Women in the United States Navy
Women have served in the United States Navy for over a century. Today, there are over 52,391 women serving on active duty in an array of traditional (administrative, medical, etc.) and non-traditional (aviation, combat systems, special ops, etc.) ratings or careers. Like their male counterparts, female Sailors are expected to adhere to regulations specific to appearance, grooming, and health and physical fitness; however some differences may exist in relation to pregnancy and parenting provisions created to help support military families.
- 1 History
- 2 Women in the Navy since 1972
- 3 Careers
- 4 Dress
- 5 Grooming Standards
- 6 Health & Fitness Standards
- 7 Navy Family Life
- 8 Controversy
- 9 Admirals
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 Bibliographies
- 14 External links
Pre–World War I
Women worked as nurses for the Navy as early as the American Civil War. The United States Navy Nurse Corps was officially established in 1908. See United States Navy Nurse Corps for the evolution of the Navy Nurse Corps.
World War I
The increased size of the United States Navy in support of World War I increased the need for clerical and administrative support. Since Naval Reserve Act of 1916 authorizing the enlistment of yeomen did not specify that they had to be male, the Navy was able to induct its first female sailors into the U.S. Naval Reserve. Women served around the continental U.S. and in France, Guam and Hawaii, mostly as yeomen, but also as radio operators, electricians, draftsmen, pharmacists, photographers, telegraphers, fingerprint experts, chemists, torpedo assemblers and camouflage designers. The women were all released from active duty after the end of the war. See Yeoman (F).
World War II
World War II again brought the need for additional personnel. This time the Navy organized to recruit women into a separate women's auxiliary, labeled Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES). WAVES served in varied positions around the continental U.S. and in Hawaii. See WAVES.
Korean War era
Women in the Naval Reserve were recalled along with their male counterparts for duty during the Korean War.
Vietnam War era
Nurses served aboard the hospital ship USS SANCTUARY. Nine non-nurse Navy women served in country, however no enlisted Navy women were authorized.
Major changes occurred for Navy women in the 1970s. CAPT Alene B. Duerk, NC, Director of the Navy Nurse Corps since 1968, was spot promoted to Flag rank in 1972, the first female naval officer to be appointed to flag rank. She was followed in 1976 by RADM Fran McKee as the first female unrestricted line officer appointed to flag rank. During this time, women began to enter the surface warfare and aviation fields, gained access to officer accession programs previously open only to men, and women started to screen for command opportunities ashore.
Officer Accession Programs
The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) was opened to women in 1972 and the first woman was commissioned from a ROTC program in 1973. The Women Officer School (WOS), Newport, RI, was disestablished in 1973, and Officer Candidate School (OCS) training was integrated to support men and women. The United States Naval Academy, along with the other military academies, first accepted women in 1976 and commissioned its first female graduates in 1980. Women also began attending Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) in 1976.
In 1972 the pilot program for assignment of officers and enlisted women to ships was initiated onboard USS SANCTUARY (AH-17). In 1978 Congress approved a change to Title 10 USC Section 6015 to permit the Navy to assign women to fill sea duty billets on support and noncombatant ships. The Surface Warfare community opened to women. In 1979, the first woman obtained her Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) qualification.
In 1973 the Secretary of the Navy announced the authorization of naval aviation training for women. LTJG Judith Neuffer was the first woman selected for flight training. In 1974, the Navy became the first service to graduate a woman pilot, LT Barbara Allen Rainey, followed closely by classmates Judith Neuffer, Ana Marie Fuqua, Rosemary Bryant Mariner, Jane Skiles O'Dea and Joellen Drag.
In 1979 the Naval Flight Officer (NFO) program opened to women. In 1979, LT Lynn Spruill became the first woman Naval aviator to obtain carrier qualification.
On 29 April 2010, the Department of the Navy announced authorization of a policy change allowing women to begin serving onboard Navy submarines. The new policy and plan was set to begin with the integration of female Officers. A group of up to 24 female Officers (three Officers on each of eight different crews) were scheduled to enter the standard nuclear submarine training pipeline in July 2010 – and expected to report to submarine duty by late 2011 or early 2012. Integration of Enlisted females into submarine crews is expected to begin soon thereafter.
Initial candidates for female Submarine Officer positions were highly qualified selects from accession sources that include the Naval Academy, Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps, STA-21 program and Officer Candidate School, with transfers possible for those from other Unrestricted Line Officer communities. A group of up to eight female Supply Corps Officers was also expected to complete requisite training and begin submarine service in the same time frame.
Initial assignments for female submariners were on the blue and gold crews of selected guided-missile submarines (SSGNs) and ballistic-missile submarines (SSBNs). Two submarines of each type served as the inaugural vessels.
The first group of U.S. female submariners completed nuclear power school and officially reported on board two ballistic and two guided missile submarines in November 2011.
In 2012, it was announced that 2013 will be the first year women will serve on U.S. attack submarines.
On June 22nd, 2012, a Sailor assigned to USS Ohio (SSGN 726) became the first female supply officer to qualify in U.S. submarines. Lt. Britta Christianson of Ohio's Gold Crew received her Submarine Supply Corps "dolphins" from the Gold Crew Commanding Officer Capt. Rodney Mills during a brief ceremony at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS & IMF). 
On December 5th, 2012, three Sailors assigned to USS Maine (SSBN 741) and USS Wyoming (SSBN 742) became the first female unrestricted line officers to qualify in U.S. submarines.  Lt. j.g. Marquette Leveque, a native of Fort Collins, Colo., assigned to the Gold Crew of Wyoming, and Lt. j.g. Amber Cowan and Lt. j.g. Jennifer Noonan [ROTC Cornell University], a native of Scituate MA, both of Maine's Blue Crew received their submarine "dolphins" during separate ceremonies at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Ga., and Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor, Wash. 
In 2013, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus said that the first women to join Virginia-class attack subs had been chosen: They were newly commissioned female officers scheduled to report to their subs in fiscal year 2015. 
|1908||Congress established the Navy Nurse Corps.|
|1917||Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels announced that the Navy would enlist females.|
|1942||President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Public Law 689 creating the Navy’s women reserve program on 30 July 1942.|
|1942||Lieutenant Commander Mildred H. McAfee, USNR, Director of the WAVES, became the Navy’s first female Line Officer.|
|1944||Lieutenant Harriet Ida Pickens and Ensign Frances Wills were commissioned as the first African-American "WAVES" officers.|
|1944||Sue Dauser, the Director of the Navy Nurse Corps, became the first female Captain in the United States Navy.|
|1959||Yeoman Anna Der-Vartanian was the first female promoted to Master Chief Petty Officer, and the first female in the United States Armed Services promoted to E-9.|
|1961||Lieutenant Charlene I. Suneson became the first line WAVES officer to be ordered to shipboard duty.|
|1972||The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress (but failed as an amendment to the Constitution) and Hospitalman Elena J. Peckenpaugh was assigned to the first ship with a mixed male-female crew.|
|1972||Alene Duerk, Director of the Navy Nurse Corps, became the first female appointed to the rank of Rear Admiral in the Navy making her position a flag billet in 1972. Fran McKee was the first female line officer to hold the rank of Rear Admiral in the Navy.|
|1974||Lieutenant Junior Grade Barbara Ann (Allen) Rainey became the first Navy woman to earn her wings on 22 February 1974.|
|1974||First women commissioned through NROTC.|
|1976||First women sworn in as midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy.|
|1978||Navy Nurse Joan C. Bynum became the first black woman promoted to the rank of Captain.|
|1978||Women authorized to serve on tenders, oilers, and other types of auxiliary ships.|
|1980||The first class of women graduate from the U.S. Naval Academy. Midshipman Janie Mines was the first African-American woman to graduate.|
|1990||Rear Admiral Marsha J. Evans, USN, was the first woman to command a Naval Station.|
|1990||Lieutenant Commander Darlene Iskra, USN, was the first Navy woman to command a ship, USS Opportune (ARS-41).|
|1996||Patricia Tracey became the first female three star officer (Vice Admiral) in the Navy.|
|1998||CDR Maureen A. Farren became the first woman to command a surface combatant ship.|
|1998||Lillian E. Fishburne became the first African-American female to hold the rank of Rear Admiral in the United States Navy.|
|2002||First female African American combat pilot in the military.|
|2005||Wendi Carpenter became the first female pilot in the Navy promoted to Flag rank.|
|2006||CDR Lenora C.Langlais became the first African American Navy Nurse Corps Officer to receive a Purple Heart in combat, during Operation Iraqi Freedom.|
|2010||Nora W. Tyson became the first female to command a carrier strike group.|
|2011||The first group of U.S. female submariners completed nuclear power school and officially reported on board two ballistic and two guided missile submarines in November 2011.|
|2012||Commander Monika Washington Stoker, United States Navy, became the first African American woman to take command of a U.S. Navy missile destroyer.|
|2012||Five "Tigertails" of Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron One Two Five (VAW-125), embarked aboard the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) as part of Carrier Air Wing Seventeen (CVW-17), flew an historic flight on 25 January when they participated in the U.S. Navy's first all-female E-2C Hawkeye combat mission.|
|2012||In March, the Navy celebrated a nuclear training program milestone. The program’s 50,000th graduate was a female; MM3 Jenna Swindt, who completed training at the 3,900-acre Kesselring site’s Naval Nuclear Power Training Unit in West Milton, NY.|
|2012||On June 22nd, 2012, a Sailor assigned to USS Ohio (SSGN 726) became the first female supply officer to qualify in U.S. submarines. Lt. Britta Christianson of Ohio's Gold Crew received her Submarine Supply Corps "dolphins" from the Gold Crew Commanding Officer Capt. Rodney Mills during a brief ceremony at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS & IMF). |
|2012||On December 5th, 2012, three Sailors assigned to USS Maine (SSBN 741) and USS Wyoming (SSBN 742) became the first female unrestricted line officers to qualify in U.S. submarines.  Lt. j.g. Marquette Leveque, a native of Fort Collins, Colo., assigned to the Gold Crew of Wyoming, and Lt. j.g. Amber Cowan and Lt. j.g. Jennifer Noonan [ROTC Cornell University], a native of Scituate MA, both of Maine's Blue Crew received their submarine "dolphins" during separate ceremonies at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Ga., and Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor, Wash. |
In the Navy, women are currently eligible to serve in all ratings, except as a SEAL or Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewman (SWCC). In 2013 Leon Panetta removed the U.S. military's ban on women serving in combat, overturning a 1994 rule prohibiting women from being assigned to smaller ground combat units. Panetta's decision gives the U.S. military services until January 2016 to seek special exceptions if they believe any positions must remain closed to women. The services have until May 2013 to draw up a plan for opening all units to women and until the end of 2015 to actually implement it.
The former policy set by Congress and the Secretary of Defense, effective 1 October 1994, excluded women from direct ground combat billets in the military:
- "Service members who are eligible to be assigned to all positions for which they are qualified, except that women shall be excluded from assignment to units below the brigade level whose primary mission is to engage in direct combat on the ground as defined below. "Direct ground combat is engaging an enemy on the ground with individual or crew-served weapons, while being exposed to hostile fire and to a high probability of direct physical contact with the hostile force's personnel. Direct combat take place well forward on the battlefield while locating and closing with the enemy to defeat them by fire, maneuver, or shock effect." However, qualified and motivated women are encouraged to investigate the diver and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) fields."
- A certified maternity uniform is mandatory for all pregnant servicewomen in the Navy when the regular uniform no longer fits.
- Ball caps may be worn on board ship and pier in the immediate vicinity of ship, and ashore in the immediate workspaces. The wearing of ball caps with Service uniforms is restricted to the immediate workspaces for shore Sailors.
- Hair: The Navy deems that hairstyles shall not be “outrageously multicolored” or “faddish,” to include shaved portions of the scalp (other than the neckline), or have designs cut or braided into the hair. Hair coloring must look natural and complement the individual. Haircuts and styles shall present a balanced appearance. Lopsided and extremely asymmetrical styles are not authorized. Ponytails, pigtails, widely spaced individual hanging locks, and braids that protrude from the head, are not authorized. Multiple braids are authorized. Braided hairstyles shall be conservative and conform to the guidelines listed herein. When a hairstyle of multiple braids is worn, braids shall be of uniform dimension, small in diameter (approx. 1/4 inch), and tightly interwoven to present a neat, professional, well-groomed appearance. Foreign material (i.e., beads, decorative items) shall not be braided into the hair. Short hair may be braided in symmetrical fore and aft rows (cornrowing) that minimize scalp exposure. Cornrow ends shall not protrude from the head, and shall be secured only with inconspicuous rubber bands that match the color of the hair. Appropriateness of a hairstyle shall also be judged by its appearance when headgear is worn. All headgear shall fit snugly and comfortably around the largest part of the head without distortion or excessive gaps. Hair shall not show from under the front of the brim of the combination hat, garrison, or command ball caps. Hairstyles which do not allow headgear to be worn in this manner, or which interfere with the proper wear of protective masks or equipment are prohibited. When in uniform, the hair may touch, but not fall below a horizontal line level with the lower edge of the back of the collar.
- Cosmetics: The Navy prefers that cosmetics be applied in good taste so that colors blend with natural skin tone and enhance natural features. Exaggerated or faddish cosmetic styles are not authorized and shall not be worn. Care should be taken to avoid artificial appearance. Lipstick colors shall be conservative and complement the individual. Long false eyelashes shall not be worn when in uniform.
- Tattoos: Navy policy stipulates that any tattoo/body art/brand that is obscene, sexually explicit or advocates discrimination of any sort is prohibited. No tattoos/body art/brands on the head, face, neck, or scalp and individual tattoos/body art/brands exposed by wearing a short sleeve uniform shirt shall be no larger in size than the wearer’s hand with fingers extended and joined with the thumb touching the base of the index finger.
- Jewelry: Conservative jewelry is authorized for all personnel and shall be in good taste while in uniform. Eccentricities or faddishness are not permitted. Jewelry shall not present a safety or FOD (Foreign object damage) hazard. Jewelry shall be worn within the following guidelines
- Earrings: Earrings for women are an optional item, and are not required for wear. When worn the earring shall be a 4-6mm ball (gold for officers/CPOs, and silver for E-6 and below), plain with brushed, matte finish, screw-on or post type. Pearl earrings may be worn with Dinner Dress or Formal uniforms.
- Rings: While in uniform, only one (1) ring per hand is authorized, plus a wedding/engagement ring set. Rings are not authorized for wear on thumbs.
- Necklaces: While in uniform, only one (1) necklace may be worn and it shall not be visible.
- Bracelets: While in uniform, only one (1) of each may be worn. Ankle bracelets are not authorized while in uniform.
- Fingernails: Fingernails for women shall not exceed 1/4 inch beyond the end of the finger. They shall be kept clean. Nail polish may be worn, but colors shall be conservative and complement the skin tone.
Health & Fitness Standards
The Physical Fitness Assessment (PFA) is conducted twice a year for all sailors, which includes:
- Body Composition Assessment (BCA). Body composition is assessed by:
- An initial weight and height screening
- A Navy-approved circumference technique to estimate body fat percentage
Physical Readiness Test (PRT). PRT is a series of physical activities designed to evaluate factors that enable members to perform physically. Factors evaluated are:
- Muscular strength and endurance via:
- Aerobic capacity via:
- 1.5-mile run/walk, or
- 500-yard or 450-meter swim
PT Fitness Standards (NSW/NSO programs only):
- The PST consists of five (5) events:
- 500-yard swim (using sidestroke or breaststroke)
- Push-Ups (as many as possible in 2-minutes)
- Sit-Ups (as many as possible in 2-minutes)
- Pull-Ups (as many as possible, no time limit)
- 1 ½ mile run
Spouse co-location assignments are fully supported by the Chief of Naval Personnel and when requested become the highest priority and main duty preference consistent with the needs of the Navy. While not always possible, every effort, within reason, will be made for military couples and family members to move & serve together. Co-op assignments are not guaranteed.
The service member requesting transfer to join with his/her spouse or family member must have a minimum of one year on board his/her present command at the time of transfer.
Military couples may not be permanently assigned to the same ship or the same shipboard deployable command. For shore assignments, the couple will not assign to the same reporting senior without the gaining CO’s approval. Unusual circumstances may require a couple being temporarily assigned to the same afloat activity, which is allowable at the CO’s discretion
Pregnancy & Parenting Resources
- Pregnant servicewomen may remain onboard up to their 20th week of pregnancy.
- An extension of up to one year may be granted in order to receive maternity benefits, provided the member’s performance has been satisfactory and first term Sailors have PTS approval.
- No later than 6 months after being returned to full duty by a HCP, the servicewoman is required to take the PFA and conform to acceptable height/weight standards.
- No servicewomen may be assigned overseas or travel overseas after the completion of the 28th week of pregnancy.
- The New Parent Support Home Visitation Program (NPSHVP) is a team of professionals providing supportive and caring services to military families with new babies. Navy families and other military families expecting a child or with children up to three years of age are assessed to determine if they need help managing the demands of a new baby. In the program, new Moms and Dads can be referred to community new baby programs and are eligible to participate in a voluntary home visitation program, free of charge. The New Parent Support Home Visitation Program was developed to assist military families in ways that friends and family would do if you were back home. This program offers expectant parents and parents of newborn and young children the opportunity to learn new skills as parents and to improve existing parenting skills, in the privacy of their own home.
In her 1995 book, Jean Zimmerman reported that there was a perception in the Navy that women sailors use pregnancy to escape or avoid deployed ship duty. In an example cited by Zimmerman, in 1993 as the USS Cape Cod prepared to depart on a deployment cruise, 25 female sailors, out of a crew of 1,500, reported being pregnant shortly before the scheduled departure and were reassigned to shore duty. Although Zimmerman felt that the number of pregnancies was small and should not be regarded as significant, the senior enlisted person on the ship, Command Master Chief Alice Smith rejoined, "Just about every division has been decimated by the number of pregnancies. Now tell me that's not going to hurt a ship." A 1997 study by the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center found that female sailors assigned to ships experienced higher pregnancy and abortion rates than shore-based female sailors.
A Navy policy change in June 2007 extended post-partum tours of duty ashore from 4 months to 12 months. A Virginia Pilot article in October 2007 reported on the Navy's policy decision as a means to improve long term retention of trained personnel. The chief of women's policy for the chief of personnel noted that far more men than women fail to deploy or are sent back from deployment, "because of sports injuries, discipline issues or testing positive for drugs."
In 2009, Andrew Tilghman reported in the Military Times on a Naval Inspector General (IG) report noting that, in the wake of this change, Navy shore commands based in Norfolk reported that 34% of their assigned members were pregnant sailors reassigned from ship duty. Since shore-based assignments for pregnant sailors were extended in 2007, the number of Navy women leaving deploying units to have children rose from 1,770 in June 2006 to 3,125 as of 1 August 2009. Tilghman further reports that Navy Personnel Command is reviewing the report.
Women on Submarines
In July 1994, policy changes were made expanding the number of assignments available to women in the Navy. At this time, repeal of the combat exclusion law gave women the opportunity to serve on surface combatant ships but still excluded assignments for women to serve onboard submarines. Previously there had been concern about bringing women onto submarines because living quarters offered little privacy and weren’t considered suitable for mixed gender habitation.
In October 2009, the Secretary of the Navy announced that he and the Chief of Naval Operations were moving aggressively to change the policy. Reasons included the fact that larger SSGN and SSBN submarines now in the Fleet had more available space and could accommodate female Officers with little or no modification. Also, the availability of qualified female candidates with the desire to serve in this capacity was cited. It was noted that women now represented 15% of the Active Duty Navy and that women today earn about half of all science and engineering bachelor’s degrees. A policy change was deemed to serve the aspirations of women, the mission of the Navy and the strength of its submarine force.
In February 2010, the Secretary of Defense approved the proposed policy and signed letters formally notifying Congress of the intended change. After receiving no objection, the Department of the Navy officially announced on 29 April 2010, that it had authorized women to serve onboard submarines moving forward.
The first group of U.S. female submariners completed nuclear power school and officially reported on board two ballistic and two guided missile submarines in November 2011.
The first promotion of a woman in the United States Navy to flag rank occurred in 1972.
|1||Patricia A. Tracey||1970||Director, Navy Staff, N09B, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations||URL||?||?||1996||2004||First woman to earn third star in the US Navy.|
|2||Ann E. Rondeau||1974 (OCS)||President, National Defense University||Fleet Support||1999||2002||2005||2012||Retired.|
|3||Nancy Elizabeth Brown||1974 (OCS)||Director for C4 Systems (J6)||URL||2000||2003||2006||2009||Retired.|
|4||Carol M. Pottenger||1977 (ROTC)||Deputy Chief of Staff for Capability and Development, Supreme Allied Commander Transformation||Surface Warfare||2003||2007||2010||2013||Retired.|
|5||Fran McKee||1950||Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel for Human Resource Management||URL||1976||1978||1981||First woman line officer promoted to flag rank in the United States Navy. Second woman promoted to flag rank in the United States Navy|
|6||Roberta L. Hazard||1960||Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel, Personnel Readiness and Community Support 1989–1992||URL||1984||1989||1992||First woman to command a Navy training command (NTC San Diego 1982).|
|7||Marsha J. Evans||1967||Superintendent of the Naval Postgraduate School 1995–1998||Fleet Support||1992||1996||1998||Retired.|
|8||Joan Marie Engel||1969||18th Director, Navy Nurse Corps 1994–1998||SHCE (Nurse Corps)||1994||1997||2000||18th Director, Navy Nurse Corps.|
|9||Barbara E. McGann||1970 (OCS)||Provost, Naval War College 2000–2002||URL||1994||1998||2002||Notes.|
|10||Veronica Froman||1970||Director, Ashore Readiness, Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C. 2000–2001||Fleet Support||1995||1999||2001||First woman commander of Navy Region Southwest (aka "Navy Mayor of San Diego), 1997–2000.|
|11||Bonnie Burnham Potter||1975 (OIS)||Fleet Surgeon, U.S. Atlantic Fleet 1999–||Medical Corps||1997||2000||2003||First female physician to become a flag officer in the military.|
|12||Kathleen Paige||1971||Program Director, Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense 2003–2005||Engineering Duty Officer||1996||2001||2005||Retired.|
|13||Karen A. Harmeyer||1975||Chief of Staff, Chief of Naval Operations, N093R, Washington, D.C.||SHCE (Nurse Corps)||1997||2001||2002||Retired. 1st female two-star in the Reserves.|
|14||Kathleen L. Martin||1973 (OIS)||Deputy Surgeon General of the Navy/ Vice Chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery 2002–2005||SHCE (Nurse Corps)||1998||2001||2005||19th Director of the Navy Nurse Corps from August 1998 to August 2001. First Nurse Corps officer to be assigned to the position of Deputy Surgeon General of the Navy.|
|15||Annette E. Brown||1974 (OCS)||Commander, Navy Region Southeast (2002)||Fleet Support||1999||20012||2005||Retired.|
|16||Linda J. Bird||1974 (OCS)||Director, Supply, Ordnance and Logistics Operations Division, N41 2003–2005||Supply Corps||1999||2002||2005||Retired.|
|17||Elizabeth M. Morris||1973 (OIS)||Deputy Chief for Reserve Affairs at the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery 2005–2006?||SHCE (Nurse Corps)||2001||2004||2006||Retired.|
|18||Nancy J. Lescavage||1972 (OIS)||Senior Health Care Executive Regional Director, TRICARE Regional Office – West||SHCE (Nurse Corps)||2003||2004||Retired.20th Director of the Navy Nurse Corps.|
|19||Donna L. Crisp||1974 (OCS)||Commander, Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command||URL||2001||2005||Currently on active duty.|
|20||Ann D. Gilbride||1978 (OCS)||Director, National Maritime Intelligence Center||Reserve||2003||2006||?||Retired.|
|21||Sharon H. Redpath||1976 (ROTC)||Vice Commander, Navy Expeditionary Combat Command, Commander, Navy Expeditionary Logistics Support Group||Reserve||2003||2006||2009||Retired|
|22||Elizabeth A. Hight||1977 (OCS)||Vice Director, Defense Information Systems Agency||URL||2003||2006||?||Retired. First woman to Command the JTF-GNO, after serving as its Deputy Commander. First woman Vice Director at DISA.|
|23||Christine Bruzek-Kohler||1974||Commander, Navy Medicine West, Naval Medical Center San Diego||Nurse Corps||2004||2009||2010||21st Director of the Navy Nurse Corps.|
|24||Christine S. Hunter||1980||deputy director, TRICARE Management Activity||Medical||2004||2009||Currently on active duty.|
|25||Wendi B. Carpenter||1977 (AOCS)||Commander, Navy Warfare Development Command, Norfolk||Reserve||2004||2008||2011||Retired. First female naval aviator promoted to Flag rank.|
|26||Karen Flaherty||1973 (OIS)||Deputy Surgeon General of Navy Medicine||Nurse Corps||2003||2008||22nd Director of the Navy Nurse Corps.|
|27||Moira N. Flanders||1978 (OCS)||Director, Inter-American Defense College||URL||2005||2007||Currently on active duty.|
|28||Nanette M. "Nan" DeRenzi||1984 (ROTC)||Judge Advocate General of the Navy||JAG||2009||2012||Currently on active duty.|
|29||Kathleen M. Dussault||1979 (OCS)||Director, Supply, Ordnance and Logistics Operations Division (OPNAV N41)||Supply Corps||2006||2009||Currently on active duty.|
|30||Janice M. Hamby||1980 (ROTC)||Vice Director for C4 Systems (J6)||URL, then Information Professional||2006||2009||2012||Retired.|
|31||Michelle J. Howard||1982 (USNA)||Chief of Staff to the Director for Strategic Plans and Policy, J-5, Joint Staff||Surface Warfare||2006||2010||nom 2012||Currently on active duty.|
|32||Elizabeth S. Niemyer||1981||Director, Navy Nurse Corps||Nurse Corps||2008||2010||23rd Director of the Navy Nurse Corps|
|33||Patricia E. Wolfe||1981 (ROTC)||Commander, Navy Expeditionary Logistics Support Group (NAVELSG)||Reserve, Supply Corps||2007||2010||Currently serving.|
|34||Nora W. Tyson||1979 (OCS)||Vice Director, Joint Staff||Naval Flight Officer||2007||2011||First woman to command a carrier strike group.|
|35||Robin Braun||1980||Chief of Navy Reserve/Commander, Navy Reserve Force||Reserve, Naval Aviator||2007||2011||2012||Currently serving. 1st female commander of the Navy Reserve.|
|36||Cynthia A. Covell||1980 (OCS)||Director, Total Force Requirements Division (OPNAV N12)||Navy Human Resources Officer||2008||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|37||Margaret D. Klein||1981 (USNA)||Chief of Staff, U.S. Cyber Command||Naval Flight Officer||2008||2011||82nd Commandant of Midshipmen, USNA – first woman.|
|38||Sandy L. Daniels||1980 (USNA)||Deputy Commander, Joint Functional Component Command for Space||Reserve||2007||2012||Currently serving.|
|39||Katherine L. Gregory||1982 (USNA)||Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific||CEC||2010||2012||First female CEC admiral.|
|40||Elizabeth L.Train||1983 (OCS)||Director for Intelligence, U.S. Pacific Command||Intelligence||2009||2012||Currently on active duty.|
|41||Alene B. Duerk||1943||Director Navy Nurse Corps 1970–1975||Nurse Corps||1972||1975||First woman promoted to flag rank in the United States Navy. Director Navy Nurse Corps 1970–1975.|
|42||Maxine Conder||1951||Director, Navy Nurse Corps 1975–1979||Nurse Corps||1975||1979?||Director, Navy Nurse Corps.|
|43||Frances Shea-Buckley||1951||14th Director, Navy Nurse Corps 1979–1983||Nurse Corps||1979||1983||14th Director, Navy Nurse Corps.|
|44||Pauline Hartington||1953||Commander, Naval Training Center Orlando||URL||1981||1983?||Second woman line officer selected for flag rank.|
|45||Grace Hopper||1944||Head, Training and Technology Directorate/Special Advisor to the Commander, Naval Data Automation Command||URL?||1983||1986||Co-inventor of COBOL. Arleigh Burke class guided missile destroyer USS Hopper (DDG-70) named for RADM Hopper.|
|46||Mary Joan Nielubowicz||1951||15th Director, Navy Nurse Corps 1983–1987||Nurse Corps||1983||1987||15th Director, Navy Nurse Corps.|
|47||Mary F. Hall||1959||16th Director, Navy Nurse Corps 1987–1991||Nurse Corps||1987||1991||Director, Navy Nurse Corps.|
|48||Louise C. Wilmot||1964||Commander, Naval Base Philadelphia −1994||URL||1988||1994||First woman to command a naval base.|
|49||Mariann Stratton||1966||17th Director, Navy Nurse Corps 1991–1994||Nurse Corps||1991||1994||17th Director, Navy Nurse Corps.|
|50||Maryanne T. Gallagher Ibach||1964||Reserve Nurse Corps||1990||1995||First Reserve flag officer for Navy Nurse Corps.|
|51||Katharine L. Laughton||1963||Commander, Naval Space Command, Dahlgren, VA 1995–1997||Fleet Support||1993||1997||Retired.|
|52||Nancy A. Fackler||1962||Deputy Director of the Navy Nurse Corps for Reserve Affairs||Reserve Nurse Corps||1994||1997||retired.|
|53||Jacqueline O. (Allison) Barnes||????||Director, On-Site Inspection Directorate 1998–2000||Fleet Support||1996||2000||Retired.|
|54||Lillian E. Fishburne||1973 (OCS)||Director, Information Transfer Division for the Space, Information Warfare, Command and Control Directorate ?-2001||URL||1998||2001||First African-American woman to achieve flag rank.|
|55||Marianne B. Drew||1967||Deputy Commander, Navy Personnel Command||Reserve, Fleet Support||1998||2002||Retired.|
|56||Eleanor Mariano||1977||White House Physician||Medical Corps||2000||2001||First Filipino-American flag officer.|
|57||Rosanne M. Levitre||1973 (OCS)||Director of Intelligence, J2, U.S. Joint Forces Command||Intelligence||2000||2005||First Director, Navy Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), FORCEnet. First female Intel officer selected for flag rank in the United States Navy.|
|58||Carol I. Turner||1977||Senior Health Care Executive, U.S. Navy Commander, Navy Medicine Support Command||Dental Corps||2003||2008?||retired. First female Chief of the Naval Dental Corps, 2003–2007.|
|59||Deborah Loewer||1976 (OCS)||Commander, Mine Warfare Command 2005–2006||Surface Warfare||2003||2007||First warfare-qualified woman selected for flag rank in the United States Navy.|
|60||Cynthia A. Dullea||1980 (OIS)||Deputy Commander, Navy Medicine National Capital Area||Reserve||2007||Currently serving.|
|61||Maude Elizabeth Young||1984 (USNA)||Director, Systems Engineering National Reconnaissance Office; Commander, SPAWAR Space Field Activity (SSFA), PEO for Space Systems, USN||URL||2008||Currently on active duty.|
|62||Eleanor V. Valentin||1982||Director, Medical Service Corps, Commander, Navy Medicine Support Command, Jacksonville, Florida||MSC||2009||16th director of the Medical Service Corps (first female director)|
|63||Robin L. Graf||1981 (OCS)||Deputy Commander, Navy Recruiting Command||URL||2009||Currently on active duty.|
|64||Diane E. H. Webber||?||Director for Command Control Systems, J6, Headquarters North American Aerospace Defense Command||URL||2009||Currently on active duty.|
|65||Ann Claire Phillips||1983 (ROTC)||Commander, Expeditionary Strike Group Two||Surface Warfare||2010||Currently on active duty.|
|66||Gretchen S. Herbert||1984 (ROTC)||Assistant Chief of Naval Operations, Next Generation Enterprise Network (NGEN)||URL||2010||Currently on active duty.|
|67||Paula C. Brown||1982||Deputy Chief of Staff for Engineering, U.S. Naval Forces Korea||CEC||2010||Currently on active duty.|
|68||Margaret A. Rykowski||1987||Fleet Surgeon, Third Fleet||NNC||2010||Currently on active duty.|
|69||Margaret G. Kibben||1986 (OIS)||Chaplain of the United States Marine Corps, deputy chief of Navy Chaplains||Chaplain Corps||2010||18th Chaplain of the USMC, first female chaplain at USNA.|
|70||Elaine C. Wagner||1984||Senior Health Care Executive||Dental Corps||2010||Currently on active duty. Chief of the Naval Dental Corps, 2010 – present.|
|71||Jan Tighe||1984 (USNA)||Deputy Director of Operations for U.S. Cyber Command||IW/Crypto||2010||first female IW flag officer.|
|72||Martha E. G. Herb||1979 (OCS)||Director, Personnel Readiness and Community Support||Reserve||2010||currently serving.|
|73||Althea H. Coetzee||1985 (USNA)||executive director, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Acquisition and Procurement)||Supply Corps||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|74||Valerie K. Huegel||1980 (OCS)||Deputy Commander, Navy Supply Systems Command Global Logistics Support||Supply Corps||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|75||Sandra E. Adams||1981 (OCS)||Deputy Commander, Naval Expeditionary Command||URL (SWO)||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|76||Raquel C. Bono||1979||Command Surgeon, U.S. Pacific Command||Medical Corps||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|77||Rebecca J. McCormick-Boyle||1981||Chief of Staff, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery||Nurse Corps||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|78||Annie B. Andrews||?? (ROTC)||Director, Total Force Requirements Division (OPNAV N12)||Navy Human Resources Officer||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|79||Cindy L. Jaynes||1983 (OCS)||Assistant Commander for Logistics and Industrial Operations, Naval Air Systems Command||AMDO||2011||Currently on active duty.|
|80||Christina M. Alvarado||1988||Deputy Commander, Navy Medicine East||Nurse Corps||2013||Currently on active duty.|
- Bureau of Naval Personnel, "History & Firsts". Retrieved 23 October 2009
- This story was written by Commander, Submarine Group 10 Public Affairs. "Navy Welcomes Women To Serve In Submarines". Navy.mil. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- Navy Office of Information, “Women on Submarines”, Rhumblines, 5 October 2009.
- Daniel, Amber (30 November 2011). "Navy's First Female Master Chief Petty Officer Laid to Rest at Arlington". Navy.mil. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Charlier, Tom (1 August 2010). "Memphian becomes first woman to command Naval carrier strike group". The Commercial Appeal. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Zimmerman, pp. 170–171.
- Scarborough, Rowan, "Women in submarines face health issues", Washington Times, 5 April 2010, p. 1.
- Wiltrout, Kate, "Navy Strives to Retain Pregnant Sailors", Virginia Pilot, 11 October 2007.
- Tilghman, Andrew, "Report outlines pregnancy policy concerns", Military Times, 18 October 2009.
- Graham, Ian (11 May 2011). "Submarine Integration a Learning Process, Task Force Leader Says". Navy.mil. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Interview with Director of Operations for Naval Network Warfare Command Rear Admiral Janice M. Hamby". CHIPS Magazine. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Rear Admiral Gretchen S. Herbert; Commander, Navy Cyber Forces". Navy.mil. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- Godson, Susan H. (2001). Serving Proudly: A history of Women in the U.S. Navy. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-317-6.
- Ebbert, Jean and Marie-Beth Hall (1999). Crossed Currents: Navy Women in a Century of Change [Third Edition, Revised and Updated]. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's. ISBN 978-1-57488-193-6.
- Ebbert, Jean and Marie-Beth Hall (2002). The First, the Few, the Forgotten: Navy and Marine Corps Women in World War I. Annapolis, MD: The Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-203-X.
- Sterner, Doris M. (1997). In and Out of Harm's Way: A history of the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps. Seattle, WA: Peanut Butter Publishing. ISBN 0-89716-706-6.
- Hancock, Joy Bright Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired) (1972). Lady in the Navy A Personal Reminiscence. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-336-9.
- Collins, Winifred Quick Captain, U.S. Navy (Retired) with Herbert M. Levine (1997). More Than A Uniform: A Navy Woman in a Navy Man's World. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press. ISBN 1-57441-022-9.
- Holme, Jeanne Maj Gen, USAF (Ret) (1972). Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution [Revised Edition]. Novato, CA: Presidio Press. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/00891414509|00891414509 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- Zimmerman, Jean (1995). Tailspin: Women at War in the Wake of Tailhook. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47789-9.
- Women in the Navy, a bibliography compiled in 1998 by Diana Simpson, Bibliographer, Air University Library, Maxwell AFB.
- Women in the U.S. Navy: Bibliography and Sources from the Naval Historical Center.
- 30 YEARS OF WOMEN AT USNA, selected bibliography of resources available in the Naval Academy's Nimitz Library.
- Bibliography on women in the military from the Women in Military Service for America (WIMSA) Memorial