Women in the Israel Defense Forces

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Female Israeli infantry instructors preparing for a combat exercise, 2010
Graduates of the Israeli Air Force flight course, 2011

Women in the Israel Defense Forces have had a significant presence on the country's political scene since its independence in 1948. Israel is one of only a few countries in the world to have a mandatory military service requirement for women, though female conscription is limited to those who are ethnic Jews.[1][2][3]

According to Israeli military statistics, 535 female soldiers had been killed while serving between the years of 1962 and 2016.[4] Israel's regulated female integration into the armed forces predates its formal establishment in 1948, when women of the Yishuv served within the ranks of various Jewish paramilitary forces during the 1947–1949 Palestine War.[5][6] A 1999–2000 legal amendment to the 1951 Women's Equal Rights Law of Israel fully equalizes—although separately—men and women in the military.[3]

Until 2001, female conscripts served in the Women's Corps, commonly known by its Hebrew acronym: CHEN.[citation needed] After a five-week-long period in basic training, they could serve as clerks, drivers, welfare workers, nurses, radio operators, flight controllers, ordnance personnel, and course instructors.[7] As of 2011, 88 percent of all roles in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) were open to female candidates, while women could actually be found occupying 69 percent of all available positions.[8][9]

In 2014, the IDF stated that fewer than 4 percent of women are in combat positions such as light infantry and helicopter or fighter pilots, and that they are instead concentrated in "combat-support" positions.[10]

History[edit]

Pre-independence[edit]

Yishuv women in training at Mishmar HaEmek during the 1947–1949 Palestine War

Before the formal establishment of Israel in 1948, women served in combat roles within the Jewish paramilitary groups of British Palestine that would later become the central component of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF);[6] the rate of women who were enlisted in combat organizations stood at 20 percent.[3] In the years leading up to the establishment of the IDF, military service for women existed in the lines of the Hashomer and Haganah paramilitary forces. The Haganah stated in its law that its lines were open to "Every Jewish male or female, who is prepared and trained to fulfill the obligation of national defense." Most female recruits served as medics, communications specialists, and weaponeers. During World War II, approximately 4,000 women volunteered for service in the British assisting forces.[11]

During the 1940s in Tel Aviv, a battalion was established in which women filled positions in security, weapons transport, and manned anti-aircraft posts. During the winter of 1948, women joined the combat ranks of the Palmach and traveled from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem with their weapons concealed inside their clothes. The Palmach arm (thirty percent of which were women) trained nine female platoon commanders, and numerous other female squad commanders.[11]

War of Independence (1948)[edit]

Female Haganah officer giving a Sten gun handling demonstration during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War

On 26 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion officially set up the IDF as the military force of Israel. On 18 August 1948, mandatory conscription began for all childless Israeli women who were born between 1920–1930, regardless of whether they were single or married.[12]

Women served in many positions, including as nurses, signal operators, drivers, clerks, and cooks. The Women's Corps, under which all female Israeli soldiers served, was responsible for taking care of their needs, training, and integration into different IDF units. The Women's Corps also sent young, qualified female soldiers to be teachers in Israel's then-developing areas and immigrant neighbourhoods.[12]

Post-independence[edit]

Female Israeli military officer graduates, 1950
Female Uzi-armed Israeli militia guard in the Negev during the reprisal operations period, 1956
Female Israeli soldiers in training, 1953–1954

Apart from the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, when extreme manpower shortages brought many female Israeli soldiers into land battles, women were historically prohibited by the Israeli government to go into battle, and instead served in a variety of technical and administrative support roles. Soon after the establishment of the IDF, a decree for the removal of women from frontline positions was brought into effect, and all female soldiers were accordingly pulled back into more secure areas. The cited rationale for this decision revolved around concerns over the high possibility of female Israeli soldiers being captured and subsequently raped or sexually assaulted by hostile Arab forces. While the consensus was that it was fair and equitable to demand equal sacrifice and service from women, it was argued that the risk of Israeli prisoners of war being subjected to sexual abuse was infinitely greater for female soldiers than it was for male soldiers, and therefore unacceptable.[13][14] A majority of women serving in the IDF then took up positions as secretaries while the rest served primarily as instructors, nurses, clerks, and telephone operators. A few women flew transport missions in the 1950s; some women were accepted into flight training in the 1970s, but did not complete the program before it was closed to women.[2]

The army is the supreme symbol of duty and as long as women are not equal to men in performing this duty, they have not yet obtained true equality. If the daughters of Israel are absent from the army, then the character of the Yishuv will be distorted.

David Ben-Gurion, first Israeli Prime Minister[12]

Yael Rom, the first female pilot trained by the Israeli Air Force, earned her wings in 1951.[15]

Hava Inbar, a lawyer, was appointed as the judge of the Israeli military court in Haifa in September 1969, thus becoming the first female military judge in the world. She stated in an interview: "I do not know if I want to be a military judge my whole life, but I am glad that I was appointed; it proves that the IDF leaves almost all doors open for its female soldiers."[11]

Female Israeli soldiers during a parade in Jerusalem after the Six-Day War, 1968

Due to a rapidly growing need for ground forces during the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, women were needed in field roles.[6] According to Rina Bar-Tal, then-chair of the Israel Women's Network, roles for women beyond technical and secretarial support only started to open up in the late 1970s and early 1980s due to manpower shortages. Since then, a few women have earned ranks higher than colonel. In 1986, Amira Dotan, then-head of the Women's Corps, became the first female brigadier-general.[2] In July 2018, female IDF captain Or Naʽaman ordered a Patriot missile battery to shoot down a Syrian drone and fighter jet over the Golan Heights, which earned her a military certificate of appreciation.[16]

Gender equality[edit]

First female Israeli ordnance officer of Beta Israel origin, 2001

Civilian pilot and aeronautical engineer Alice Miller successfully petitioned the Israeli Supreme Court to rule in favour of her taking pilot training exams with the Israeli Air Force (IAF) after she was rejected on gender grounds. During this time, former president and IAF commander Ezer Weizman openly opposed her campaign. Although Miller did not pass the examination, the ruling was a watershed and opened doors for Israeli women in new military roles. Female legislators took advantage of the momentum to draft a bill that allowed women to volunteer for any position they could qualify for.[2]

In 2000, an amendment to the Women's Equal Rights Law of Israel with regards to military service states that "The right of women to serve in any role in the IDF is equal to the right of men."[3] the amendment, drafted by female lawmakers, grants equal opportunities to women who are found to be physically and personally suitable for a job; the question of exactly who and what was "suitable" was left to the discretion of military leaders on a case-by-case basis. Following the amendment, a modest amount of women began to enlist in combat support and light combat roles in a few areas, including the Artillery Corps, infantry units, and various armored divisions. By 2000, Caracal became a full-fledged mixed-sex infantry battalion. Many women also joined the Border Police.[2]

The first female Israeli fighter pilot, Roni Zuckerman, received her wings in 2001.[15] By 2006, the first female pilots and navigators graduated from the IAF training course and several hundred women entered combat units, primarily in support roles such as intelligence gatherers, instructors, social workers, medics, and engineers. The 2006 Lebanon War marked the first time since 1948 that female soldiers were active in field operations alongside male soldiers. Airborne helicopter engineer Keren Tendler was the first female Israeli combat soldier to be killed in an active warzone after the passing of the amendment.[2] In November 2007, the IAF appointed its first female deputy squadron commander.[17]

On 23 June 2011, Orna Barbivai became the first female aluf in the Israeli military upon her promotion to the role of commander of the Manpower Directorate; she was the second woman to serve on the General Staff.[18][19] In 2012, Merav Buchris became the first female ammunitions officer in the IAF.[20] In 2013, in a first, a female IDF soldier was called up to the Torah during a service on a military base.[21] In the same year, the Israeli military announced that it would, for the first time in Israel's history, allow a transgender woman to serve in the army as a female soldier.[22]

In 2014, there were several more firsts for women in the Israeli military: Oshrat Bacher was appointed as Israel's first female combat-battalion commander;[23] the first female combat doctor was appointed to the elite Duvdevan Unit;[24] and female kashrut supervisors were allowed to work in kitchens on military bases.[25]

Service requirements[edit]

The mandated military service requirement for Jewish-Israeli women is 24 months, apart from specified roles that instead require a service length of 30 months.[26] Women may be exempted from military service for reasons of religious conscience, marriage, pregnancy, or motherhood. A woman may receive an exemption on religious grounds under the following conditions:[27]

  1. She has declared that for reasons of conscience, or a religious way of life, she is prevented from doing military service and has proven this to the satisfaction of the exemption committee.
  2. She keeps the laws of Kashrut at home and outside.
  3. She does not travel on Shabbat.

Women who arrive in Israel at age 17 and over are generally exempt from military service, but may serve on a voluntary basis. Additionally, women are generally not called up for reserve duty if they are married or if they are beyond the age of 24.[27]

Combat roles[edit]

Israeli medic Anastasia Bagdalov, awarded a military commendation for her role during the 2011 Sinai attacks,[28] where she treated multiple wounded passengers. (2012)

Clause 16A of the Israeli Defense Service Law requires that all conscripted female combat soldiers serve active-duty for 2 years and 4 months, and in reserve until the age of 38.[1] Each year, 1,500 female soldiers are drafted into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).[5] Women were employed in full combat roles during the 1947–1949 Palestine War; incidents involving the abuse of a killed female soldiers' corpses by Arab troops led to the Israeli cabinet's decision to withdraw women from frontline combat[4] until 2000, when the Caracal Battalion was raised.

In 2014, the IDF appointed Oshrat Bacher as the first female commander of a combat battalion.[23]

The most notable combat option for women is the light-infantry Caracal Battalion, in which women comprise 70 percent of the troop strength.[3][5] There are two other mixed-sex infantry battalions: the Lions of Jordan Battalion and the Bardelas Battalion.[citation needed] The Oketz, an IDF canine unit, also drafts females as combat soldiers.[29] Women are also allowed to join the Combat Intelligence Collection Corps, and to serve as search-and-rescue personnel in the IDF's Home Front Command. Women are allowed to serve as tank crews in the Border Defense Array, composed of units that guard the borders of Israel with Egypt and Jordan.

Despite being officially classified as combat soldiers, women in combat roles are not explicitly deployed into combat situations. They are expected to respond in the event a combat situation does erupt, but are not deployed to areas where there is a high risk of combat. The three mixed-sex infantry battalions and female-crewed tanks are deployed to border patrol duties and security duties in the Jordan Valley, and female soldiers are barred from joining the frontline combat brigades that are deployed in the event of war.[30][31]

Gender Affair Advisor[edit]

In 2000, the Women's Corps was dismantled so that female soldiers would be able to fall under the authority of individual units based on their jobs and not on their gender; they would likewise wear the insignia of their units instead of the insignia of the Women's Corps.[2] The position of Gender Affairs Advisor to the Chief of Staff was created in 2001. Female officers who hold the position are in charge of ensuring more opportunities and a suitable environment for female soldiers as well as outlets for the enhancement of their skills. The mission of the advisor is described by the Israeli military as "empowering women, the IDF and Israeli society by promoting conditions that allow for the optimal use of the capabilities of women serving in the IDF; promoting equal opportunities for women during their military service; and assimilating women into military leadership positions."[29]

Service exemptions[edit]

In 2020, 55% of eligible women were drafted into the IDF. Of those granted an exemption, 35-36% were exempted for religious reasons.[32] A law passed in 1978 made exemptions for women on religious grounds automatic upon the signing of a simple declaration attesting to the observance of orthodox religious practices. This legislation raised considerable controversy, and IDF officials feared that the exemption could be abused by any non-religious woman who did not wish to serve and thus further exacerbate the already strained personnel resources of the Israeli military. Women exempted on religious grounds were legally obliged to fulfill a period of alternative service doing social or educational work assigned to them. In practice, however, women performed such service only on a voluntary basis.[7]

Segev committee report (2007)[edit]

In 2007, Elazar Stern, the then-head of the Manpower Directorate, appointed a committee to define women's service in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in the next decade, with the objective of increasing equal opportunities in for female service members.[3] The committee, headed by Yehuda Segev, submitted its report to Stern in September 2007.[33]

In September 2008, the 100-page report was presented to Gabi Ashkenazi, the then-Chief of Staff, who voiced support for the committee's vision:[3]

The IDF, as a leading organization in Israeli society, designates the service of men and women to a fulfilling and respectful service based upon equal opportunities in the service of [the] IDF and the State of Israel.

The committee called for the annulment of the model that has been in place since the 1950s, under which a soldier's length of service and service options is largely determined by their gender. On this model, the report stated: "This is an archaic model that causes under-utilization of the resources ... of half of Israeli society, and closes off many opportunities, both during service and for integrating into society after service."[33]

In 2007, 12 percent of all IDF jobs were completely closed to women. The report partially attributed this closure to the shorter length of service for conscripted women that reportedly served as a barrier to drafting women into the most important, in-demand jobs. The committee claimed that military job postings are "to a large extent" determined by gender rather than an individual soldier's talents and abilities, and that the length of service "should depend solely on the job, rather than on one's gender."[33]

The report advised making it harder for women to get an exemption from mandatory military service and curbing the common phenomenon of women falsely claiming exemptions on religious grounds. It also said the criteria for exemptions from service should be the same for both men and women.[33] The panel recommended mandatory quotas for promoting women, with the goal of giving women a "significant presence" in the "senior decision-making ranks" of the military. Additionally, it called for creating an effective and well-funded system to ensure proper working environments for both male and female soldiers, and for drafting a "gender code" that would lay down explicit rules for interaction between the two sexes: "There should be no jobs or units categorically closed to either women or men ... Service in all units, postings and missions would be joint, subject to the rules of appropriate integration."[33]

The report proposed opening all jobs to women aside from a handful that would be determined by a special committee, whose decisions would require the approval of the Chief of Staff, the Defense Minister, and the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee of the Knesset. It said the initial screening and assignment process should be unified so that men and women are part of the same system and receive their assignments based on the same criteria, including for acceptance into combat units; the panel proposed implementing this change gradually — over the course of a decade.[33]

Issues[edit]

Religious objections[edit]

In 1950, Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog and Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel, both chief rabbis, issued a ruling that forbade women joining the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).[34] In the 1980s, Meir Kahane, a far-right rabbi, ardently opposed women serving in the IDF, and advocated alternative national service instead.[35] As of 2014, David Lau and Yitzhak Yosef of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel were opposed to religious women serving in the military, as was Shmuel Eliyahu.[36]

However, Yair Lapid has opposed this position and consequently campaigned for the removal of Lau and Yosef from the Chief Rabbinate. On the issue, Naftali Bennett stated: "I believe that all girls should do either IDF service or national service. With that, the attack on the rabbis for their traditional position is an unacceptable attack on the respect due them."[37] Orthodox rabbi Shai Piron also voiced his support for the chief rabbis' injunction against observant women enlisting in the IDF.[38] In 2003, Piron stated: “I don’t know of any rabbis that would allow [observant women] to serve in the army. The halakhic authorities saw the reality from a joint education and spiritual perspective, this view led them to their halakhic conclusion… The problem with IDF service is the general atmosphere that does not allow for a life without [religious] pitfalls.”[39]

In response, politician Elazar Stern said: "A week ago the Chief Rabbis announced that a female serving in the IDF results in an aveira similar to Chillul Shabbos. This is tantamount to issuing a call to women, at least those who view themselves as religious, not to serve in the IDF... I served in the IDF for a few years and I state the military cannot function without women unless we lengthen the service of males to 4.5 years. The price that we will pay by the call of the Chief Rabbinate council that females do not enlist is not that of our daughters, but the daughters of these very same rabbis who don't serve."[40] Rabbi Shlomo Riskin of Efrat has supported women's enlistment in the IDF.[41] In 2014, the Beit Hillel association of national-religious rabbis issued a ruling in Jewish law stating that women are allowed to serve in the IDF; however, rabbi Shlomo Aviner claimed that Beit Hillel did not have the authority to make such a ruling.[34] Under the Israeli Defense Service Law, observant Jewish women are provided with the option of alternative national service instead of enlisting in the IDF.[37]

The IDF offers Haredi Jewish men "women-free and secular-free" recruitment centres. Moshe Yaʽalon, former IDF Chief of Staff, expressed his willingness to relax regulations to meet the demands of ultra-Orthodox rabbis. Regulations regarding gender equality had already been relaxed so that Haredim could be assured that men would not receive physical exams from female medical staff.[42]

Sexual harassment[edit]

In Israel and Its Army: From Cohesion to Confusion, Stuart A. Cohen has argued that prior to the 1990s, there had existed a general consensus in the IDF that "sexual prowess goes hand in hand with military accomplishment." Even when social attitudes were changing in the 1980s, the IDF was still inclined towards tolerance and a senior army official warned of not blowing the "topic out of all proportion."[43] In 1993, it was reported that only 10 percent of around 1,000 annually reported cases of sexual harassment are investigated.[44] Reports of sexual harassment against women in the Israeli military reached an average of one case per day in 1999 — an increase on the 280 complaints received in 1997.

In 1998–1999, 54 officers were expelled from the IDF on charges of sexual misconduct while others faced demotion or imprisonment. In one high-profile case, Yitzchak Mordechai was charged with sexual assault and harassment. Another case involved the promotion of General Nir Galili, who was accused of grooming a young female recruit for sexual relations. This issue has led to the description of the Israeli military by the American feminist writer Laura Sjoberg as a "hothouse for exploitive sexual relationships" and a force whose fighting culture is based on "rampant licentiousness."[45] While the IDF has since tried to curb sexual harassment, it remains a problem. In 2004, it was reported that 1 in 5 female Israeli soldiers suffer sexual harassment.[46]

Singing controversy[edit]

In September 2011, because of a religious ban on men hearing women sing,[47] nine religiously observant cadets in the IDF officers course walked out of an evening seminar on the legacy of Operation Cast Lead, during which band comprising two male and two female vocalists took to the stage to sing. The commander of the school expelled four of them after they said they would disobey orders again in similar situations. The IDF agreed to re-examine regulations on this issue, given the growing presence of Haredi soldiers in combat units.[48]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Statistics: Women's Service in the IDF for 2010, 25 Aug 2010". Israel Defense Forces. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Feldinger, Lauren Gelfond (21 September 2008). "Skirting history". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Integration of women in the IDF". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 8 March 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  4. ^ a b Cohen, Gili (10 May 2016). "Israeli Woman Who Broke Barriers Downed by Hezbollah Rocket as 2006 Combat Volunteer". Haaretz. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "Women in the IDF". Israel Defense Forces. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  6. ^ a b c "60 Years of Women's Service in the IDF". Israel Defense Forces. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Israel". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Women of the IDF". IDF Spokesperson's Unit. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  9. ^ "Statistics: Women’s Service in the IDF for 2010, 25 Aug 2010". Israel Defense Forces. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  10. ^ Gaza: It's a Man's War The Atlantic, 7 Aug 2014
  11. ^ a b c Ben-Ari, Bar (1 August 2007). "A Woman of Valor". Israel Defense Forces. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  12. ^ a b c "The Beginning, Women in the Early IDF". IDF Spokesperson. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  13. ^ Dr. Netanel Lorch (31 May 1997). "SPOTLIGHT ON ISRAEL: The Israel Defense Forces". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  14. ^ "Women's Service in the Israel Defense Forces". Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  15. ^ a b "First woman pilot in Israeli Air Force dies". The Jewish news weekly of Northern California. 2 June 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  16. ^ "50 Most Influential Jews: 49. OR NA'AMAN". Jerusalem Post. 9 September 2018.
  17. ^ Yuval Azoulay (28 November 2007). "Israel Air Force appoints first female deputy squadron commander". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  18. ^ Greenberg, Hanan (26 May 2011). "IDF names first female major general". Yediot Ahronot.
  19. ^ "Israeli Army Celebrates First Female Major General". IDF Spokesperson's Blog. IDF Spokesperson. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  20. ^ "The Israeli Air Force : First Time Around". Iaf.org.il. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  21. ^ Newman, Marissa (30 September 2013). "Female soldier called up to Torah on military base". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  22. ^ "Transgender in the IDF". AWiderBridge. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  23. ^ a b Ben-Zvi, Gidon (2 January 2014). "First Lady: IDF Appoints First Female Combat Battalion Commander". Algemeiner Journal. Brooklyn, New York, United States: Simon Jacobson. Retrieved 15 January 2014. History was made on Wednesday when the Israel Defense Forces appointed Major Oshrat Bacher as Israel’s first female combat battalion commander, Israeli daily Ma’ariv reports.
  24. ^ "IDF welcomes first female combat doctor in elite counterterror unit". Israel Hayom. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  25. ^ "IDF To Allow Female Kosher Supervisors To Work on Military Bases –". Forward.com. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  26. ^ "Service Length for Women" (in Hebrew). Israeli Defense Forces. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  27. ^ a b "Military Service 2nd Edition" (PDF). Israeli Ministry of Immigrant Absorption. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  28. ^ "'Just do your job': Trainer of IDF paramedics on life-saving improvisation". Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  29. ^ a b "More female officers in more positions in the IDF" (Press release). IDF spokesperson. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  30. ^ Eichner, Itamar (2 May 2018). "IDF chief: I don't foresee women serving at army's vanguard". Ynetnews.
  31. ^ Yehoshua, Yossi (26 November 2017). "First female tank combat soldiers to be deployed". Ynetnews.
  32. ^ Jeremy Bob, Yonah (4 July 2021). "FADC debates religious women exemption from IDF". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Harel, Amos (30 November 2011). "IDF freezes implementation of report calling for gender equality". Haaretz. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  34. ^ a b "Rabbinical association says permissible in Jewish law for women to serve in IDF". Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  35. ^ Kahane, Meir. "Women in the IDF". mkwords.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  36. ^ "Lapid: Fire Chief Rabbis over objection to religious women's service in the army | JPost | Israel News". JPost. 5 February 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  37. ^ a b Lis, Jonathan (13 January 2014). "Israeli ministers spar over women serving in army - National Israel News". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  38. ^ Newman, Marissa (13 January 2014). "Education minister backs rabbis' ban on Orthodox women in IDF". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  39. ^ Newman, Marissa (13 January 2014). "Education minister backs rabbis' ban on Orthodox women in IDF". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  40. ^ "The Yeshiva World Stern Joins Lapid in Condemning the Chief Rabbis " " Frum Jewish News". Theyeshivaworld.com. 16 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  41. ^ "Rabbi Riskin on Women's Enlistment: It's a Mitzvah - Jewish World - News". Israel National News. 21 January 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  42. ^ Nachshoni, Kobi (31 October 2014). "IDF offers haredim 'women-free' recruitment centers". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  43. ^ Stuart A. Cohen. Israel and Its Army: From Cohesion to Confusion, pg. 66-67
  44. ^ Susan Starr Sered. "A Cultural Climate in the IDF That Legitimises Sexual Harassment of Women Soldiers", in What Makes Women Sick?: Maternity, Modesty, and Militarism in Israeli Society, UPNE, 2000. pg. 92
  45. ^ Laura Sjoberg, Sandra Via. Gender, War, and Militarism: Feminist Perspectives (2010). pg. 87
  46. ^ Stuart A. Cohen Israel and Its Army: From Cohesion to Confusion pg. 68
  47. ^ Rabbi Eliezer Melamed, Military Orders that Contradict Jewish Law Archived 2018-01-30 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Amos Harel (14 September 2011). "IDF: Soldiers cannot skip ceremonies with women singing". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.

External links[edit]