Workweek and weekend
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The workweek and weekend are the complementary parts of the week devoted to labor and rest, respectively. The legal working week (British English), or workweek (American English), is the part of the seven-day week devoted to labor. In most of the world, the workweek is from Monday to Friday and the weekend is Saturday and Sunday, but other divisions exist: for example, many countries observe a Sunday to Thursday or even Monday to Thursday working week. A weekday or workday is any day of the working week. Other institutions often follow this pattern, such as places of education. Sometimes the term "weekend" is expanded to include the time after work hours on the last workday of the week; e.g. Friday evening is often referred to as the start of the weekend. The weekend has had varying definitions, such as commencing after 5 pm on Friday evening and lasting until 6 pm on Sunday night.
In some Christian traditions, Sunday is the "day of rest and worship". The Jewish Shabbat or Biblical Sabbath lasts from sunset on Friday to the fall of full darkness on Saturday; as a result, the weekend in Israel is observed on Friday–Saturday. Some Muslim-majority countries historically instituted a Thursday–Friday weekend. Today, many of these countries, in the interests of furthering business trade and cooperation, have shifted from Thursday–Friday to either Friday–Saturday or Saturday–Sunday.
The Christian Sabbath is just one day each week, but the preceding day (the Jewish Sabbath) came to be taken as a holiday as well in the 20th century. This shift has been accompanied by a reduction in the total number of hours worked per week, associated with increases in levels of GDP per capita. The present-day concept of the "weekend" first arose in the industrial north of Britain in the early 19th century. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America union was the first to successfully demand a five-day work week in 1929.
Some countries have adopted a one-day weekend, i.e. either Sunday only (in seven countries), Friday only (in Djibouti, Iran, Palestine and Somalia), or Saturday only (in Nepal). However, most countries have adopted a two-day weekend, whose days differ according to religious tradition, i.e. either Friday and Saturday, or Saturday and Sunday, or Friday and Sunday (in Brunei Darussalam), with the previous evening post-work often considered part of the weekend. Proposals continue to be put forward to reduce the number of days or hours worked per week, on the basis of predicted social and economic benefits.
A continuous seven-day cycle that runs throughout history, paying no attention whatsoever to the phases of the moon and having a fixed day of rest, was most likely first practiced in Judaism, dated to the 6th century BC at the latest.
In Ancient Rome, every eight days there was a nundinae. It was a market day, during which children were exempted from school and agricultural workers stopped work in the field and came to the city to sell the produce of their labor or to practice religious rites.
The French Revolutionary Calendar had ten-day weeks (called décades) and allowed décadi, one out of the ten days, as a leisure day. From 1929 to 1940, the Soviet Union utilized a calendar with five and six-day work weeks, with a rest day assigned to a worker either with a color or number.
The present-day concept of the relatively longer 'week-end' first arose in the industrial north of Britain in the early 19th century and was originally a voluntary arrangement between factory owners and workers allowing Saturday afternoon off from 2 pm on the basis that staff would be available for work sober and refreshed on Monday morning. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the first use of the term weekend to the British magazine Notes and Queries in 1879.
In 1908, the first five-day workweek in the United States was instituted by a New England cotton mill so that Jewish workers would not have to work on the Sabbath from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday. In 1926, Henry Ford began shutting down his automotive factories for all of Saturday and Sunday. In 1929, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America Union was the first union to demand and receive a five-day workweek. The rest of the United States slowly followed, but it was not until 1940, when a provision of the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act mandating a maximum 40-hour workweek went into effect, that the two-day weekend was adopted nationwide.
Over the succeeding decades, particularly in the 1940s to 1960s, an increasing number of countries adopted either a Friday–Saturday or a Saturday–Sunday weekend to harmonize with international markets. A series of workweek reforms in the mid-to-late 2000s and early 2010s brought much of the Arab World in synchronization with the majority of countries around the world, in terms of working hours, the length of the workweek, and the days of the weekend. The International Labour Organization (ILO) currently defines a workweek exceeding 48 hours as excessive. A 2007 study by the ILO found that at least 614.2 million people around the world were working excessive hours.
Actual workweek lengths have been falling in the developed world. Reductions in the length of the workweek are associated with the trend of increases in real per-capita income.[verification needed] In the United States, the workweek length reduced slowly from before the Civil War to the start of the 20th century. There was a rapid reduction between 1900 and 1920, especially between 1913 and 1919, when weekly hours fell by about eight percent. In 1926, Henry Ford standardized on a five-day workweek, instead of the prevalent six days, without reducing employees' pay. Hours worked stabilized at about 49 per week during the 1920s, and during the Great Depression fell below 40. During the Depression, President Herbert Hoover called for a reduction in work hours in lieu of layoffs. Later, President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which established a five-day, 40-hour workweek for many workers. The proportion of people working very long weeks has since risen, and the full-time employment of women has increased dramatically.
The New Economics Foundation has recommended moving to a 21-hour standard workweek to address problems with unemployment, high carbon emissions, low well-being, entrenched inequalities, overworking, family care, and the general lack of free time. The Center for Economic and Policy Research states that reducing the length of the work week would slow climate change and have other environmental benefits.
Around the world
|Nation||Typical hours worked
|Working week||Typical hours worked |
|Bahrain||40||Sunday–Thursday||8 (6 during Ramadan for Muslim employees)|
|Bangladesh||40-54||Saturday/Sunday–Thursday (banks and government organizations are operational for 5 days, most private organizations run 6 days workweek)||8/ 9|
|Brunei Darussalam||40||Monday–Thursday and Saturday||8|
|Egypt||40 (30 during Ramadan)||Sunday–Thursday||8 (6 during Ramadan)|
|Hong Kong||40-48||Monday–Saturday||8 (many people work on Saturday either a half-day or full-day)|
|Indonesia||40||Monday–Friday||8, many people work a 6-day week with 7-hour days.|
|Israel||42||Sunday–Thursday||8.4. Excludes a commonly pre-approved 30-minute lunch break. Some people have a six-day workweek, working 8 hours from Sunday to Thursday and a half-day on Friday.|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||40||Monday–Friday||8|
|Lebanon||40||Monday–Friday||8, Most of the people have a six-day workweek, with Saturday as a partial workday.|
(Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, and Terengganu)
(Federal Territory of Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak, Pahang, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak, Penang, Perlis)
|Nepal||48||Sunday–Friday||7 (5 on Friday and 6 in Winter)|
|Oman||40 (30 during Ramadan)||Sunday–Thursday||8 (6 during Ramadan)|
|Pakistan||45 & 54||Monday–Friday||9 (including 1 hour lunch break) the public sector and most businesses are open on Saturdays. So often it is Monday–Saturday.|
|Philippines||45-54||Monday–Friday||9 (including 1 hour lunch break) Most businesses are open on Saturdays. So often it is Monday–Saturday.|
|Qatar||40 (25 During Ramadan)||Sunday–Thursday||8 (5 during Ramadan) (Line staff work 48 hours of the week, Saturday–Thursday)|
|Saudi Arabia||40 (30 during Ramadan)||Sunday–Thursday||8 (6 during Ramadan for Muslim employees)|
|Serbia||40||Monday–Friday||8 (including a half-hour lunch break)|
|Slovakia (Slovak Republic)||40||Monday–Friday||8|
|Suriname||39.5||Monday–Friday||8; Monday–Thursday 7:00 – 15:00 / Friday 7:00 – 14.30|
|Taiwan||40||Monday–Friday||8; The Labor Standards Act stipulates that a worker shall have one mandatory day off and one flexible rest day in every seven days. See One fixed day off and one flexible rest day policy.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||40||Monday–Friday||8|
|United Arab Emirates||40-45 (30 during Ramadan)||Sunday–Thursday (since September 2006)||8 to 9 (regular hours minus 2 hours during Ramadan for all employees)|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of||40||Monday–Friday||8|
|Zimbabwe||40||Monday–Friday||8; Most people work half a day on Saturday|
In South Africa the working week traditionally was Monday to Friday with a half-day on Saturday and Sunday a public holiday. However, since 2013 there have been changes to the working week concept based on more than one variation. The week can be 5 days of work, or more. The maximum number of hours someone can work in a week remains 45.
As a general rule, Brazil adopts a 44-hour working week, which typically begins on Monday and ends on Friday, with a Saturday-Sunday weekend. Brazilian Law, however, also allows for shorter Monday-to-Friday working hours so employees can work on Saturdays or Sundays, as long as the weekly 44-hour limit is respected and the employee gets at least one weekend day. This is usually the case for malls, supermarkets and shops. The law also grants labor unions the right to negotiate different work weeks, within certain limits, which then become binding for that union's labor category. Overtime is allowed, limited to two extra hours a day, with an increase in pay.
The working week in Chile averages 45 hours, most often worked on a Monday-Friday schedule, but is not uncommon to work on Saturdays. Retail businesses mostly operate Monday through Saturday, with larger establishments being open seven days a week.
In general, Colombia has a 48-hour working week. Depending on the business, people work five days for max 8 hours per day, typically Monday to Friday, or six days for eight hours a day, Monday to Saturday.
Mexico has a 48-hour work week (8 hours × 6 days), it is a custom in most industries and trades to work half day on Saturday. Most public employees work Monday to Friday as well in some office companies. Shops and retailers open on Saturday and Sunday in most large cities.
The standard working week in the United States begins on Monday and ends on Friday, 40 hours per week, with Saturday and Sunday being weekend days. However, in practice, only 42% of employees work 40-hour weeks. The average workweek for full-time employees is 47 hours. Most stores are open for business on Saturday and often on Sunday as well, except in a few places where prohibited by law (see Blue law). Increasingly, employers are offering compressed work schedules to employees. Some government and corporate employees now work a 9/80 work schedule (80 hours over 9 days during a two-week period)—commonly 9 hour days Monday to Thursday, 8 hours on one Friday, and off the following Friday. Some government or corporate employees work a 10/40 schedule–10 hours per day over 4 days, usually with Fridays off. Jobs in healthcare, law enforcement, transportation, retail, and other service positions commonly require employees to work on the weekend or to do shift work.
Asia and Australasia
In Australia the working week begins on Monday and terminates on Friday. An eight-hour working day is the norm. Working three weekdays a fortnight, for example, would therefore be approximately twenty-four hours (including or excluding traditional breaks tallying up to two hours). Some people work overtime with extra pay on offer for those that do, especially for weekend work. Shops open seven days a week in most states with opening hours from 9am to 5.30pm on weekdays, with some states having two "late night trading" nights on Thursday and Friday, when trading ceases at 9pm. Many supermarkets and low end department stores remain open until midnight and some trade 24/7. Restaurants and cinemas can open at all hours, save for some public holidays. Bars generally trade seven days a week but there are local municipal restrictions concerning trading hours. Banks trade on Monday to Friday, with some branches opening on Saturdays (and in some cases Sundays) in high demand areas. The Post Office (Australia Post) trades Monday to Friday as per retail shops but some retail post offices may trade on Saturdays and Sundays in some shopping centres. A notable exception to the above is South Australia whereby retail establishments are restricted to trading between the hours of 11am-5pm on Sundays.
China (People's Republic)
In China, there is a five-day Monday-Friday working week, prior to which work on Saturday was standard. China began the two-day Saturday–Sunday weekend on May 1, 1995. Most government employees work 5 days a week (including officials and industrial management). Most manufacturing facilities operate on Saturdays as well. However, most shops, museums, cinemas and commercial establishments open on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. Banks are also open throughout the weekend and on most public holidays.
During the period of public holidays, swapped holidays are common between the actual holiday and weekend, so three-day or seven-day holiday periods are created. The nearby Saturday or Sunday may be changed to a normal working day. For example, on a three-day holiday period, if the actual holiday falls on a Tuesday, Monday will be swapped as a holiday, and citizens are required to work on the previous Saturday.
A number of provinces and municipalities across China, including Hebei, Jiangxi and Chongqing, have issued new policies, calling on companies to create 2.5-day weekends. Under the plan, government institutions, state-owned companies, joint-ventures and privately held companies are to be given incentives to allow their workers to take off at noon on Friday before coming back to the office on Monday.
- Hong Kong SAR
In Hong Kong, a typical working week for local enterprises begins on 9am on Monday and ends at 1pm on Saturday, although most employees have alternate Saturdays off. After the introduction of the five-day working week for the majority of government departments in 2006, most multinational enterprises and large local companies followed suit, extended the working day from 9am to 5pm so as to adopt a five-day work week. Despite the aforementioned official hours, and many companies has still work overtime, and in the case of the financial industry were in particular, working 12-hour days on a chronic basis is still not uncommon.
Most commercial establishments in the retail sector such as restaurants, shops and cinemas, as well as public venues such as museums and libraries are open on Saturdays, Sundays and most public holidays. For schools, lessons are not normally held on Saturdays, but students may be required to go school on Saturdays for extra-curricular activities or make-up classes.
The standard working week in India 1923[clarification needed] for most office jobs begins on Monday and ends on Saturday. The work schedule is 60 hours per week, Sunday being a rest day. However, most government offices and the software industry follow a five-day workweek. All major industries along with services like transport, hospitality, healthcare etc. work in shifts.
Central government offices follow a five-day week. State governments follow half-day working on the first and third Saturdays of each month and rest on the second and fourth Saturdays, except West Bengal, Rajasthan, Bihar, Punjab, Delhi, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra government which follows a Monday–Friday workweek. There is usually no half working day in the private sector, and people work in two or three shifts of 8 hours each.
The standard working week in Iran begins on Saturday and ends on Wednesday. However, most stores are open for business on Thursday and often on Friday as well.
In Israel, the standard workweek is 42 hours as prescribed by law. The typical workweek is five days, Sunday to Thursday, with 8.4 hours a day as the standard, with anything beyond that considered overtime. A minority of jobs operate on a partial six-day Sunday-Friday workweek.  Many Israelis work overtime hours, with a maximum of 12 overtime hours a week permitted by law. Most offices and businesses run on a five-day week, though many stores, post offices, banks, and schools are open and public transportation runs six days a week. Almost all businesses are closed during Saturday, and most public services except for emergency services, including almost all public transport, are unavailable on Saturdays. However, some shops, restaurants, cafes, places of entertainment, and factories are open on Saturdays, and a few bus and share taxi lines are active. Employees who work Saturdays, particularly service industry workers, public sector workers, and pilots, are compensated with alternative days off. In 2014, the average workweek was 45.8 hours for men and 37.1 hours for women.
The standard business office working week in Japan begins on Monday and ends on Friday, 40 hours per week. This system became common between 1980 and 2000. Before then, most workers in Japan worked full-time from Monday to Friday and a half day on Saturday, 45–48 hours per week. Public schools and facilities (excluding city offices) are generally open on Saturdays for half a day.
The working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week. Some institutions, however, also work 4 hours on Saturdays . Large malls are open on Saturday and Sunday; many small shops close on Sunday.
Mongolia has a Monday to Friday working week, with a normal maximum time of 40 hours. Most shops are also open on weekends, many large retail chains having full opening hours even on Sunday. Private enterprises conduct business from 9:00 to 18:00, and government institutions may have full working hours.
Nepal follows the ancient Vedic calendar, which has the resting day on Saturday and the first day of the working week on Sunday. Schools in Nepal are off on Saturdays, so it is common for pupils to go to school from Sunday to Friday.
In November 2012, the home ministry proposed a two-day holiday per week plan for all government offices except at those providing essential services like electricity, water, and telecommunications. This proposal followed a previous proposal by the Nepali government, i.e. Load-shedding Reduction Work Plan 2069 BS, for a five working day plan for government offices as part of efforts to address the problem of load-shedding. The proposal has been discussed in the Administration Committee; it is not yet clear whether the plan includes private offices and educational institutions.
In New Zealand the working week is typically Monday to Friday 8:30 to 17:00, but it is not uncommon for many industries (especially construction) to work a half day on Saturday, normally from 8:00 or 9:00 to about 13:00. Supermarkets, malls, independent retailers, and increasingly, banks, remain open seven days a week.
In the Philippines, Article 91 of the Labor Code requires one rest day for workers in a week; the choice of selecting the rest day is left to the employer, subject to collective bargaining. Most workers avail of Sunday as their mandated rest day. However, government offices, banks, and many non-service industry establishments maintain a five-day (Monday to Friday) work week.
In Singapore the common working week is 5-day work week, which runs from Monday to Friday beginning 8:30 a.m. and end at 5 p.m. – 6 p.m. Some companies work a half day on Saturdays. Shops, supermarkets and shopping centres are open seven days a week and on most public holidays. 'Foreign workers', for example domestic helpers and construction workers (typically from the Philippines and India, respectively), usually work 6 days per week, having Sunday as their only day off.
However, government offices and some private companies have modernised through enacting the American and European standard of working Monday through Friday.
Currently, 50% of the luxury beach resorts in Phuket have a five-day working week. Of the remaining 50%, 23% have taken steps to reform their 6-day workweek through such measures as reducing the working week from 6 days to 5.5 days.
Vietnam has a standard 48-hour six-day workweek. Monday to Friday are full workdays and Saturday is a partial day. Work typically begins at 8:00 am and lasts until 5:00 pm from Monday to Friday and until 12 noon on Saturdays. This includes a one-hour lunch break.[Doesn't add to 48.] Government offices and banks follow a five-day workweek from Monday to Friday.
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In Europe, the standard full-time working week begins on Monday and ends on Saturday. Most retail shops are open for business on Saturday. In Ireland, Italy, Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands and the former socialist states of Europe, large shopping centres open on Sunday. In European countries such as Germany, there are laws regulating shop hours. With exceptions, shops must be closed on Sundays and from midnight until the early morning hours of every day.
The working week is Monday to Friday 8 hours per day. Shops are open on Saturday. By law, almost no shop is open on Sunday. However, exceptions have been made, for example for bakeries, petrol stations and shops at railway stations, especially in the largest cities (Vienna, Graz, Salzburg, Linz).
The working week is Monday to Friday. Working time must not exceed 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week (on average, annualised).
The working week is Monday to Friday. Working time must not exceed 8 hours per day and 38 hours per week (on average, annualised). Very few shops are open on Sunday.
The working week is Monday to Friday, eight hours per day, forty hours per week. Most pharmacies, shops, bars, cafés, and restaurants will operate on Saturdays and Sundays.
The working week is Monday to Friday, seven and a half hours per day (+ 30 minutes lunch break), 37.5 hours per week (or 40 hours per week if lunch breaks are included as working hours). Most pharmacies, shops, bars, cafés, and restaurants are open on Saturday and Sunday.
In the Czech Republic, full-time employment is usually Monday to Friday, eight hours per day and forty hours per week. Many shops and restaurants are open on Saturday and Sunday, but employees still usually work forty hours per week.
Denmark has an official 37-hour working week, with primary work hours between 6:00 and 18:00, Monday to Friday. In public institutions, a 30-minute lunch break every day is included as per collective agreements, so that the actual required working time is 34.5 hours. In private companies, the 30-minute lunch break is normally not included. The workday is usually 7.5 hours Monday to Thursday and 7 hours on Friday. Some small shops are closed Monday.
In Estonia, the working week begins on Monday and ends on Friday. Usually a working week is forty hours. Most pharmacies, shops, bars, cafés, and restaurants will operate on Saturdays and Sundays.
In Finland, the working week begins on Monday and ends on Friday. A full-time job is defined by law as being at least 32 and at most forty hours per week. In retail and restaurant occupations, among others, the weekly hours may be calculated as an average over three to ten weeks, depending on the employment contract. Banks and bureaus are closed on weekends. Most shops are open on Saturdays, while some are closed on Sundays.
The standard working week is Monday to Friday. Shops are also open on Saturday. Small shops may close on a weekday (generally Monday) to compensate workers for having worked on Saturday. By law, préfets may authorise a small number of specific shops to open on Sunday such as bars, cafés, restaurants, and bakeries, which are traditionally open every day but only during the morning on Sunday. Workers are not obliged to work on Sunday. School children have traditionally taken Wednesday off, or had only a half day, making up the time either with longer days for the rest of the week or sometimes a half day on Saturday. This practice was made much less common under new legislation rolled out over 2013–14.
The standard working week is Monday to Friday. State jobs are from 07:00 until 15:00. Shops are open generally Mondays to Fridays from 09:00–21:00 and then from Saturdays generally 09:00-20:00. It is very rare for a shop to open on Sunday but from May to October shops at tourist attractions can open from 11:00 to 20:00.
In Hungary the working week begins on Monday and ends on Friday. Full-time employment is usually considered forty hours per week. For office workers, the work day usually begins between 8 and 9 o'clock and ends between 16:00 and 18:00, depending on the contract and lunch time agreements.
The forty-hour workweek of public servants includes lunch time. Their work schedule typically consists of 8.5 hours between Monday and Thursday (from 8:00 to 16:30) and 6 hours on Fridays (8:00–14:00).
Ireland has a working week from Monday to Friday, with core working hours from 09:00 to 17:30. Retail stores are usually open until 21:00 every Thursday. Many grocery stores, especially in urban areas, are open until 21:00 or later, and some supermarkets and convenience stores may open around the clock. Shops are generally open all day Saturday and a shorter day Sunday (usually 10:00–12:00 to 17:00–19:00).
In Italy the 40-hour rule applies: Monday to Friday, 09:00 to 18:00, with a one-hour break for lunch. Sunday is always a holiday; Saturday is usually a free day as well, with the common exception of most high schools, where the students' roster covers 6 days a week, albeit limiting to the morning hours.
In the past, shops had a break from 13:00 to 16:00 and they were generally open until 19:00/20:00. Working times for shops have been changed recently and now are at the owner's discretion; malls are generally open Tuesday to Sunday 09:00 to 20:00, 15:00 to 20:00 on Monday, with no lunchtime closing.
Latvia has a Monday to Friday working week capped at forty hours. Shops are mostly open on weekends, many large retail chains having full working hours even on Sunday. Private enterprises usually hold hours from 9:00 to 18:00, however government institutions and others may have a shorter working day, ending at 17:00.
Lithuania has a Monday to Friday working week capped at forty hours. Shops are mostly open on weekends, many large retail chains having full working hours even on Sunday and public holidays (however on Christmas or Easter shops usually shortens the work time). Private enterprises usually hold hours from 9:00 to 18:00, however government institutions and others may have a shorter working day, ending at 17:00 or 16:00.
The standard working week in Luxembourg is 40 hours per week with 8 hours per day. Monday through Friday is the standard working week, though many shops and businesses open on Saturdays (though for somewhat restricted hours). Trading on Sundays is extremely restricted and generally limited to grocery stores opening on Sunday mornings. However, shops are allowed to open in Luxembourg City during the first Sunday of the month, as well as in Luxembourg City and other larger towns on weekends towards the end of the year (Christmas shopping season). A few shopping malls located in the north of the country and in border towns (e.g. KNAUF, MASSEN and Pall Center Pommerloch) are also allowed to open almost every day of the year.
In the Netherlands, the standard working week is Monday to Friday (36–40 hours). Shops are almost always open on Saturdays and often on Sundays, depending on the location.
The working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week. Large malls are open on Saturdays and Sundays; many small shops are closed on Sundays. Since 11 March 2018 all malls and shops are close on Sundays with banned trading.
Under the new rules, trading will be only allowed on the first and last Sunday of the month. The ban will be stepped up to all Sundays except the last each month in 2019, while in 2020 trading will be prohibited on all Sundays except seven, including those in the run-up to Christmas and Easter. 11 March 2018 will be the first Sunday on which trading is banned.
Bakeries, confectioners, petrol stations, florists, post offices, train stations and airports will be exempt from the ban. Owners will be able to open their shops as long as they serve customers themselves.
Anyone infringing the new rules faces a fine of up to PLN 100,000 (EUR 23,900; USD 29,250). Repeat offenders may face a prison sentence.
The working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week. Street shops are almost always open on Saturday mornings but shopping centres are typically open every day (including Saturdays and Sundays).
The working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week. Shops are open on Saturday and Sunday. The weekend begins on Friday, and ends on Monday.
In Russia the common working week begins on Monday and ends on Friday with 8 hours per day.
Federal law defines a working week duration of 5 or 6 days with no more than 40 hours worked. In all cases Sunday is a holiday. With a 5-day working week the employer chooses which day of the week will be the second day off. Usually this is a Saturday, but in some organizations (mostly government), it is Monday. Government offices can thereby offer Saturday service to people with a normal working schedule.
There are non-working public holidays in Russia; all of them fall on a fixed date. By law, if such a holiday coincides with an ordinary day off, the next work day becomes a day off. An official public holiday cannot replace a regular day off. Each year the government can modify working weeks near public holidays in order to optimize the labor schedule. For example, if a five-day week has a public holiday on Tuesday or Thursday, the calendar is rearranged to provide a reasonable working week.
Exceptions include occupations such as transit workers, shop assistants, and security guards. In many cases independent schemes are used. For example, the service industry often uses the X-through-Y scheme (Russian: X через Y) when every worker uses X days for work and the next Y days for rest.
- Soviet Union
In the former Soviet Union the standard working week was 41 hours: 8 hours, 12 minutes, Monday to Friday. Before the mid-1960s there was a 42-hour 6-day standard working week: 7 hours Monday to Friday and 6 hours on Saturday.[That makes 41.]
In Serbia, the working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day (with 30 minutes break included), 40 hours in total per week. Shops are open on Saturday and Sunday, usually with shorter working hours, although many large shops of shop chains and shopping malls have same weekday and weekend working hours.
The working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week. Large malls are open on Saturday and Sunday; many small shops are closed on Sunday. All shops are closed on public holidays.
The working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week. The traditional opening hours are 9:00 to 13:00–14:00 and then 15:00–16:00 to 18:00 for most offices and workplaces. Most shops are open on Saturday mornings and many of the larger shopping malls are open all day Saturday and in some cities like Madrid, they are open most Sundays. Some restaurants, bars, and shops are closed Mondays, as Mondays are commonly a slow business day.
In Sweden, the standard working week is Monday to Friday, both for offices and industry workers. The standard workday is eight hours, although it may vary greatly between different fields and businesses. Most office workers have flexible working hours and can largely decide themselves on how to divide these over the week. The working week is regulated by Arbetstidslagen (Work time law) to a maximum of 40 hours per week. The 40-hour-week is however easily bypassed by overtime. The law allows a maximum of 200 hours overtime per year. There is however no overseeing government agency; the law is often cited as toothless.
Shops are almost always open on Saturdays and often on Sundays, supermarkets and shopping centres, so that employees there have to work. Traditionally, restaurants were closed on Mondays if they were opened during the weekend, but this has in recent years largely fallen out of practice. Many museums do however still remain closed on Mondays.
The traditional business working week is from Monday to Friday (35 to 40 hours depending on contract). In retail, and other fields such as healthcare, days off might be taken on any day of the week. Employers can make their employees work every day of a week, although the employer is required to allow each employee breaks of either a continuous period of 24 hours every week or a continuous period of 48 hours every two weeks.
Laws for shop opening hours differ between Scotland and the rest of the UK. In England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, many shops and services are open on Saturdays and increasingly so on Sundays as well. In England and Wales, stores' maximum Sunday opening hours vary according to the total floor space of the store. In Scotland, however, there is no restriction in law on shop opening hours on a Sunday.
Under the EU Working Time Directive (which may cease to apply to the UK), workers cannot be forced to work for more than 48 hours per week on average. However, the UK allows individuals to opt out if they so choose. Individuals can choose to opt in again after opting out, even if opting out was part of their employment contract. It is illegal to dismiss them or treat them unfairly for so doing – but they may be required to give up to 3 months notice to give the employer time to prepare, depending on what their employment contract says.
The minimum holiday entitlement is now 28 days per year, but that can include public holidays, depending on the employee's contract. England & Wales have eight, Scotland has nine, and Northern Ireland has ten permanent public holidays each year. The 28 days holiday entitlement means that if the government creates a one-off public holiday in a given year, it is not necessarily a day off and it does not add 1 day to employees' holiday entitlement – unless the employer says otherwise, which some do.
In Islam, Friday is the weekly day of prayer when Jumu'ah prayers take place. For this reason, most of the Middle Eastern countries and some other predominantly Muslim-majority countries used to consider Thursday and Friday as their weekend. However, this weekend arrangement is no longer observed by a significant number of Muslim-majority countries (see below).
Friday weekend (One day weekend)
Two Muslim-majority countries have Friday as the only weekend day and have a six-day working week.
- In Iran, Thursday is half a day of work for most public offices and all schools are closed, but for most jobs, Thursday is a working day. Foreign companies normally have Friday and Saturday as their weekend.
- In Djibouti, many offices also tend to open early – around 7:00 or 8:00, then closing at 13:00 or 14:00, especially during the summer due to the afternoon heat.
Jordan was the first Arab country to shift to a Friday-Saturday weekend arrangement in January 2000. Other Arab states followed in the coming years. Following reforms in a number of Arab states in the Persian Gulf in the 2000s and 2010s, the Thursday–Friday weekend was replaced by the Friday–Saturday weekend. This change provided for the Muslim offering of Friday prayers and afforded more work days to coincide with the working calendars of international financial markets.
- Algeria (2009)
- Afghanistan (2015)
- Bahrain (2006)
- Iraq (2005–2006)
- Jordan (Week of January 8, 2000)
- Kuwait (2007)
- Libya (2005–2006)
- Malaysia (only in the states of Johor (since 2013), Kedah, Kelantan, and Terengganu, while other states and all the federal territories use the Saturday–Sunday weekend)
- Maldives (2013)
- Oman (2013)
- Saudi Arabia (2014)
- Sudan (2008)
- Syria (2005–2006)
- United Arab Emirates (2006)
- Yemen (2013)
Other countries with Muslim-majority populations or significant Muslim populations follow the Saturday–Sunday weekend, such as Indonesia, Lebanon, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco. While Friday is a working day, a long midday break is given to allow time for worship.
- Indonesia – On Friday, due to prayer time for Muslims, the lunch break is extended for 2 hours or more. Shopping malls are always open and very crowded on Saturday and Sunday. Thus, some banks offer weekend banking services, especially for branches located in or near shopping malls.
- Malaysia uses the Saturday–Sunday weekend (except for the states of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, and Terengganu, which have a Friday–Saturday weekend). Many private businesses and banks in Johor observe the Saturday–Sunday weekend due to close business ties with Singapore.
- Mauritania (2014)
- Morocco – The working week is Monday to Friday, 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week.
- Pakistan follows the standard international 40-hour working week, from Monday to Friday, with Saturday and Sunday being the weekend. However, in many schools and enterprises, Friday is usually considered a half-day. The public sector weekend is Sunday only.
- Senegal – The working week is Monday to Friday, with a large break on Friday afternoon.
- Tunisia – The working week is Monday to Friday; 8 hours per day, 40 hours in total per week.
- Turkey – Working above 45 hours is considered overtime, and the employer is required to pay 1.5 times the hourly wage per hour.
Non-contiguous working week
Brunei has a non-contiguous working week, consisting of Monday to Thursday plus Saturday. The days of rest are Friday (for Jumu'ah prayers) and Sunday. Some non-government companies in Brunei adopted the working week of Monday to Friday, while the weekend starts on Saturday until Sunday. Depending on the company rules, employees may be required to work half-day on Saturday.
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