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Workplace spirituality or spirituality in the workplace is a movement that began in the early 1920s.[dubious ] It emerged as a grassroots movement with individuals seeking to live their faith and/or spiritual values in the workplace. Spiritual or spirit-centered leadership is a topic of inquiry frequently associated with the workplace spirituality movement.
- International Center for Spirit at Work (ICSW)
- European Baha'i Business Forum (EBBF)
- World Business Academy (WBA)
- Spiritual Business Network (SBN)
- Foundation for Workplace Spirituality
Key factors that have led to this trend include:
- Mergers and acquisitions destroyed the psychological contract that workers had a job for life. This led some people to search for more of a sense of inner security rather than looking for external security from a corporation.
- Baby Boomers hitting middle age resulting in a large demographic part of the population asking meaningful questions about life and purpose.
- The millennium created an opportunity for people all over the world to reflect on where the human race has come from, where it is headed in the future, and what role business plays in the future of the human race.
In the late 1990s, the Academy of Management formed a special interest group called the Management, Spirituality and Religion Interest Group. This is a professional association of management professors from all over the world who are teaching and doing research on spirituality and religion in the workplace.
Different theories over the years have influenced the development of workplace spirituality.
- Spiritual Leadership Theory (2003): developed within an intrinsic motivation model that incorporates vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love
- Social Exchange Theory (1964): which attempts to explain the social factors which affect the interaction of the person in a reciprocal relationship
- Identity Theory (1991): claims a connection between workplace spirituality and organizational engagement
The International Center for Spirit at Work offers examples of workplace spirituality including:
- "Vertical" spirituality, transcending the day-to-day and developing connectedness to a god or spirit or the wider universe. This might include meditation rooms, accommodation of personal prayer schedules, moments of silence before meetings, retreats or time off for spiritual development, and group prayer or reflection.
- "Horizontal" spirituality, which involves community service, customer service, environmentalism, compassion, and a strong sense of ethics or values that are reflected in products and services.
- Benefit corporation
- Graham Wilson (minister), a workplace chaplain
- Dominic Steele, ministry includes workplace Bible groups
- Swami sukhabodhananda, nicknamed "the Corporate Guru"
- John Sentamu, advocate for faith in the workplace
- Workplace Religious Freedom Act, 2005 US bill requiring employers to make reasonable accommodation for an employees' religious practice or observance
- A Practical Reference to Religious Diversity for Operational Police and Emergency Services
- (Benefiel, 2005; Biberman, 2000; Fry, 2005; Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003; June, 2006)
- Fry, Louis W (Dec 2003). "Toward a theory of spiritual leadership". The Leadership Quarterly. 14 (6): 693–727. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.09.001.
- Burke, Peter J.; Reitzes, Donald C. (1991). "An Identity Theory Approach to Commitment". Social Psychology Quarterly. 54 (3): 239–251. doi:10.2307/2786653. JSTOR 2786653.
- From the 2008 International Spirit at Work Award Application, p. 2).
- Benefiel, M. (2005). Soul at work: Spiritual leadership in organizations. New York: Seabury Books. ISBN 1596270136
- Biberman, J. (Ed.).(2000). Work and spirit: A reader of new spiritual paradigms for organizations. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press. ISBN 0940866897
- Bowman, T.J. (2004). Spirituality at Work: An Exploratory Sociological Investigation of the Ford Motor Company. London School of Economics and Political Science
- Fairholm, G.W. (1997). Capturing the heart of leadership: Spirituality and community in the new American workplace. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0275957438
- Fry, L.W. (2005). Toward a paradigm of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 619-722.
- Giacalone, R.A., & Jurkiewicz, C.L. (2003). Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance. New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0765608448
- Jue, A.L. (2006). Practicing spirit-centered leadership: Lessons from a corporate layoff. In Gerus, C. (Ed.). Leadership Moments: Turning points that changed lives and organizations. Victoria, BC: Trafford. ISBN 1412099641
- Miller, D.W. (2006). God at work: The history and promise of the faith at work movement. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195314808
- Palmer, Parker J. (2000) Let Your Life Speak: Listening for the Voice of Vocation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Ch 5 "Leading from Within." ISBN 978-0-7879-4735-4.
- Russell, Mark L., ed. (2010). Our Souls at Work: How Great Leaders Live Their Faith in the Global Marketplace. Boise: Russell Media. ISBN 9780578039893
- Marques, Joan, Dhiman, Satinder, and King, Richard, ed. (2009) The Workplace and Spirituality: New Perspectives on Research and Practice SkyLight Paths, Woodstock, VT.
- N.T., Sree Raj. (2011). Spirituality in Business and Other Synonyms: A Fresh Look at Different Perspectives for its Application, 'Purushartha' A Journal of Management Ethics and Spirituality Vol.IV, No.II, pp 71–85
- Mitroff, I.I, and Denton, E.A. (1999) A Spiritual Audit of Corporate America, A Hard Look at Spirituality, Religion, and Values. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Business Week, June 5, 2005. "Companies hit the road less traveled: Can spirituality enlighten the bottom line?"
- William Miller (1992). "How Do We Put Our Spiritual Values to Work". New Traditions in Business: Spirit and Leadership in the 21st Century. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
- Gilbert Fairholm (1997). Capturing the Heart of Leadership: Spiritual Community in the New American Workplace.
- Jay Conger (1994). Spirit at Work: Discovering the Spirituality in Leadership.
- Spirituality in the Workplace - The Living Organization
- Catholic Servant Leadership
- Foundation for Workplace Spirituality
- Global Dharma Center
- International Center for Spirit at Work
- The High Calling of Our Daily Work
- Theology of Work Project
- Seven Principles of Spirituality in the Workplace
- Faith and Work Initiative
- Denver Institute for Faith & Work