE
  14. ^ KC; former Deputy Leader of the Labour Party and twice Acting Leader of the Opposition (2010, 2015). Widow of fellow Labour MP Jack Dromey.
  15. ^ DBE. She was made a life peer as Baroness Hart of South Lanark in 1988.
  16. ^ DBE
  17. ^ She was made a life peer as Baroness Hoey, of Lylehill and Rathlin in the County of Antrim, in 2020.
  18. ^ Order of the British Empire
  19. ^ DBE. She was made a life peer as Baroness Knight of Collingtree, in 1997.
  20. ^ DBE. First female Chairman of Ways and Means 2020–present; Deputy Speaker, 2013–present.
  21. ^ Elected in 1929 from the Independent Labour Party. Married to fellow MP Anuerin Bevan. She was made a life peer as Baroness Lee of Asheridge, of the City of Westminster in 1970.[15]
  22. ^ She was made a life peer as Baroness Lestor of Eccles, in 1997.
  23. ^ Served as a Liberal MP for Anglesey, 1929-1951, then as a Labour MP for Carmarthen, 1957–1966.
  24. ^ CM. Daughter of former Prime Minister David Lloyd George, himself an MP for 54 years, 10 months (continuous) and sister of Gwilym Lloyd George, Viscount Tenby (himself an MP for 27 years, 11 months combined).
  25. ^ Second female Home Secretary, 2010–16; and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 2016–19.
  26. ^ She was made a life peer as Baroness Primarolo, of Windmill Hill in the City of Bristol, in 2015.
  27. ^ DBE
  28. ^ Served as a Labour MP, 1983–2006.
  29. ^ PC
  30. ^ PC. She was made a life peer as Baroness Taylor of Bolton, in 2005.
  31. ^ CH. First female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. She was made a life peer as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire, in 1992.
  32. ^ CH, DBE. She was made a life peer as Baroness Ward of North Tyneside, of North Tyneside in the County of Tyne and Wear, in 1975.
  33. ^ DBE. Serving as a Deputy Speaker, 2017–present.
  34. ^ Previously served from 6 September to 19 October 2022.
  35. ^ On leave from 2 March to 10 September 2021
  36. ^ Attended Cabinet meetings, but not official Cabinet minister

References[edit]

  1. ^ Heater, Derek (2006). Citizenship in Britain: A History. Edinburgh University Press. p. 145. ISBN 9780748626724.
  2. ^ a b c Busby, Pamela; Busby, Mattha (13 December 2019). "UK elects record number of female MPs". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Elise Uberoi; Alexander Bellis; Edward Hicks; Steven Browning (25 September 2019). "Women in Parliament and Government". House of Commons Library. Retrieved 13 December 2019. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ "State of the parties". members.parliament.uk. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  5. ^ Elliot Chappell (31 December 2019). "51% of Labour MPs are women. What now for all-women shortlists?". LabourList. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  6. ^ "Women and the vote: Orator Hunt and the first suffrage petition 1832". UK Parliament. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  7. ^ "Women in parliament". BBC News. London: BBC. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  8. ^ Samuel, Viscount (1950). Memoirs. p. 131.
  9. ^ "Parliament (Qualification Of Women) Bill". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 6 November 1918. col. 2186–2202. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  10. ^ Cheltenham Chronicle, Gloucestershire, 8 December 1923
  11. ^ "Women in the House of Commons". Parliament.uk. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  12. ^ "9 facts about Constance Markievicz: Incredible Irishwoman who fought in Easter Rising and became first-ever female MP". Irish Post. 5 February 2018.
  13. ^ Wilkinson, Michael; Mendick, Robert (25 June 2016). "Pro-EU minister Justine Greening reveals she is gay at London Pride saying 'sometimes you are better off out'". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  14. ^ "Jewish Labour candidate: Party's antisemitism problem is 'more nuanced' than is alleged". The Jewish Chronicle. 9 December 2019. Archived from the original on 30 December 2019.
  15. ^ "No. 45229". The London Gazette. 10 November 1970. p. 12333.
  16. ^ a b Martin, George (13 February 2018). "Male MPs are 'blocking' the safe seats – forcing women to fight marginals". i. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  17. ^ a b "Hundreds of seats effectively 'reserved' by men at Westminster, research shows". electoral-reform.org.uk. Electoral Reform Society. 13 February 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  18. ^ a b Allen, Grahame (15 January 2020). "General Election 2019: How many women were elected?". House of Commons Library. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  19. ^ a b Lowther, Ed; Thornton, Charlotte (8 May 2015). "Election 2015: Number of women in Parliament rises by a third". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  20. ^ "Members of the House of Commons". UK Parliament. 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  21. ^ "Factsheet M4: Women in the House of Commons" (PDF). House of Commons Information Office. June 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  22. ^ Kelly, Richard; White, Isobel (7 March 2016). "All-women shortlists". Retrieved 19 November 2016. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  23. ^ Rogers, Alexandra (7 March 2022). "Exclusive: Labour Drops All-Women Shortlists For Next General Election". HuffPost. Retrieved 14 April 2022.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]