The oldest exposed rock forms in the general area are Ruinite granite, which dates to 1400 million years before present. The watershed holds a diverse flora and fauna. Within this part of the Sierra Ancha Range there are notable disjunctive populations of Coastal woodfern, Dryopteris arguta; this fern is otherwise common in areas nearer the Pacific coast.
- Ivo Lucchitta. 2001. Hiking Arizona's Geology, Published by The Mountaineers Books, ISBN 978-0-89886-730-5, 269 pages
- Tom Dollar and Jerry Sieve. 1999. Guide to Arizona's Wilderness Areas, Big Earth Publishing, ISBN 1-56579-280-7, 304 pages
- C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Coastal Woodfern (Dryopteris arguta), GlobalTwitcher, ed. N. Stromberg
- Ivo Lucchitta. 2001
- C. Michael Hogan. 2008
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