The large smoke plume from the fire encroaching on Malibu on November 9, seen from the Pacific Coast Highway
|Location||Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, United States|
|Date(s)||November 8–21, 2018|
|Burned area||96,949 acres (39,234 ha)|
|Land use||Recreational and residential|
|Non-fatal injuries||2 civilians|
The Woolsey Fire was a destructive wildfire that burned in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties of the U.S. state of California. The fire ignited on November 8, 2018 and burned 96,949 acres (39,234 hectares) of land. The fire destroyed 1,643 structures, killed three people, and prompted the evacuation of more than 295,000 people. It was one of several fires in California that ignited on the same day. While the nearby Hill Fire was contained with minimal damage on November 16, the Camp Fire in Northern California destroyed most of the town of Paradise, killing 86 people.
The fire started in Woolsey Canyon on the Santa Susana Field Laboratory property, a complex of industrial research and development belonging to Boeing, in the Santa Susana Mountains above the Simi Valley near the boundary between Los Angeles and Ventura counties. The Santa Ana winds, which often are a factor for Southern California fires, pushed the fire in a southerly direction throughout the first day. The Ventura freeway between the San Fernando Valley and the Conejo Valley was closed as the fire crossed and headed into the rugged Santa Monica Mountains.
The fire raced through the chaparral-covered steep canyons where it encountered historic movie and TV sets, small ranches, and the houses of celebrities. Hundreds of houses in Malibu were destroyed or damaged on both sides of Pacific Coast Highway. Many of these were on Point Dume that juts out from the narrow coastal terrace that lies between the mountains and the Pacific Ocean. While the firefighters successfully protected Pepperdine University to the south, the entire portion of the Malibu coast west to the community of Solromar suffered damage from the fire.
Thousands of residents were kept away from their houses in numerous neighborhoods along the Ventura Freeway and the communities along the Malibu coast. The evacuations frustrated residents as they lasted for many days as the fire continued to threaten houses especially when the winds increased and fanned the flames. The evacuated residents were incrementally allowed to return to see if their houses were damaged or destroyed as the fire continued to spread through the rugged wilderness at the western end of the Santa Monica Mountains. Authorities in many of the damaged communities declared they needed to prevent residents from returning quickly as neighborhoods were crowded with crews repairing downed power lines and other hazardous conditions. In the months after the fire, people[who?] criticized what they thought was a slow and inadequate response by cities and counties during public meetings held by public officials.
While this and other fires were burning, President Donald Trump blamed poor forest management by the state. Fire scientists explained that forest management (good or bad) had a minor influence on the severity of the fires, and that Woolsey was not a forest fire. The California Public Utilities Commission is investigating an equipment problem near the point of origin reported by Southern California Edison.
At 2:22 p.m. PST on Nov 8, Southern California Edison reported an outage on the Big Rock 16 kV circuit out of the Chatsworth substation on the Santa Susana Field Laboratory property, south of Simi Valley, Ventura County, California. At 2:24 p.m. PST a brush fire was reported in the same location. The first firefighters arrived almost 20 minutes later due to complications of resources because of the nearby Hill Fire. The nearest fire crew, part of a private company contracted to protect Santa Susana Field Laboratory, a Boeing Company facility nearby, was delayed by its engine breaking down. Powerful Santa Ana winds, reaching 50 to 60 mph (80 to 97 km/h), caused the fire to spread rapidly and beyond firefighting capabilities. During the overnight hours into the early morning of November 9, the fire crossed U.S. Route 101 near Calabasas and spread through Liberty Canyon in Agoura Hills. Aerial suppression of the fire was unable to commence until 5:00 a.m. PST, November 9, when winds lessened enough.
On the morning of November 9, Assistant L.A. County Fire Chief Williams told KBUU-LP that his request for 70 strike teams had been denied. The blaze spread rapidly throughout the day burning through the mountains and along the 101 Freeway, eventually reaching Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu by the afternoon devastating numerous houses there. Firefighters and firetrucks who did not know the area were reported idle by many frustrated citizens. Several homeowners stayed despite the mandatory evacuation to defend their houses. Pepperdine University in Malibu recommended that students shelter in place in specific buildings on campus rather than use the crowded highway to evacuate. Farther north, the flames spread to portions of Thousand Oaks, Bell Canyon, Westlake Village, Oak Park and the West Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles forcing residential evacuations and the closure of numerous business and corporate offices in the region. On the day before the Hill and Woolsey fires started, residents in the Conejo Valley experienced the shooting of thirteen people in a bar including a police officer and the perpetrator. As the fires threatened the community and otherwise disrupted their routine, memorial services had to be postponed.
By November 9, Cal Fire and the United States Forest Service were also helping local services with the fire. This resulted in 3,242 firefighters being deployed to contain the blaze by the morning of November 10. The fire had engulfed more than 70,000 acres (28,000 hectares) of land, forcing the evacuation of an estimated 295,000 people from 105,000 residences. This included an unprecedented total evacuation of Bell Canyon, Malibu, Agoura Hills, Malibou Lake, and Oak Park.
Before sunrise on November 14, the fire flared up in rugged wilderness at the western end of the Santa Monica Mountains with winds blowing strongly. The fire burned well away from populated neighborhoods, but was threatening scattered home sites. The flare-up sent a huge column of smoke over Point Mugu and out to sea.
By November 21 at 6:11 p.m. PST, the fire was 100% contained.
Many of the public and private parks and trails within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area were closed indefinitely as damage due to the fire was being evaluated and necessary remediation measures were put in place. Closures included Malibu Creek State Park and Zuma Beach. Property owned by the federal government within the national recreation area includes some developed parks and large undeveloped tracts of land. The fire caused trails to be shut for months as 88% of the federal parkland was burned. The fire created a challenge to native plants as black mustard with bright yellow flowers quickly established itself post-fire.
Two people were found dead in a vehicle on Mulholland Highway in Malibu. Emergency personnel were unable to reach the victims when a report of a critical burn victim was relayed, due to downed power lines. On Tuesday November 13, a third victim was discovered in the 32000 block of Lobo Canyon Road in Agoura Hills. The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department announced on January 22, 2019 that charred human remains had been found in the burn area in Malibu and that homicide detectives were trying to determine if the victim had been killed in the flames or had met with foul play.
At least 1600 houses were destroyed by the fire. Many celebrities are among those who lost their houses, including Kim Basinger, Tracey E. Bregman, Gerard Butler, Miley Cyrus and Liam Hemsworth, Scott Derrickson, Shannen Doherty, Fred Durst, Joe Flanigan, Mike Garson, Camille Grammer, Daryl Hannah and Neil Young, Gabe Kapler, Catherine Oxenberg, Lil Pump, Robin Thicke, Andrew von Oeyen and Eric Wynalda. Multiple filming locations and historical sites were directly impacted by the fire, including Paramount Ranch, Peter Strauss Ranch, the former Reagan Ranch now part of Malibu Creek State Park, and the lower house of Villa De La Vina, the mansion where The Bachelor and The Bachelorette are filmed. The numerous drug rehabilitation centers and sober living houses in Malibu that have given rise to the nickname "Rehab Riviera" were evacuated ahead of the fire. At least two were destroyed or significantly damaged. Three Jewish summer camps JCA Shalom, Gindling Hilltop, and camp Hess Kramer were all almost completely devastated in the fire too.
Reporters and officials rescued animals from houses, and brought them to shelters and vets. Other animals at locations such as Malibu Wines were either evacuated or cared for at the locations. Local fire officials opened Zuma Beach as an evacuation point for large animals, with pictures by the Los Angeles Times, showing llamas, alpacas, and horses tied to lifeguard stations and poles.
On November 10, President Donald Trump, without evidence, blamed poor forest management by the state of California as the cause of the Woolsey Fire and the concurrent Camp Fire. In a controversial tweet, the President threatened to end federal assistance unless the state improves its "gross mismanagement of the forests."
The small groves of California sycamores and coast live oaks amidst the sage and chaparral covered hillsides in the area of the fire are not considered to be forests as commonly understood by the public or wildfire experts. Since these small, critical habitats are not logged, President Trump's statements had little relevance to the Southern California fire.
The firemens' union disagreed with President Trump's claims, noting that California experienced unusually dry conditions and abnormally high fire danger at the time. Brian Rice, president of the California Professional Firefighters, described Trump's assertion about the state's forest management practices as "dangerously wrong," noting that 60 percent of California forests are directly managed by the federal government, which has reduced spending on forestry in recent years.
In public meetings
In public meetings, people affected by the fire were critical of the slow and inadequate response of the Los Angeles County Fire Department, the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department and California Highway Patrol and their poor handling of the evacuation, and the city of Malibu and their lack of preparation and overall response during and after the fire.
California Public Utilities Commission launched a probe into Southern California Edison who reported a problem with a transmission grid at the point of origin two minutes before the start of the fire.
A 2019 Los Angeles County report on missteps in the government's handling of the Woolsey Fire response (the 'Woolsey Report') cited the unavailability of firefighting units in Western Malibu during critical times of the fire, where hundreds of houses were lost. The report stated: "a significant number of requests by political figures to check on specific addresses of homes to ensure their protection distracted from Department leadership to accomplish priority objectives" which included a personal request to the city fire chief by Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti.
Amidst the coronavirus pandemic in March 2020, Alex Villanueva, Los Angeles County Sheriff, was removed from his position as head of county emergency operations by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors due to the poor emergency response reported by investigators in the Woolsey Report.
- 2018 California wildfires
- List of California wildfires
- List of fires
- Camp Fire, a concurrent destructive wildfire in northern California
- "Woolsey Fire General Information". CAL FIRE. California. November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
- "Woolsey Fire Incident Update". Los Angeles County Fire Department. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- Gonzales, Ruby; Cain, Josh (November 14, 2018). "Woolsey fire death toll increases to 3, body found in charred Agoura Hills home". San Gabriel Valley Newspapers. Retrieved November 14, 2018 – via The Mercury News.
- $6 Billion In Real Estate Destroyed In Woolsey Fire: Report | Malibu, CA Patch
- "Woolsey Fire Incident Update". Los Angeles County Fire Department. Retrieved November 22, 2018.
- Hersko, Tyler (November 16, 2018). "Investigators point to human activity as cause of Hill Fire; containment at 100 percent". Ventura County Star. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Forgione, Mary (November 9, 2018). "SoCal wildfires temporarily close Santa Monica Mountains, Malibu parks and beaches". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "Woolsey Canyon". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Chandler, Jenna (November 9, 2018). "Ventura County's Woolsey Fire moving south, Malibu under evacuation". Curbed. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Haskell, Josh (November 11, 2018). "Woolsey Fire: Forecast calls for high winds in burn area as containment increases to 10 percent". ABC7. ABC. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- LOPEZ, STEVE (November 14, 2018). "It wasn't just the rich who lost houses in the Malibu area. Is fire California's great equalizer?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
- "What Trump gets wrong about wildfires, by a fire scientist". The Guardian. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
- "New lawsuit blames Southern California Edison for Woolsey Fire". USA TODAY. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- about, Jovana Lara, bio (November 12, 2018). "SCE: Substation outage occurred before Woolsey Fire reported". ABC7 Los Angeles. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "Edison Reports Circuit Problem Near Woolsey Fire Origin". San Fernando Valley Business Journal. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "Lieff Cabraser Files Lawsuit Against Southern California Edison for Losses and Damages Arising From the 2018 Woolsey Fire". AP NEWS. December 21, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "Woolsey Fire Burns Rocketdyne: Massive Woolsey Fire Began On Contaminated Santa Susana Field Laboratory Close to Site of Partial Meltdown. Electric Substation at SSFL Tripped 2 Minutes Before Fire Reported". Rocketdyne Cleanup Coalition. November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- Ortiz, Erik (November 14, 2018). "Activists concerned after wildfire ripped through nuclear research site". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 14, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "Electrical Circuit Went Down 2 Minutes Before Woolsey Fire Was Reported, SoCal Edison Says". KTLA. November 12, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "Massive Woolsey Fire Began On Contaminated Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Close to Site of Partial Meltdown | Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles". Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- Gabbert, Bill (November 14, 2018). "Initial attack on Woolsey Fire was hampered by shortage of resources". Wildfire Today. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
- "First engine broke down en route to Woolsey fire, sources say. Blaze grew at a terrifying rate". Los Angeles Times. November 11, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- "LA Fire Trucks Sent to Nor Cal Fire Left Malibu Undefended, Chief Says". www.radiomalibu.net. December 5, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- "Amateur firefighters say they saved most of their Malibu neighborhood from the Woolsey fire". Daily News. November 11, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- "LA County fire chief faces tough questions about Woolsey response". Daily News. January 27, 2019. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- Chandler, Jenna (December 5, 2018). "Malibu residents vow not to evacuate in next fire". Curbed LA. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- "Despite evacuation orders, some Malibu residents 'stay and defend' homes". KCRW. December 13, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- "Woolsey Fire Doubles To 70,000 Acres, Destroys 150+ Homes And Forces Evacuation Of 250,000". CBS Los Angeles. CBS. November 10, 2018. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Chandler, Jenna (November 13, 2018). "Residents returning home as LA wildfire scorches 96,314 acres". Curbed LA. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "Hwy 101 closed in Ventura County after wildfire jumps highway". Associated Press. November 8, 2018. Archived from the original on November 17, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2018 – via KSBY.
- "Cal Fire". Woolsey Fire News. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- "USDA Forest Service Supports California Fire Suppression Efforts". US Forest Service. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- "2 killed in Woolsey Fire as it surpasses 83,200 acres". KSBY 6. NBC. November 10, 2018. Archived from the original on November 10, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- MYERS, AMANDA LEE; SKOLOFF, BRIAN (November 14, 2018). "3rd body reportedly found in Southern California fire zone". The Columbian. Retrieved February 4, 2019 – via Associated Press.
- Stallworth, Leo; Gregory, John; Garcia, Sid (November 14, 2018). "Woolsey Fire: Containment increases to 62 percent as fire burns 98,300 acres". KABC. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- Wallack, Roy (April 19, 2019). "Hiking in the Woolsey fire's burn area: See photos of nature's remarkable comeback". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
- Orozco, Lance (April 19, 2019). "They Look Pretty, But The Yellow-Green Plants On Central And South Coast Hills Are Invasive Weeds". KCLU News. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- Bravo, Kristina; Fenoglio, John; Lynn, Tim; Von Quednow, Cindy (November 10, 2018). "Woolsey Fire 5 Percent Contained at 109 Square Miles; 2 Found Dead in Malibu Were 'Severely Burned'". KTLA 5. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Ganey, Steve (November 10, 2018). "2 Dead in Malibu as Woolsey Fire Continues Destructive Path; Cause of Death Not Released". KTLA 5. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Li, David K. (November 14, 2018). "Sierra Fire erupts near Los Angeles as death toll rises in Woolsey Fire: The latest death brings the statewide total to 51, which is mostly attributed to the 48 who have been confirmed killed in the Camp Fire 500 miles north in Butte County". NBC News. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "Charred human remains found in Malibu area burned by wildfire". Reuters. January 23, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Stiles, Matt; Schleuss, Jon. "Woolsey fire likely worst ever to hit Malibu, with home losses topping $1.6 billion". www.latimes.com. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- "Ireland Baldwin Accused of Looting During Malibu Fire, Reveals Mom Kim Basinger 'Lost' Her Home". People. November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- Pasquini, Maria (November 11, 2018). "Gerard Butler, Camille Grammer & More Lose Homes to California Fires as Death Toll Climbs to 23". People. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- "Gerard Butler Shares Photo of Burned Malibu Home in Woolsey Fire". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Rahman, Abid (November 12, 2018). "Miley Cyrus' Home Burns Down in California Fires". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- Evans, Greg; Haring, Bruce (November 10, 2018). "Martin Sheen Found Safe, But Other Celebrities Still On The Move From Fires". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Miley Cyrus, Shannen Doherty, Gerard Butler Among Celebrities Who Have Lost Homes to Southern California's Woolsey Fire". Weather Channel. November 13, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Sharp, Tyler (November 11, 2018). "Fred Durst's House Burns Down in California Fires". Loudwire. Loudwire. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
- "Joe Flanigan on Instagram: "House gone. But I am grateful for the many great years Malibu has given me and my children. Now, trying to help neighbors save their…"". Instagram. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- @mikegarson (November 10, 2018). "The fire situation in the Los Angeles area is terrible" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Camille Grammer: 'My House Couldn't Be Saved' From Fires". Us Weekly. November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Desai, Devika (November 12, 2018). "Hollywood celebrities return to charred homes after California hellfire burns Malibu". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- Jones, Kaelen (November 13, 2018). "Phillies' Kapler on CA fires: 'Keep talking about it'". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "At Catherine Oxenberg's Malibu fire-destroyed home - only statue of Ganesh - Hindu god of fortune and overcoming adversity - survives". Artvoice. November 27, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- Coleman II, C. Vernon (November 10, 2018). "Lil Pump Evacuates California Home As Wildfire Reaches His Backyard". XXL.
- "Andrew Grams and the Dallas Symphony worked magic with Tchaikovsky's 'Nutcracker,' less elsewhere". Dallas News. November 23, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- "Woolsey Fire burns celebrities' homes, popular filming locations". ABC 10 News. ABC. November 10, 2018. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Pamer, Melissa (November 9, 2018). "Western Town at Paramount Ranch, Filming Location Since 1927, Burns in Woolsey Fire: NPS". KTLA 5. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Deb, Sopan (November 10, 2018). "Set for 'Westworld' and Other Shows Destroyed in California Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Johnson, Scott (November 12, 2018). "Historic Hollywood Sites Destroyed as Woolsey Fire Burns". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- Carter, Ryan (November 10, 2018). "Western Town, Reagan Ranch, Santa Susana Field Lab: The Woolsey fire torched them, but spared other famous sites". The Orange County Register. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Drysdale, Jennifer (November 9, 2018). "'Bachelor' Mansion Partially Destroyed by California Wildfire". Entertainment Tonight. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Strause, Jackie (November 9, 2018). "'The Bachelor' Mansion Burning Amid California Wildfires". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Seth Abramovitch (November 11, 2018). "Multiple Rehab Facilities Destroyed in Malibu Fires". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Torok, Ryan. "Three Beloved Camps Destroyed in Fires". Jewish Journal. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- "Woolsey Fire: Reporter helps burned cat get emergency care". ABC7 Chicago. November 9, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "Good news, California: Stanley the Giraffe is OK!". ABC7 Chicago. November 10, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "The animals caught in wildfire destruction". BBC News. November 12, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- Zauzmer, Emily (November 12, 2018). "Miley Cyrus & Neil Young lose homes in California fires as he slams 'unfit' Trump". People. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- Deruy, Emily (November 10, 2018). "Trump blames poor forest management for California fires, threatens to revoke funding". The Mercury News. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Becerra, Hector; Grad, Shelby (November 10, 2018). "Trump's erroneous claims about cause of California fires don't add up". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Wade, Peter (November 10, 2018). "California Wildfires Kill At Least 9 as Trump Blames the State". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Pierre-Louis, Kendra (November 12, 2018). "Trump's Misleading Claims About California's Fire 'Mismanagement'". Fact Check. The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
“These fires aren’t even in forests,” said Max Moritz, a wildfire specialist at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
- Tweet by Jose Del Real, November 10, 2018
- "LA County fire chief faces tough questions about Woolsey response". Daily News. January 27, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "LA County Fire Chief addresses contemptuous crowd at town hall meeting". www.malibusurfsidenews.com. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- Tallal, Jimy. "Fire Chief Faces Vitriolic Malibu Crowd". Malibu Times. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- Hamilton, Matt. "L.A. County and Malibu will study the Woolsey wildfire response in a 'new era of threat'". latimes.com. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "Council mulls independent review of City manager, staff's fire response". www.malibusurfsidenews.com. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- "SCE Investigated for Possible Role in Woolsey Fire". City News Service. Retrieved February 1, 2019 – via NBC Southern California.
- Ho, Vivian; Canon, Gabrielle (November 17, 2018). "How did California's wildfires start? Two utility companies face scrutiny". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
- Stiles, Matt; Serna, Joseph (October 23, 2019). "Woolsey fire response hurt by poor disaster preparation, lack of firefighters, report says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
- "Mayor Garcetti Asked Crews to Check on Bell Canyon Home During Woolsey Fire, Heavily Redacted Texts Show". Los Angeles Times. August 9, 2019. Retrieved April 1, 2020 – via KTLA.
- Tchekmedyian, Alene (March 31, 2020). "L.A. supervisors remove Sheriff Alex Villanueva as head of emergency operations". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Staff (March 16, 2020). "LA County Sheriff Releases Some Jail Inmates, Advises Against Buying A Gun Right Now". LAist. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "LA County Removes Sheriff as Head of Emergency Operations". NBC Los Angeles. March 31, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Woolsey Fire.|
- Los Angeles Fire Department — Woolsey Fire
- Ventura Country Sheriff's Office — Emergency Incident Information, Hill Fire & Woolsey Fire
- Woolsey Fire Incident Information fire.ca.gov
- Woolsey Fire Incident Maps fire.ca.gov
- Woolsey Fire News Releases fire.ca.gov
- Recordings of fire department radio messages
- Woolsey Fire Burn Scar- NASA Earth Observatory