Authorship of the Bible
|Part of a series on the|
|Bible book Bible portal|
The following tables outline the conclusions of the majority of contemporary scholars on the authorship and composition history of the Hebrew Bible (the Protestant Old Testament), the deuterocanonical works (also called the apocrypha), and the New Testament.
- 1 Table I: Chronological overview
- 2 Table II: Hebrew Bible/Protestant Old Testament
- 3 Table III: Deuterocanonical Old Testament
- 4 Table IV: New Testament
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Table I: Chronological overview
This table summarises the chronology of the main tables and serves as a guide to the historical periods mentioned.
8th–6th centuries BCE
c. 745–586 BCE
6th century BCE
6th–4th centuries BCE
4th–2nd centuries BCE
2nd century BCE-1st century CE
Table II: Hebrew Bible/Protestant Old Testament
The Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh, is the collection of scriptures making up the Bible used by Judaism; the same books, in a slightly different order, also make up the Protestant version of the Old Testament. The order used here follows the divisions used in Jewish Bibles.
|Book of Genesis
Book of Exodus
Book of Leviticus
Book of Numbers
Book of Deuteronomy
The Torah is the collective name for the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. According to tradition the author was Moses, but the modern consensus is that it is the product of a long evolutionary process. Until the last quarter of the 20th century the documentary hypothesis formed the basis of a consensus on how the the five books were composed. This theory, in essence, was that four independent histories of Israel's earliest days, called "sources", each covering the same material from the Creation to the arrival at the borders of the Promised Land, had been intertwined to form the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, with Deuteronomy standing apart from the other four.
Deuteronomy was the first of the five to take written form, a process which probably began in the second half of the 7th century, although the book continued to be revised and expanded into the post-exilic period. Its earliest form was the law-code contained in Deuteronomy 5-26, and its most likely authors were scribes of the Jerusalem temple. Around 540 BCE, at the end of the Babylonian exile, chapters 1-4 and 29-30 were added so that story of the entry into the Promised Land mirrored the return to the land, and the book became the introduction to the Deuteronomistic History of Joshua-2 Kings. The remaining chapters were added in the late 5th century, and Deuteronomy was made the last book of the Torah.
The consensus around the documentary hypothesis collapsed in the last decades of the 20th century. The current position sees only two major sources in the Pentateuch, the Deuteronomist (confined to the Book of Deuteronomy) and the Priestly source (confined to the books Genesis-Exodus-Leviticus-Numbers). The remainder is called collectively non-Priestly, a grouping which includes both pre-Priestly and post-Priestly material. The final Torah is increasingly seen as a product of the Persian period (539–333 BCE, probably 450–350 BCE), although some would place it somewhat later, in the Hellenistic (333–164 BCE) or even Hasmonean (140–37 BCE) periods – the latter remains a minority view, but the Elephantine papyri, the records of a Jewish colony in Egypt dating from the last quarter of the 5th century BCE, show no knowledge of a Torah or of an exodus. There is also a growing recognition that Genesis developed separately from Exodus-Leviticus-Numbers, and was joined to the story of Moses by the Priestly writer.
A revised neo-documentary hypothesis still has adherents, especially in North America and Israel, but European scholars have largely rejected it as fragmentary or non-existent.
|Former Prophets:||This group of books, plus Deuteronomy, is called the "Deuteronomistic history" by scholars. The proposal that they made up a unified work was first advanced by Martin Noth in 1943, and has been widely accepted, although with some revisions. Noth proposed that the entire history was the creation of a single individual working in the exilic period (6th century BCE); since then there has been wide recognition that the history appeared in two "editions", the first in the reign of Judah's King Josiah (late 7th century), the second during the Babylonian exile (6th century). Noth's dating was based on the assumption that the history was completed very soon after its last recorded event, the release of King Jehoiachin in Babylon c. 560 BCE; but some scholars have termed his reasoning inadequate, and the history may have been further extended in the post-exilic period.|
|Three Major Prophets:|
The scholarly consensus which held sway through most of the 20th century saw three separate collections of oracles in the book of Isaiah: Proto-Isaiah, containing the words of the original Isaiah; Deutero-Isaiah, the work of an anonymous Exilic author; and Trito-Isaiah, a post-exilic anthology of about twelve passages. While one part of the consensus still holds – virtually no contemporary scholar maintains that the entire book, or even most of it, was written by one person – this perception of Isaiah as made up of three rather distinct sections underwent a radical challenge in the last quarter of the 20th century. The newer approach looks at the book in terms of its literary and formal characteristics, rather than authors, and sees in it a two-part structure divided between chapters 33 and 34:
The Book of Jeremiah exists in two versions, Greek (the version used in Orthodox Christian Bibles) and Hebrew (Jewish, Catholic and Protestant Bibles), with the Greek representing the earlier version. The Greek version was probably finalised in the early Persian period and translated into Greek in the 3rd century BCE, and the Hebrew version dates from some point between then and the 2nd century BCE.
The Book of Ezekiel describes itself as the words of the Ezekiel ben-Buzi, a priest living in exile in the city of Babylon, and internal evidence dates the visions to between 593 and 571 BCE. While the book probably reflects much of the historic Ezekiel, it is the product of a long and complex history, with significant additions by a "school" of later followers. There is general agreement that the book as we have it today is the product of a highly educated priestly circle that owed allegiance to the historical Ezekiel and was closely associated with the Second Temple.
|Twelve Minor Prophets||The Twelve Minor Prophets are a single collection edited in the Second Temple period. This process is believed to have reached its final form in the Persian period (538–332 BCE), although there is disagreement over whether this was early or late. With the exception of Jonah, which is a fictional work, there exists an original core of prophetic tradition behind each book:
Job, Ecclesiastes and Proverbs
|The unknown author of the Book of Job is unlikely to have written earlier than the 6th century BCE, and the cumulative evidence suggests a post-Exilic date. It contains some 1,000 lines, of which about 750 form the original core. The Book of Ecclesiastes is usually dated to the mid-3rd century BCE, and a provenance in Jerusalem is considered likely. The book's claim of Solomon as author is a literary fiction; the author also identifies himself as "Qoheleth", a word of obscure meaning which critics have understood variously as a personal name, a nom de plume, an acronym, and a function; a final self-identification is as "shepherd", a title usually implying royalty.The Book of Proverbs consists of several collections taken from various sources. Verses 10:1–22:16 are probably the oldest section, with chapters 1–9 being composed as a prologue – there is some question whether this happened before or after the Babylonian exile (587 BCE). The remaining collections are probably later, with the book reaching its final form around the 3rd century BCE.|
|Poetic works: Psalms and Lamentations||The psalms making up the first two-thirds of the psalter are predominantly pre-exilic and the last third predominantly post-exilic. The collected book of Psalms was possibly given its modern shape and division into five parts in the post-exilic period, although it continued to be revised and expanded well into Hellenistic and even Roman times. It is generally accepted that the destruction of Jerusalem by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 586 BCE forms the background to the Book of Lamentations.|
|Histories: Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah||Chronicles is an anonymous work from Levitical circles in Jerusalem, probably composed in the late 4th century BCE. Although the book is divided into two parts (1st and 2nd Chronicles), the majority of studies propose a single underlying text with lengthy later additions and amendments to underline certain interests such as the cult or the priesthood.
The Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah were originally one work, Ezra-Nehemiah. H.G.M Williamson (1987) proposed three basic stages leading to the final work: (1) composition of the various lists and Persian documents, which he accepts as authentic and therefore the earliest parts of the book; (2) composition of the "Ezra memoir" and "Nehemiah memoir", about 400 BCE; and (3) composition of Ezra 1–6 as the final editor's introduction to the combined earlier texts, about 300 BCE. Lester Grabbe (2003) puts the combination of the two texts Ezra and Nehemiah, with some final editing, somewhat later, in the Ptolemaic period, c. 300–200 BCE.
|Miscellaneous works: Book of Ruth, Book of Esther, Book of Daniel, Song of Songs||The Talmud refers to Samuel as the author of Ruth, but this conflicts with several details inside the book. It has been proposed that the anonymous author was a woman, or if a man then one who took women's issues seriously. The book is largely a unity, although the genealogy of David appears to be a later addition. The Book of Esther was composed in the late 4th or early 3rd century BCE among the Jews of the eastern diaspora. The genre of the book is the novella or short story, and it draws on the themes of wisdom literature; its sources are still unresolved. Scholars still debate whether the Song of Songs is a single unified work (and therefore from a single author), or more in the nature of an anthology. The Book of Daniel can be dated more precisely to 164 BCE thanks to its veiled prophecy of the death of a Greek king of Syria, which is a reference to the Seleucid Empire. The Book of Daniel presents itself as the work of a prophet named Daniel who lived during the 6th century BCE; the overwhelming majority of modern scholars date it to the 2nd century BCE. The author, writing in the time of the Maccabees to assure his fellow-Jews that their persecution by the Syrians would come to an end and see them victorious, seems to have constructed his book around the legendary Daniel mentioned in Ezekiel, a figure ranked with Noah and Job for his wisdom and righteousness. Daniel (Dn'il, or Danel) is also the name of a figure in the Aqhat legend from Ugarit.|
Table III: Deuterocanonical Old Testament
The Deuterocanonical works are books included in Catholic and Orthodox but not in Jewish and Protestant Bibles.
|Book of Tobit||Book of Tobit is set in the 8th century BCE and named after its central character, a pious Jew in exile. It can be dated to 225–175 BCE on the basis of its use of language and references common to the post-exilic period, combined with a lack of knowledge of the 2nd century BCE persecution of Jews.|
|1 and 2 Esdras||Jerome's translation of the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate) contained four books of Esdras (i.e. Ezra); Jerome's 1 and 2 Esdras were eventually renamed Ezra and Nehemiah; the remaining books each moved up two places in most versions, but the numbering system remains highly confused. The present 1 Esdras takes material from the Book of Chronicles and the Book of Ezra, but ignores Nehemiah entirely; it was probably composed in the period 200–100 BCE. 2 Esdras has no connection with the other Esdras books beyond taking Ezra as its central character. It was probably written soon after the destruction of the Temple by the Roman Empire in 70 CE, an event of the First Jewish–Roman War.|
|Book of Judith||The Book of Judith is set in Israel in the time of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Assyria. It has strong Persian elements, which suggests a 4th-century BCE date, and strong parallels with the Hasmonean dynasty period, which suggests a 2nd-century date. It is typically labeled Pharisaic, but an origin in Sadducee circles has also been suggested.|
|Maccabees (four books)||The anonymous author of 1 Maccabees was an educated Jew and a serious historian; a date around 100 BCE is most likely. 2 Maccabees is a revised and condensed version of a work by an otherwise unknown author called Jason of Cyrene, plus passages by the anonymous editor who made the condensation (called "the Epitomist"). Jason most probably wrote in the mid to late 2nd century BCE, and the Epitomist before 63 BCE. 3 Maccabees concerns itself with the Jewish community in Egypt a half-century before the revolt, suggesting that the author was an Egyptian Jew, and probably a native of Alexandria. A date of c. 100–75 BCE is "very probable". 4 Maccabees was probably composed in the middle half of the 1st century CE, by a Jew living in Roman Syria or Asia Minor.|
|Wisdom of Sirach and Wisdom of Solomon||The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes)] names its author as Jesus ben Sirach. He was probably a scribe, offering instruction to the youth of Jerusalem. His grandson's preface to the Greek translation helps date the work to the first quarter of the 2nd century BCE, probably between 196 BCE and the beginning of the oppression of the Jews by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who reigned 175–164 BCE. The Wisdom of Solomon is unlikely to have been written earlier than the 2nd century BCE, and probably dates from 100 to 50 BCE. Its self-attribution to Solomon was questioned even in the Middle Ages, and it shows affinities with the Egyptian Jewish community and with Pharisee teachings.|
|Additions to Esther||The Book of Esther was composed probably around 400 BCE by Jews living in the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire and reached its final form by the 2nd century BCE; concerns over the legitimacy of certain passages in the Hebrew text led to the identification of the additions to Esther in the Greek translation of Esther of the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE.|
|Additions to Daniel||The Greek text of the Book of Daniel contains additions not found in the Hebrew/Aramaic version. The Prayer of Azariah (one of Daniel's companions) was probably composed around 169/8–165/4, when Antiochus IV Epiphanes was oppressing the Jews. The Song of the Three Holy Children (i.e., the three thrown into the furnace) may have been composed by priestly circles in Jerusalem. Susanna may have been composed around 170–130 BCE in the context of the Hellenisation struggle. Bel and the Dragon is difficult to date, but the late 6th century BCE is possible.|
|Prayer of Manasseh||The Prayer of Manasseh presents itself as a prayer from the wicked, but now penitent, king Manasseh (or Manassas) from his exile in Babylon. The actual author is unknown, and the date of composition is probably the 2nd or 1st centuries BCE.|
|Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah||The Book of Baruch was written in the 2nd century BCE during or shortly after the period of the Maccabees, as Baruch uses Sirach (written c. 180 BCE) as a source and is in turn used by the Psalms of Solomon (mid-1st century BCE). The Letter of Jeremiah is sometimes considered a separate book. The author apparently appropriated the name of the prophet Jeremiah to lend authority to his composition. Is was not written by Jeremiah's secretary Baruch, although it appears as the last chapter of Baruch in the Catholic Bible and the King James Version. Internal evidence points to a date around 317 BCE, with the author possibly a Jew in Palestine addressing Jews of the diaspora.|
|Additional psalms||The canonical Book of Psalms contains 150 entries. Psalm 151 is found in most Greek translations, and the Hebrew version was found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Psalms 152–155 are part of the Syriac Peshitta Bible, some of which were found at Qumran.|
Table IV: New Testament
|Gospels and Acts|
|Gospel of Mark|| Mark, like all the gospels, is anonymous. It relies on several underlying sources, varying in form and in theology, which tells against the tradition that its author was John Mark (Mark the Evangelist), the companion of Peter, or that it was based on Peter's preaching. Various elements within the gospel, including the importance of the authority of Peter and the broadness of the basic theology, suggest that the author wrote in Syria or Palestine for a non-Jewish Christian community which had earlier absorbed the influence of pre-Pauline beliefs and then developed them further independent of Paul. References to persecution and to war in Judea suggest that the context in which Mark was written was either Nero's persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt.|
|Gospel of Matthew||80–90 CE. The majority of modern scholars believe it is unlikely that this gospel was written by an eyewitness to the ministry of Jesus. Internal evidence suggests that the author was an ethnic Jewish male scribe from a Hellenised city, possibly Antioch in Syria, and that he used a variety of oral traditions and written sources about Jesus, most importantly Mark and the hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q document. The date is based on three strands of evidence: (a) the setting of Matthew reflects the final separation of Church and Synagogue, about 85 CE; (b) it reflects the capture of Jerusalem and destruction of the Temple by the Romans in 70 CE; (c) it uses Mark, usually dated around 70 CE, as a source.|
|Gospel of Luke
Acts of the Apostles
|80–90 CE, with some scholars suggesting 90–100. There is general agreement that Luke and Acts originated as a two-volume work by a single author. This author was an "amateur Hellenistic historian" versed in Greek rhetoric, that being the standard training for historians in the ancient world. According to tradition the author was Luke the Evangelist, the companion of the Apostle Paul, but modern scholars believe the work was written by an anonymous Christian author who was not an eyewitness to any of the events within the text. Some of the evidence comes from the text of Luke-Acts itself. In the preface to Luke, the author refers to having eyewitness testimony "handed down to us" and to having undertaken a "careful investigation", but does not mention his own name or explicitly claim to be an eyewitness to any of the events. The we passages in Acts are written in the first person plural— the author never refers to himself as "I" or "me" - and these are usually regarded as fragments of some earlier account which was incorporated into Acts by the later author, or simply a Greek rhetorical device used for sea voyages. If Acts uses Josephus as a source, as has been proposed, then it must have been composed after 93 CE; the social situation is one in which the faithful need "shepherds" to protect them from heretical "wolves", which again reflects a late date. There is evidence, both textual (the conflicts between Western and Alexandrian manuscript families) and from the Marcionite controversy (Marcion was a 2nd-century heretic who produced his own version of Christian scripture based on Luke's gospel and Paul's epistles) that Luke-Acts was still being substantially revised well into the 2nd century.|
|Gospel of John||90–110 CE.  John 21:24 identifies "the beloved disciple" as the author of at least some of the gospel, and from the late 2nd century this figure, unnamed in the Gospel itself, was identified as John the Evangelist, the author of the entire gospel. Today, however, most scholars agree that John 21 is an appendix to the Gospel, which originally ended at John 20:30–31. and believe that the author made use of two major sources, a "Signs" source (a collection of seven miracle stories) and a "Discourse" source. The lower date of c.90 CE is based on internal reference to the expulsion of Christians from the synagogues, and the upper on external evidence that it was known in the early 2nd century.|
|Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon|
|Epistle to the Romans||c. 57 CE. Written to the Romans as Paul was about to leave Asia Minor and Greece, and expressing his hopes to continue his work in Spain.|
|Corinthians||c. 56 CE. Another of the Genuine Pauline letters. Paul expresses his intention to re-visit the church he founded in the city c. 50–52 CE.|
|Galatians||c. 55 CE. Paul does not express any wish to revisit the church in Galatia, which he founded, and so some scholars believe the letter dates from the end of his missionary work. The letter concerns the question of whether Gentile converts are required to adopt full Jewish customs.|
|Philippians||c. 54–55 CE. A genuine Pauline letter, it mentions "Caesar's household," leading some scholars to believe that it is written from Rome, but some of the news in it could not have come from Rome. It seems rather to date from an earlier imprisonment, perhaps in Ephesus, from which Paul hopes to be released.|
|1 Thessalonians||c. 51 CE. One of the earliest of the genuine Pauline epistles.|
|Philemon||c. 54–55 CE. A genuine Pauline epistle, written from an imprisonment (probably in Ephesus) that Paul expects will soon be over.|
|Ephesians||c. 80–90 CE. The letter appears to have been written after Paul's death, by an author who uses his name.|
|Colossians||c. 62–70 CE. Some scholars believe Colossians dates from Paul's imprisonment in Ephesus around 55 CE, but differences in the theology suggest that it comes from much later in his career, around the time of his imprisonment in Rome.|
|2 Thessalonians||c. 51 CE or post-70 CE. If this is a genuine Pauline epistle it follows closely on 1 Thessalonians. But some of the language and theology point to a much later date, from an unknown author using Paul's name.|
|c. 100 CE. The three Pastoral epistles – First and Second Timothy and Titus, are probably from the same author, but reflect a much more developed Church organisation than that reflected in the genuine Pauline epistles. Most scholars regard them as the work of someone other than Paul.|
|Epistle to the Hebrews|
|c. 80–90 CE. The elegance of the Greek and the sophistication of the theology do not fit the genuine Pauline epistles, but the mention of Timothy in the conclusion led to its being included with the Pauline group from an early date. Pauline authorship is now generally rejected, and the real author is unknown.|
|James||c. 65–85 CE. The traditional authors are James the Just, "a servant of God and brother of the Lord Jesus Christ". Like Hebrews, James is not so much a letter as an exhortation; the style of the Greek makes it unlikely that it was actually written by James the brother of Jesus, and most scholars regard all the letters in this group as pseudonymous.|
|First Peter||c. 75–90 CE|
|Second Peter||c. 110 CE. The epistles quotes from Jude, assumes a knowledge of the Pauline letters, and includes a reference to the gospel story of the Transfiguration of Christ, all signs of a comparatively late date.|
|Epistles of John||90–110 CE. The letters give no clear indication of their date, but scholars tend to place them about a decade after the Gospel of John.|
|Jude||Uncertain date. The references to the "brother of James" and to "what the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ foretold" suggest that it was written after the apostolic letters were in circulation, but before 2 Peter, which quotes it.|
|c. 95 CE. The date is suggested by clues in the visions pointing to the reign of the emperor Domitian. The author was traditionally believed to be the same person as both John the Apostle/John the Evangelist, the traditional author of the Fourth Gospel – the tradition can be traced to Justin Martyr, writing in the early 2nd century. Most biblical scholars now believe that these were separate individuals. The name "John" suggests that the author was a Christian of Jewish descent, and although he never explicitly identifies himself as a prophet it is likely that he belonged to a group of Christian prophets and was known as such to members of the churches in Asia Minor. Since the 2nd century the author has been identified with one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. This is commonly linked with an assumption that the same author wrote the Gospel of John. Others, however, have argued that the author could have been John the Elder of Ephesus, a view which depends on whether a tradition cited by Eusebius was referring to someone other than the apostle. The precise identity of "John" therefore remains unknown.|
- Authorship of the Johannine works
- Authorship of the Petrine epistles
- Bible manuscript
- Books of the Bible
- Dating the Bible
- Kelle 2005, p. 9.
- Brettler 2010, p. 161–162.
- Radine 2010, p. 71-72.
- Rogerson 2003a, p. 690.
- O'Brien 2002, p. 14.
- Gelston 2003c, p. 715.
- Rogerson 2003b, p. 154.
- Campbell & O'Brien 2000, p. 2 and fn.6.
- Gelston 2003a, p. 710.
- Gelston 2003b, p. 696.
- Brettler 2007, p. 311.
- Biddle 2007, p. 1073.
- Goldingay 2003, p. 623.
- Blenkinsopp 2007, p. 974.
- Carr 2011, p. 342.
- Greifenhagen 2003, p. 212.
- Enns 2012, p. 5.
- Allen 2008, p. 11.
- Nelson 2014, p. 214.
- Nelson 2014, p. 214-215.
- Carroll 2003, p. 730.
- McKenzie 2004, p. 32.
- Grabbe 2003, p. 00.
- Rogerson 2003c, p. 8.
- Nelson 2014, p. 217.
- Day 1990, p. 16.
- Collins 2002, p. 2.
- deSilva 2003, p. 888.
- McDermott 2002, p. 1.
- Berlin 1994, p. 113.
- Baden 2012, p. 13.
- Rogerson 2003a, p. 153-154.
- Rogerson 2003a, p. 154.
- Carr 2014, p. 434.
- Otto 2014, p. 609.
- Greifenhagen 2003, p. 206–207, 224 fn.49.
- Gmirkin 2006, p. 32.
- Ska 2006, p. viii.
- Gaines 2015, p. 271-272.
- Person 2010, p. 10-11.
- Goldingay 2001, pp. 22–23.
- Petersen 2002, pp. 47–48.
- Soggin 1989, p. 394.
- Sweeney 1998, p. 78.
- Petersen 2002, p. 47-48.
- Sweeney 1998, p. 78-79.
- Allen 2008, p. 7-8.
- Sweeney 2010, p. 94.
- Blenkinsopp 1996, p. 8.
- Joyce 2009, p. 16.
- Joseph Blenkinsopp, "A History of Prophecy in Israel" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1996) pp. 167–68
- Redditt 2003, pp. 1–3, 9.
- Redditt, Paul L., and Schart, Aaron (eds) "Thematic threads in the Book of the Twelve" (Walter de Gruyter, 2003) p. 9
- Floyd 2000, p. 9.
- Dell 1996, pp. 86–89.
- Emmerson 2003, p. 676.
- Nelson 2014, p. 216.
- Carroll 2003, p. 690.
- Gelston 2003, p. 696.
- Rogerson 2003, p. 690.
- Rogerson 2003, p. 708.
- Gelston 2003, p. 710.
- Gelston 2003, p. 715.
- Habel, Norman C., "The Book of Job: A Commentary" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1985) pp. 40–43
- Whybray, Norman, "Wisdom: the collected articles of Norman Whybray" (Ashgate Publishing, 2005) p. 181
- Crenshaw, James L., "Old Testament wisdom: an introduction" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2010) pp. 144–45
- Crenshaw, James L., "Old Testament wisdom: an introduction" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2010) p. 66
- Snell, Daniel C., "Twice-told Proverbs and the composition of the book of Proverbs" (Eisenbrauns, 1993) p. 8
- Coogan, Brettler & Newsom 2007, p. xxiii.
- Hayes 1998, p. 168.
- M. Patrick Graham, The "Chronicler's History": Ezra-Nehemiah, 1–2 Chronicles in Graham, M.P, and McKenzie, Steven L., "The Hebrew Bible today: an introduction to critical issues" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) p. 210
- H.P. Mathys, 1 and 2 Chonicles, in Oxford Bible Commentary (ed. John Barton, John Muddiman, Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 267
- Throntveit, Mark A., "Ezra-Nehemiah" (John Knox Press, 1992) pp. 9–10
- Lester Grabbe, Ezra, in Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) pp. 313–14
- Hubbard, Robert L. "Book of Ruth" (Eerdmans, 1989) p. 23
- Brenner, Athalya & Fontaine, Carole R. (1999). The Feminist Companion to the Bible. Sheffield Academic Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-85075-978-2. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
- Korpel, Marjo, "The structure of the book of Ruth" (Uitgeverij Van Gorcum, 2001) p. 224
- Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) pp. 329–30
- J. Cheryl Exum, Song of songs: a commentary (Westminster John Knox Press, 2005) pp. 33–37.
- Collins 1984, p. 101.
- James C. VanderKam, Peter Flint, "The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls" (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002) p. 137
- Shemaryahu Talmon, Daniel, in Robert Alter, Frank Kermode, "The Literary Guide to the Bible" (Harvard University Press, 1990), p. 345
- Collins 1999, p. 219.
- Oxford Bible Commentary (ed. John Barton, John Muddiman, Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 627
- FitzMyer 2003, p. 51.
- Daniell Smith-Christopher, Ezra-Nehemiah in Oxford Bible Commentary (ed. John Barton, John Muddiman, Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 308
- Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Mercer University Press, 1991) p. 482
- Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) pp. 807–08
- Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) pp. 831–32
- Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) p. 866
- Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) p. 888
- Oxford Bible Commentary (ed. John Barton, John Muddiman, Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 667
- Oxford Bible Commentary (ed. John Barton, John Muddiman, Oxford University Press, 2001) pp. 650–53
- Oxford Bible Commentary (ed. John Barton, John Muddiman, Oxford University Press, 2001) p. 325
- Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) pp. 803–06
- Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Mercer University Press, 1991) p. 544
- P. P. Saydon, "Baruch" by revised by T. Hanlon, in A New Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture, ed. Reginald C. Fuller, Thomas Nelson, Inc. Publishers, 1953, 1975, §504h.
- Schmitt 2003, p. 799,802.
- Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Mercer University Press, 1991) p. 438
- Soggin, J. Alberto, "Introduction to the Old Testament" (Westminster John Knox) p. 424
- Perkins 2012, p. 19ff.
- Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. translated from German (1996 edition). pp. 24–27.
- Jens Schroter, Gospel of Mark, in Aune, p. 278
- Perkins 1998, p. 241.
- Duling 2010, p. 298-299.
- "Matthew, Gospel acc. to St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- Dennis C. Duling, Gospel of Matthew, in Aune, David E., (ed) "The Blackwell companion to the New Testament" (Blackwell Publishing, 2010), pp. 302–03.
- Dennis C. Duling, Gospel of Matthew, in Aune, David E., (ed) "The Blackwell companion to the New Testament" (Blackwell Publishing, 2010), p. 296
- France 2007, p. 18.
- Charlesworth 2008, p. unpaginated.
- Horrell, DG, An Introduction to the study of Paul, T&T Clark, 2006, 2nd Ed., p. 7; cf. W. L. Knox, The Acts of the Apostles (1948), pp. 2–15 for detailed arguments that still stand.
- David E. Aune, "The New Testament in its literary environment" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1987) p. 77
- Robbins, Vernon. "By Land and By Sea: The We-Passages and Ancient Sea Voyages." In C. H. Talbert, ed. Perspectives on Luke-Acts. Perspectives in Religious Studies, Special Studies Series, No. 5. Macon, Ga: Mercer Univ. Press and Edinburgh: T.& T. Clark, 1978: 215–42.
- Boring 2012, p. 587.
- Perkins 2009, p. 250–253.
- Lincoln 2005, p. 18.
- The Gospel and Epistles of John: a concise commentary Raymond Edward Brown (Liturgical Press, 1988) p. 10
- Barnabas Lindars, "John" (Sheffield Academic Press, 1990) p.11
- David E. Aune "The New Testament in its literary environment" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1987) p. 20
- Perkins 2003, p. 1274.
- Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible (ed. James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Eerdmans, 2003) p. 1274
- Ehrman 2004:385
- Ehrman, Bart D. (February 2011). "3. Forgeries in the Name of Paul. The Pastoral Letters: 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus" (EPUB). Forged: Writing in the Name of God – Why the Bible’s Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are (First Edition. EPub ed.). New York: HarperCollins e-books. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6.
Before showing why most scholars consider them to be written by someone other than Paul, I should give a brief summary of each letter.
- Fonck, Leopold. "Epistle to the Hebrews." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. Web: 30 Dec. 2009.
- Kim 2003, p. 250.
- Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 81.4
- Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. p. 355
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2004). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford. p. 468. ISBN 978-0-19-515462-7.
- "Eerdmans commentary on the Bible", James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson (eds) p. 1535
- Alexander, Philip S. (2003). "3 Maccabees". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Allen, Leslie C. (2008). Jeremiah: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664222239.
- Alter, Dennis (2009). The Book of Psalms: A Translation with Commentary. W. W. Norton. ISBN 9780393337044.
- Bartlett, John R. (2003). "1 Maccabees". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Bernstein, Alan E. (1996). The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801481314.
- Berquist, Jon L. (2007). Approaching Yehud: New Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period. SBL Press. ISBN 9781589831452.
- Biddle, Mark E. (2007). "Jeremiah". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2007). "Isaiah". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1996). A history of prophecy in Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256395.
- Boring, M. Eugene (2012). An Introduction to the New Testament: History, Literature, Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664255923.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2007). "Introduction to the Historical Books". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.
- Brettler, Marc Zvi (2010). How to read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 978-0-8276-0775-0.
- Brueggemann, Walter (2003). An introduction to the Old Testament: the canon and Christian imagination. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 978-0-664-22412-7.
- Campbell, Antony F.; O'Brien, Mark A. (2000). Unfolding the Deuteronomistic History. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413687.
- Carr, David (2011). The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: A New Reconstruction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199742608.
- Carr, David (2000). "Genesis, Book of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.
- Carroll, M. Daniel (2003). "Amos". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Carroll, M. Daniel (2003). "Malachi". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Charlesworth, James H. (2008). The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426724756.
- Collins, John J. (2002). "Current Issues in the Study of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004116757.
- Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann (2007). "Editors' Introduction". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.
- Davidson, Robert (1993). "Jeremiah, Book of". In Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199743919.
- Day, John (1990). The Psalms. Old Testament guides. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-85075-703-0.
- Dell, Katherine J. (2003). "Job". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Dell, Katherine J (1996). "Reinventing the Wheel: the Shaping of the Book of Jonah". In Barton, John; Reimer, David James. After the exile: essays in honour of Rex Mason. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865545243.
- deSilva, David A. (2003). "4 Maccabees". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Dozeman, Thomas (2000). "Exodus, Book of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.
- Duling, Dennis C. (2010). "The Gospel of Matthew". In Aune, David E. The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0825-6.
- Emmerson, Grace I. (2003). "Hosea". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Enns, Peter (2012). The Evolution of Adam. Baker Books. ISBN 9781587433153.
- Evans, Craig A. (2008-10-01). "Introduction". In Evans, Craig A.; Tov, Emanuel. Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective. Acadia Studies in Bible and Theology. Baker Academic (published 2008). ISBN 9781585588145.
- Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (2003). Tobit. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110175745.
- Floyd, Michael H (2000). Minor prophets. 2. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802844521.
- France, R.T (2007). The Gospel of Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802825018.
- Gelston, Anthony (2003a). "Habakkuk". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Gelston, Anthony (2003b). "Obadiah". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Gelston, Anthony (2003c). "Zephaniah". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Goldingay, John A. (2003). "Ezekiel". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Greifenhagen, Franz V. (2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780567391360.
- Harlow, Daniel C. (2003). "Additions to Daniel". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Haymen, A. Peter (2003). "Wisdom of Solomon". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Houston, Walter J (2003). "Leviticus". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Bible Commentary. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Joyce, Paul M. (2009). Ezekiel: A Commentary. Continuum. ISBN 9780567483614.
- Kelle, Brad E. (2005). Hosea 2: Metaphor and Rhetoric in Historical Perspective. Society of Biblical Literature.
- Kselman, John S. (2007). "Psalms". In Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195288803.
- Kim, P.J (2003). "Letters of John". In Aune, David. Westminster Dictionary of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664219178.
- Lincoln, Andrew (2005). Gospel According to St John. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781441188229.
- McDermott, John J (2002). Reading the Pentateuch: a historical introduction. Pauline Press. ISBN 9780809140824.
- Miller, Patrick D. (1990). Deuteronomy. John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664237370.
- McKenzie, Steven L. (2004). Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries: I & II Chronicles. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426759802.
- Nelson, Richard D. (2014). Historical Roots of the Old Testament (1200–63 BCE). SBL Press. ISBN 9781628370065.
- O'Brien, Julia M. (2002). Nahum. A&C Black. ISBN 9781841273006.
- Perkins, Pheme (2012). Reading the New Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809147861.
- Perkins, Pheme (1998). "The Synoptic Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles: Telling the Christian Story". In Barton, John. The Cambridge companion to biblical interpretation. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 241–58. ISBN 978-0-521-48593-7.
- Person, Raymond F. (2010). The Deuteronomic History and the Book of Chronicles. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 9781589835177.
- Radine, Jason (2010). The Book of Amos in Emergent Judah. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 9783161501142.
- Redditt, Paul L (2003). "The Formation of the Book of the Twelve". In Redditt, Paul L; Schart, Aaron. Thematic threads in the Book of the Twelve. ISBN 9783110175943.
- Rogerson, John W. (2003a). "Micah". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Rogerson, John W. (2003b). "Deuteronomy". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Rogerson, John W. (2003c). "The History of the Tradition: Old Testament and Apocrypha". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Rogerson, John W. (2003d). "Nahum". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Satlow, Michael L. (2014). How the Bible Became Holy. Yale University Press.
- Schmitt, John J. (2003). "Baruch". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Schniedewind, William M. (2005). How the Bible Became a Book. Cambridge University Press.
- Ska, Jean-Louis (2006). Introduction to reading the Pentateuch. Eisenbrauns.
- Snaith, John (2003). "Sirach". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Spencer, Richard A. (2002). "Additions to Daniel". In Mills, Watson E.; Wilson, Richard F. Mercer Commentary on the Bible: The Deuterocanonicals/Apocrypha. Mercer University Press.
- Stromberg, Jake (2011). An Introduction to the Study of Isaiah. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780567363305.
- Sweeney, Marvin A. (2010). The Prophetic Literature. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426730030.
- Sweeney, Marvin A. (1998). "The Latter Prophets". In McKenzie, Steven L.; Graham, Matt Patrick. The Hebrew Bible Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256524.
- Van Seters, John (2004). The Pentateuch: a social-science commentary. T&T Clark International. ISBN 9780567080882.
- Vogt, Peter T. (2009). Interpreting the Pentateuch: An Exegetical Handbook. Kregel Academic. ISBN 9780825427626.
- West, Gerald (2003). "Judith". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Wright, J. Edward (1999). The Early History of Heaven. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198029816.
- Zvi, Ehud Ben (2004). "Introduction to The Twelve Minor Prophets". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Mark Zvi. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19529751-5.
- Olson, Roger E. (2016). The Mosaic of Christian Belief. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830899708.
- Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (1996). The Hebrew Bible. A&C Black. ISBN 9780304337033.
- Jacobs, Louis (1995). The Jewish Religion: A Companion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198264637.
- Rabin, Elliott (2006). Understanding the Hebrew Bible: A Reader's Guide. KTAV Publishing House. ISBN 9780881258714.
- Römer, Thomas; De Pury, Albert (2000). "Deuteronomistic Historiography". In De Pury, Albert; Römer, Thomas; Macchi, Jean-Daniel. Israel Constructs Its History: Deuteronomistic Historiography in Recent Research. A&C Black. ISBN 9781841270999.
- Romer, Thomas, "The Future of the Deuteronomistic History" (Leuven University Press, 2000)
- Perdue, Leo G., ed. (2001). The Blackwell Companion to the Hebrew Bible. Blackwell. ISBN 9780631210719.
- Barton, John; Muddiman, John, eds. (2001). Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.
- Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William, eds. (2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (February 2011). Forged: Writing in the Name of God—Why the Bible's Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780062078636.
- Heschel, Abraham Joshua (2005). Heavenly Torah: As Refracted Through the Generations. A&C Black. ISBN 9780826408020.
- Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. 1991. ISBN 9780865543737.
- William David Davies, Steven T. Katz, Louis Finkelstein, "The Cambridge History of Judaism: The late Roman-Rabbinic period" (Cambridge University Press, 2006)
- Brueggemann, Walter, "Reverberations of Faith: A Theological Handbook of Old Testament Themes" (Westminster John Knox, 2002)
- Graham, M.P, and McKenzie, Steven L., "The Hebrew Bible Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998)
- Mays, James Luther, Petersen, David L., Richards, Kent Harold, "Old Testament Interpretation" (T&T Clark, 1995)
- Van Seters, John (1997). In Search of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-013-2.
- Van Seters, John (2004). The Pentateuch: A Social-Science Commentary. T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08088-2.
- Wiseman, D.J. (1970). "Books in the Ancient Near East and in the Old Testament". In Ackroyd, P.R.; Evans, C.F. The Cambridge History of the Bible: From the Beginnings to Jerome. I. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521099738.
- Collins, John J. (1999). "Daniel". In Van Der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802824912.
- de Moor, Johannes Cornelis, and Van Rooy, H. F. (eds), "Past, Present, Future: The Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets" (Brill, 2000)
- Albertz, Rainer (ed) "Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E." (Society of Biblical Literature, 2003)
- Romer, Thomas, "The Future of the Deuteronomistic History" (Leuven University Press, 2000)
- Marttila, Marko, "Collective Reinterpretation in the Psalms" (Mohr Siebeck, 2006)
Prophets and writings
- Miller, Patrick D. and Peter W. Flint, (eds) "The Book of Psalms: Composition and Reception" (Brill, 2005)
- Blenkinsopp, Joseph, "A History of Prophecy in Israel" (Westminster John Knox, 1996)
- Clemets, R.E., "Jeremiah" (John Knox Press, 1988)
- Allen, Leslie C., "Jeremiah: A Commentary" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008)
- Sweeney, Marvin, "The Twelve Prophets" vol.1 (Liturgical Press, 2000)
- Sweeney, Marvin, "The Twelve Prophets" vol.2 (Liturgical Press, 2000)
- Burkett, Delbert Royce, "An Introduction to the New Testament and the Origins of Christianity" (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
- Aune, David E., (ed) "The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament" (Blackwell Publishing, 2010)
- Mitchell, Margaret Mary, and Young, Frances Margaret, "Cambridge History of Christianity: Origins to Constantine" (Cambridge University Press, 2006)