|• Revised Romanization||Wonsan-si|
View of Wonsan
Map of Kangwon showing the location of Wonsan
|Region||Kwandong, Kwannam (before 1946)|
|Divisions||45 dong, 14 ri|
|• Total||269 km2 (104 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)|
Wŏnsan (Korean pronunciation: [wʌn.san]), previously known as Wŏnsanjin (元山津), Port Lazarev, and Genzan (元山), is a port city and naval base located in Kangwŏn Province, North Korea, along the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula, on Sea of Japan and the provincial capital. The port was opened by occupying Japanese forces in 1880. Before the 1950–1953 Korean War, it fell within the jurisdiction of the then South Hamgyŏng province, and during the war it was the location of the Blockade of Wŏnsan. The population of the city was estimated at 329,207 in 2013. Notable people from Wŏnsan include Kim Ki-nam, a diplomat and former Vice Chairman of the ruling Workers' Party of Korea.
In 2013, it was announced that Wŏnsan would be converted into a summer destination with resorts and entertainment. Having spent his childhood years there, Kim Jong-un has expressed significant interest in further developing the region, with the construction of new infrastructure such as Kalma Airport, a dual-use civilian international airport and military proving ground. A state corporation, the Wonsan Zone Development Corporation, has been established with feasibility studies for a wide variety of hotels and commercial and industrial development.
Wonsan has also been known as Yonghunghang, Yuan shan in China, Genzan or Gensan in Japan, and Port Lazareva or Port Lazareff in Russia.
Wŏnsan's area is 269 square kilometres (104 sq mi). It is located in Kangwŏn Province, on the westernmost part of the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea) and the east end of the Korean peninsula's neck. Mt. Changdok (Changdok-san) and Mt. Nap'al (Nap'al-san) are located to the west of the city. More than 20 small islands flank Wŏnsan's immediate coastal area, including Hwangt'o Island and Ryŏ Island. Wŏnsan is considered an excellent natural port location. Kŭmgang-san mountain is located near Wŏnsan.
Wŏnsan serves as the administrative centre of Kangwŏn Province.
- Haebang 1-dong
- Haebang 2-dong
- Wŏnnam 1-dong
- Wŏnnam 2-dong
|Climate data for Wonsan, North Korea (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||28.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||4.7||4.8||6.0||6.5||9.0||11.3||15.7||13.2||9.1||6.6||6.3||3.8||97.0|
|Average snowy days||5.6||5.5||5.0||0.5||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.0||3.5||21.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||52.2||55.5||59.2||58.4||67.3||78.5||83.4||83.4||77.9||65.4||57.8||54.0||66.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||204.6||206.2||232.5||234.0||235.6||207.0||173.6||176.7||198.0||223.2||192.0||192.2||2,475.6|
|Source 1: Korea Meteorological Administration|
|Source 2: Wetter Spiegel Online (sunshine only)|
Wŏnsan opened as a trade port in 1880. Its original name was Wŏnsanjin (元山津), but it was also known by the Russian name of Port Lazarev (Lazaref). Under Japanese rule (1910–45) it was called Gensan (元山). In 1914 the P'yŏngwŏn and Kyŏngwŏn railway lines were opened, connecting the city to P'yŏngyang (then known as Heijo) and Seoul (then Keijo or Kyŏngsŏng). Thus, the city gradually developed into an eastern product distribution centre. Under the Japanese occupation, the city was heavily industrialized and served as an import point in the distribution of trade between Korea and mainland Japan.
After the Korean War broke out it was captured by American and South Korean troops on 10 October 1950 during their drive north. When they left ahead of the Chinese counter-attack, the city fell under Chinese control on 9 December 1950. It was heavily bombed and shelled by the United Nations in the Blockade of Wonsan during the Korean War. According to the official US Navy history Wŏnsan was under continuous siege and bombardment by the American navy from March 1951 until July 27, 1953, making it the longest siege in modern American naval history. By the war's end the city was a vast shell.
City centre redevelopment
Kim Jong-un announced in 2015 plans for a $582 million redevelopment of the city centre, which is to be entirely demolished and rebuilt. A 5-star hotel, a 17-story Wonsan International Finance Centre and a $9.6m exhibition hall are expected to be built.
Wŏnsan used to be in South Hamgyŏng, but when provincial borders were redrawn in 1946, it joined the northern half of Kangwŏn (which had been split at the 38th parallel north into a zone under Soviet control in the north and one of American control in the south in 1945) and became its capital, as Kangwŏn's traditional capitals Wŏnju (1395–1895) and Ch'unch'ŏn (since 1896) both were south of the 38th parallel and south of the Military Demarcation Line that replaced the 38th parallel as a border in 1953.
Wŏnsan has an aquatic product processing factory, shipyard, chemistry enterprise, a cement factory, as well as the 4 June Rolling Stock Works, which is one of the DPRK's largest railway rolling stock factories.
- Road and rail
The district of Wŏnsan-si is served by several stations on the Kangwŏn Line of the Korean State Railway, including a branch to the port; it is also connected to the national road network, and is the terminus of the P'yŏngyang-Wŏnsan Tourist Motorway and the Wŏnsan-Kŭmgangsan Highway.
The city has the dual purpose military and civilian Wŏnsan Airport (IATA: WON) equipped with 01/19 and 15/33 dual runways. Images from Google Earth from July and August 2014 indicated that major expansion was taking place, including the construction of two new runways. There is also an underground air force runway which runs through a mountain, near Wonsan. North Korea's first public air show, the Wonsan International Friendship Air Festival, was held at Wonsan Airport in September 2016.
Wŏnsan was also the terminus of the Mangyongbong-92 ferry that operated between Wŏnsan and Niigata, which was the only direct connection between Japan and North Korea. This service was cancelled in 2006 when Japan banned North Korean ships.
A trolleybus system with at least one line is currently in operation in Wonsan. Currently, there are three new trolleybus lines under construction in the city, which is aimed at reducing the number of fossil fuel powered vehicles and to prevent air pollution. The new lines run from Wonsan station to Kalma, to Myongsasimiri-dong and to Songdowon. NK News however, incorrectly reported by implying that it was only being revived recently, while in actual fact, new Chollima-321 trolleybuses had been delivered since 2019.
A tram line is also under construction, with the trams to be built by the Kim Chong-t'ae Electric Locomotive Works. The trams will be narrow gauge vehicles. This was after Kim Jong-un stressed the need for a tram line at the resort area. The line was completed on November 24, 2020, though passenger service has not started due to the incomplete state of the rest of the resort.
The Korean Central Broadcasting Station maintains a 250-kilowatt mediumwave transmitter broadcasting on 882 kHz AM.
Wŏnsan is home to Songdowŏn University, Kŭmgang University, Tonghae University, Jong Jun Thaek University of Economics, Wŏnsan University of Medicine, Jo Gun Sil University of Engineering, Wŏnsan First University of Education, Ri Su Dok University, and the Maritime Patrol Academy, the commissioned officer's training school of the Korean People's Navy.
Wonsan has long been a popular tourism destination for both Koreans and international visitors. Attractions include Songdowon beach, the site of the Songdowon International Children's Union Camp, which maintains exceptionally clear and clean water. Pine trees are abundant in the surrounding area, and it has been designated a national sightseeing point. The nearby Kalma Peninsula is to feature a new hotel and a bathing area.
Wonsan Special Tourist Zone
Announced in 2014, the Wonsan Special Tourist Zone is to cover more than 400 square km and boasts 40 historical relics, 10 sand beaches, 680 tourist attractions, four mineral springs and several bathing resorts and natural lakes. As part of this development the Masikryong Ski Resort was built in 2016. A $123m golf course is planned outside the city.
Famous scenic sites near Wŏnsan include Myŏngsasimri, Lake Sijung, Chongsokchon and Mt. Kŭmgang. Temples in the area include the Sogwangsa and Anbyon Pohyonsa Buddhist temples. The German Church is the former church of the Tŏkwŏn abbey, now used by the Wŏnsan University of Agriculture.
- Sakaiminato, Tottori, Japan (1992–2006)
- Puebla, Mexico
- Vladivostok, Russia
- List of East Asian ports
- List of Korea-related topics
- Geography of North Korea
- Naval bases of the Korean People's Navy
- Ryall, Julian (27 June 2013). "North Korean leader Kim Jong-un orders the creation of nation's first beach resort". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Park, Ju-Min; Pearson, James (10 October 2017). "Special Report: In Kim Jong Un's summer palace, fun meets guns". Reuters. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "Wonsan climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Wonsan weather averages". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- "30 years report of Meteorological Observations in North Korea" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. pp. 232–281. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- "Klimadaten". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2012-04-11.
- "Wonsan Key Seaport Before War Started; Badly Crippled by U.N. Air and Sea Attacks". New York Times. June 30, 1951. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- Halliday, Jon; Cumings, Bruce (1988). Korea, the Unknown War. New York: Pantheon Books. p. 157.
- "Wonsan: Where tourism meets tanks". Reuters.
- "Satellitenfotos deuten auf Abstecher in Luxusanwesen am Meer hin". Der Spiegel (in German). April 29, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- Kokubu, Hayato (2007). 将軍様の鉄道 (Shōgun-sama no Tetsudō). Tokyo. p. 130. ISBN 978-4-10-303731-6.
- "Wonsan airport undergoing major renovation, expansion". NK News. 19 January 2015.
- Mizokami, Kyle. "North Korea's Secret Strategy in a War with America: Go Underground". The National Interest.
- "North Korea's Thunderbird Runways". googlesightseeing.com. 19 May 2008.
- "North Korea's Underground Bond-Villain Air Base Nears Completion". freekorea.us.
- "North Korea shows off fighter jets at its first international air show". International Business Times. September 26, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- "Ferry ban turns tide on Korean smuggling". The Washington Times. 2006-10-16. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
- "Wonsan". transphoto.org. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
- "Public transport goes environment friendly in Wonsan". The Pyongyang Times. Archived from the original on 2020-11-02. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
- 록화보도 원산시에 무궤도전차사업소가 새로 건설되였다. 조선의 오늘 (in Korean). 2020-12-27. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
- "North Korea touts new electric trolleybuses ahead of massive beach resort debut". NK News. 2020-12-29. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
- "Tramway under construction at North Korean beach resort". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
- "Tramcar service to be launched in tourist resort". The Pyongyang Times. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
- "Examining Kim's Approach to Construction: Project Wonsan". 38 North. 2020-10-16. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
- "AUGUST MASS GAMES TOUR". YOUNG PIONEER TOURS. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014.
- Park, Ju-min; Pearson, James. "In Kim Jong Un's summer retreat, fun meets guns". Reuters.
- Vyas, Utpal (2010). Soft Power in Japan-China Relations: State, Sub-state and Non-state Relations. Oxon: Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-136-85896-3.
- "Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores - Gobierno - gob.mx" (PDF). www.sre.gob.mx.
- "Kim Jong Il Holds Third Summit Talks with Putin during Tour of Far Eastern Region of Russia". The People's Korea. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016.
- Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5
- Introduction to Investment Projects in Wonsan-Mt. Kumgang International Tourist Zone, Wonsan Zone Development Corporation. Pyongyang, 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wonsan.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Wonsan.|
- Wonsan Kalma Beach 원산 갈마 해변
- The Wŏnsan Operation, October 1950 - Korean War amphibious assault ordered by General Douglas MacArthur
- Google Earth images of Wŏnsan, including one of Kim Jong Il's palaces, a military airfield, and the ferry Mangyongbong-92
- City profile of Wonsan Archived 2016-03-10 at the Wayback Machine
- Wonsan at Curlie
Largest cities or towns in North Korea
|Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.||Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.|
|1||Pyongyang||Pyongyang Capital City||3,255,288||11||Sunchon||South Pyongan||297,317|
|2||Hamhung||South Hamgyong||768,551||12||Pyongsong||South Pyongan||284,386|
|3||Chongjin||North Hamgyong||667,929||13||Haeju||South Hwanghae||273,300|
|4||Nampo||South Pyongan Province||366,815||14||Kanggye||Chagang||251,971|
|6||Sinuiju||North Pyongan||359,341||16||Tokchon||South Pyongan||237,133|
|7||Tanchon||South Hamgyong||345,875||17||Kimchaek||North Hamgyong||207,299|
|8||Kaechon||South Pyongan||319,554||18||Rason||Rason Special Economic Zone||196,954|
|9||Kaesong||North Hwanghae||308,440||19||Kusong||North Pyongan||196,515|