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List of largest cities

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The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria.[1] Cities may be defined as the cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or their metropolitan regions.[1] The largest city by population using the city proper definition, which is the area under the administrative boundaries of a local government, is Chongqing, China. The largest city by population using the metropolitan area definition, which is a loose term referring to urban area and its primary commuter areas, is Tokyo, Japan. The largest city by population using the urban area definition, which is a loose term referring to a contiguous area with a certain population density, is also Tokyo, Japan.

Definitions

City proper (administrative)

The municipality of Chongqing, China, whose administrative area is around the size of Austria, has the largest population for a city proper. However, more than 70% of its residents live in rural areas.

A city can be defined by its administrative boundaries (city proper). UNICEF[1][failed verification] defines city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city or controlled directly from the city by a single authority." A city proper is a locality defined according to legal or political boundaries and an administratively recognised urban status that is usually characterised by some form of local government.[2][3][4] Cities proper and their boundaries and population data may not include suburbs.[5]

The use of city proper as defined by administrative boundaries may not include suburban areas where an important proportion of the population working or studying in the city lives.[5] Because of this definition, the city proper population figure may differ greatly with the urban area population figure, as many cities are amalgamations of smaller municipalities (Australia), and conversely, many Chinese cities govern territories that extend well beyond the traditional "city proper" into suburban and rural areas.[6] The Chinese municipality of Chongqing, which claims the largest city proper in the world, comprises a huge administrative area of 82,403 km2, around the size of Austria. However, more than 70% of its 30-million population are actually agricultural workers living in a rural setting.[7][8]

Metropolitan area

A city can be defined by the inhabitants of its demographic population, as by metropolitan area, or labour market area. UNICEF[1][failed verification] defines metropolitan area as follows:

A formal local government area comprising the urban area as a whole and its primary commuter areas, typically formed around a city with a large concentration of people (i.e., a population of at least 100,000). In addition to the city proper, a metropolitan area includes both the surrounding territory with urban levels of residential density and some additional lower-density areas that are adjacent to and linked to the city (e.g., through frequent transport, road linkages or commuting facilities).

In many countries, metropolitan areas are established either with an official organisation or only for statistical purposes. In the United States, metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for statistical purposes.[9] In the Philippines, metropolitan areas have an official agency, such as Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) which manages Manila metropolitan area.[10] Similar agencies exist in Indonesia such as Jabodetabekjur Development Cooperation Agency for Jakarta metropolitan area.[11]

Urban area

Tokyo is considered the world's largest city, with its urbanization exceeding its city limits.

A city can be defined as a conditionally contiguous urban area, without regard to territorial or other boundaries inside an urban area. UNICEF[1][failed verification] defines urban area as follows:

The definition of "urban" varies from country to country, and, with periodic reclassification, can also vary within one country over time, making direct comparisons difficult. An urban area can be defined by one or more of the following: administrative criteria or political boundaries (e.g., area within the jurisdiction of a municipality or town committee), a threshold population size (where the minimum for an urban settlement is typically in the region of 2,000 people, although this varies globally between 200 and 50,000), population density, economic function (e.g., where a significant majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture, or where there is surplus employment) or the presence of urban characteristics (e.g., paved streets, electric lighting, sewerage).

According to Demographia, an urban area is a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (metropolitan area or metropolitan region) and contains no rural land.[12]

List

There are 81 cities with a population over 5 million people according to the United Nations 2018 estimates. The UN figures are a mixture of city proper, metropolitan area, and urban area. Several cities such as Jakarta and Seoul have significantly larger metropolitan/urban population figures which are excluded in the UN data.[13]

City[a] Country Skyline UN 2018 population estimates[b] City proper[c] Metropolitan area[d] Urban area
(Demographia)[12]
Definition Population Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
Population Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
Population Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
 
Tokyo  Japan Skyscrapers of Shinjuku 2009 January.jpg 37,400,068 Metropolis prefecture 13,515,271 2,191 6,169
[14]
37,274,000 13,452 2,771
[15]
39,105,000 8,231 4,751
[e]
Delhi  India Skyline at Rajiv Chowk.JPG 28,514,000 Capital City 16,753,235 1,484 11,289
[16]
29,000,000 3,483 8,326
[17]
31,870,000 2,233 14,272
[f]
Shanghai  China Huangpu River 2018-08-26 173648.jpg 25,582,000 Municipality 24,183,000 6,341 3,814
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 22,118,000 4,069 5,436
[g]
São Paulo  Brazil SP from Altino Arantes Building.jpg 21,650,000 Municipality 12,252,023 1,521 8,055
[19]
21,734,682 7,947 2,735
[20]
22,495,000 3,237 6,949
[h]
Mexico City  Mexico Ciudad.de.Mexico.City.- Paseo.Reforma.Skyline CDMX 2016 (cropped).jpg 21,581,000 City-state 9,209,944 1,485 6,202
[21]
21,804,515 7,866 2,772
[22]
21,505,000 2,385 9,017
Cairo  Egypt Flickr - archer10 (Dennis) - Egypt-2A-007.jpg 20,076,000 Urban governorate 9,500,000 3,085 3,079
[23]
N/A N/A N/A 19,787,000 2,010 9,844
Mumbai  India Mumbai timlapse Ville Hyvönen 2016.jpg 19,980,000 Municipality 12,478,447 603 20,694
[24]
24,400,000 4,355 5,603
[25]
22,186,000 1,008 22,010
[26][i]
Beijing  China Beijing skyline from northeast 4th ring road (cropped).jpg 19,618,000 Municipality 21,707,000 16,411 1,323
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 19,437,000 4,172 4,659
Dhaka  Bangladesh Dhaka lights.jpg 19,578,000 Capital city 8,906,039 338 26,349
[27][28]
14,543,124
[29]
N/A N/A 16,839,000 456 36,928
Osaka  Japan Dotombori neon sign at night.JPG 19,281,000 Designated city 2,725,006 225 12,111
[14]
19,303,000 13,228 1,459
[15]
15,490,000 3,020 5,129
[j]
New York City  United States Empire State Building with 1WTC in background.png 18,819,000 City 8,398,748 786 10,685
[30]
19,303,808 17,315 1,115
[31]
20,902,000 12,093 1,728
[k]
Karachi  Pakistan KHIURBANSKYLINE.jpg 15,400,000 Metropolitan city 14,910,352 3,530 4,224
[32][33]
16,051,521 3,780 4,246
[34]
15,292,000 1,044 14,648
[35]
Buenos Aires  Argentina High-rises of Puerto Madero (40022145164).jpg 14,967,000 Autonomous city 3,054,300 203 15,046
[36]
12,806,866
[37]
N/A N/A 16,216,000 3,222 5,033
Chongqing  China Chaotianmen Bridge, Nan'an District of Chongqing.jpg 14,838,000 Municipality 30,165,500 82,403 366
[38]
N/A N/A N/A 8,261,000 1,536 5,378
Istanbul  Turkey View of Levent financial district from Istanbul Sapphire.jpg 14,751,000 Metropolitan municipality 15,519,267 5,196 2,987
[39]
N/A N/A N/A 15,311,000 1,375 11,135
Kolkata  India Eastern Metropolitan Bypass - Metropolitan - Kolkata 2016-08-25 6105.JPG 14,681,000 Municipality 4,496,694 205 21,935
[40]
14,035,959 1,851 7,583
[41]
18,698,000 1,352 13,830
[42]
Manila  Philippines Manila downtown - Binondo, Quiapo, Quezon Bridge, Pasig River, Arroceros (close-up) (Manila)(2018-02-07).jpg 13,482,000 Capital city 1,780,148 43 41,399
[43]
12,877,253 620 20,770
[43]
23,971,000 1,873 12,798
[l]
Lagos  Nigeria Lagos skyline.jpg 13,463,000 [m] N/A N/A N/A 21,000,000 1,171 17,933
[44]
15,487,000 1,966 7,877
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil CentroRJ.jpg 13,293,000 Municipality 6,520,000 1,221 5,340
[45]
12,644,321 5,327 2,374
[46]
12,486,000 2,020 6,181
Tianjin  China Tianjin Skyline 2009 Sep 11 by Nangua 1.jpg 13,215,000 Municipality 15,569,000 11,920 1,306
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 10,932,000 2,813 3,886
Kinshasa  DR Congo Vue Kinshasa.jpg 13,171,000 City-province 11,462,000 9,965 1,150
[47]
N/A N/A N/A 15,056,000 466 32,309
Guangzhou  China Guangzhou skyline.jpg 12,638,000 City (sub-provincial) 14,498,400 7,434 1,950
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 21,489,000 4,341 4,950
[n]
Los Angeles  United States Los Angeles with Mount Baldy.jpg 12,458,000 City 3,990,456 1,214 3,287
[30]
13,291,486 12,559 1,058
[48]
15,477,000 6,351 2,437
Moscow  Russia Business Centre of Moscow 2.jpg 12,410,000 Federal city 13,200,000 2,511 5,257
[49][50]
20,004,462
[51]
N/A N/A 17,693,000 5,879 3,010
Shenzhen  China Lo Wu District 201701.jpg 11,908,000 City (sub-provincial) 12,528,300 2,050 6,111
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 14,678,000 1,803 8,141
Lahore  Pakistan Badshahi Mosquee, Lahore.jpg 11,738,000 Metropolitan city 11,126,000 1,772 6,279
[32]
N/A N/A N/A 11,148,000 852 13,085
Bangalore  India UB City at night .jpg 11,440,000 Municipality 8,443,675 709 11,909
[52]
N/A N/A N/A 13,999,000 1,204 11,627
Paris  France La Défense from the Arc de Triomphe, Paris 6 March 2015 003.jpg 10,901,000 Commune 2,148,271 105 20,460
[53]
12,244,807 N/A N/A 11,027,000 2,844 3,877
Bogotá  Colombia Panorámica de Usaquen, Bogotá D.C.jpg 10,574,000 Capital District 7,963,000 1,587 5,018
[54]
12,545,272 5,934 2,114
[55]
9,274,000 562 16,502
Jakarta  Indonesia Sudirman Road 01.jpg 10,517,000 Special capital region 10,154,134 664 15,292
[56]
33,430,285 7,063 4,733
[57]
35,362,000 3,541 9,986
[o]
Chennai  India Chennai metro during trail run during night.JPG 10,456,000 Municipality 6,727,000 426 15,791
[58][59]
N/A N/A N/A 11,564,000 1,085 10,658
Lima  Peru Lima - Perú.jpg 10,391,000 Metropolitan municipality 8,894,000 2,672 3,329
[60]
9,569,468 2,819 3,395
[61]
8,992,000 891 10,092
Bangkok  Thailand 0008871 - Krung Thep Bridge 001.jpg 10,156,000 Special administrative area 5,782,000 1,569 3,685
[62]
16,255,900 7,762 2,094
[63]
17,573,000 3,199 5,493
[64]
Seoul  South Korea Seoul (South Korea).jpg 9,963,000 Special city 9,806,000 605 16,208
[65]
25,514,000 11,704 2,180
[66]
22,394,000 2,769 8,087
[p]
Nagoya  Japan Nagoya Night View.jpg 9,507,000 Designated city 2,320,361 326 7,118
[14]
9,363,000 7,271 1,288
[15]
9,522,000 3,704 2,571
Hyderabad  India High Rise buildings in Madhapur from Golkonda hill.jpg 9,482,000 Municipality 6,993,262 650 10,759
[67][68]
N/A N/A N/A 9,840,000 1,274 7,724
London  United Kingdom London Skyline (125508655).jpeg 9,046,000 Capital city 8,825,001 1,572 5,614
[69]
14,372,596
[70]
N/A N/A 11,120,000 1,738 6,398
Tehran  Iran North of Tehran Skyline view.jpg 8,896,000 Capital city 9,033,003 751 12,028
[71][72]
N/A N/A N/A 13,819,000 1,704 8,110
Taipei  Taiwan Taipei Skyline 2021.jpg N/A Special municipality N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 9,078,000 1,059 8,572
Chicago  United States Chicago skyline, viewed from John Hancock Center.jpg 8,864,000 City 2,705,994 589 4,594
[30]
9,498,716 18,640 510
[73]
9,013,000 7,006 1,286
Chengdu  China Jiuyanqiao.jpg 8,813,000 City (sub-provincial) 16,044,700 14,378 1,116
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 11,920,000 1,829 6,517
Nanjing  China Nanjing Xinjiekou Skyline.jpg 8,245,000 City (sub-provincial) 7,260,000 6,582 1,103
[74]
N/A N/A N/A 7,729,000 1,614 4,789
Wuhan  China 三阳路&武汉长江公铁隧道(4).jpg 8,176,000 City (sub-provincial) 10,892,900 8,494 1,282
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 9,729,000 1,722 5,650
Ho Chi Minh City  Vietnam Saigon skyline night view.jpg 8,145,000 Municipality 7,431,000 2,061 3,606
[75]
N/A N/A N/A 13,954,000 1,637 8,524
Luanda  Angola Luanda Skyline - Angola 2015 (cropped).jpg 7,774,000 Municipality 2,165,867 116 18,671
[76]
N/A N/A N/A 8,883,000 1,005 8,839
Ahmedabad  India SG Highway Skyline.jpg 7,681,000 Municipality 5,570,585 464 12,006
[77]
6,300,000
[78]
N/A N/A 7,717,000 360 21,436
Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia Moonrise over kuala lumpur.jpg 7,564,000 City 1,768,000 243 7,276
[79]
7,200,000 2,793 2,578
[80]
8,639,000 2,163 3,994
Xi'an  China China Telecom,xi'an,CHINA - panoramio.jpg 7,444,000 City (sub-provincial) 8,989,000 10,135 887
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 7,090,000 1,093 6,487
Hong Kong  China Hong Kong Skyline (157974881).jpeg 7,429,000 Special administrative region 7,298,600 1,104 6,611
[81][82]
N/A N/A N/A 7,398,000 290 25,510
Dongguan  China 东莞市, 中国 Jul 18, 2019 15-39-21.jpeg 7,360,000 Prefecture-level city 8,342,500 2,465 3,384
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 8,142,000 1,759 4,629
Hangzhou  China Hangzhou CBD (Cropped).jpg 7,236,000 City (sub-provincial) 9,468,000 16,596 570
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 6,713,000 1,445 4,646
Foshan  China 39459-Foshan.jpg 7,236,000 City (sub-provincial) 7,197,394 3,848 1,870
[18]
N/A N/A N/A N/A[83] N/A N/A
Shenyang  China Shenyang Qingnian Street.JPG 6,921,000 City (sub-provincial) 8,294,000 12,980 639
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 7,208,000 1,515 4,758
[q]
Riyadh  Saudi Arabia Riyadh Skyline.jpg 6,907,000 Municipality 6,694,000 1,913 3,499
[84]
N/A N/A N/A 6,889,000 1,673 4,118
Baghdad  Iraq فندق بغداد روتانا.jpg 6,812,000 Urban governorate 8,126,755 5,200 1,563
[85]
N/A N/A N/A 6,107,000 694 8,800
Santiago  Chile J28 293 »Sanhattan«.jpg 6,680,000 City (commune) 236,453 22 10,748
[86]
7,112,808 15,403 462
[87]
7,026,000 1,147 6,126
Surat  India Vesu Skyline.jpg 6,564,000 Municipality 4,466,826 327 13,660
[88]
N/A N/A N/A 4,875,000 238 20,483
Madrid  Spain Madrid Cityscape.jpg 6,497,000 Municipality 3,266,126 606 5,390
[89]
6,641,649 N/A N/A 6,006,000 1,365 4,400
Nairobi  Kenya The modern skyline of Nairobi.jpg N/A City N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 5,973,000 852 7,011
Suzhou  China Gate of the Orient 东方之门 dong fang zhi men Suzhou photo Christian Gänshirt 2015.JPG 6,339,000 City (sub-provincial) 10,721,700 8,488 1,263
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 5,103,000 1,386 3,682
Pune  India Kharadi Skyline.jpg 6,276,000 Municipality 3,124,458 276 11,321
[90]
7,276,000 7,256 1,003
[91]
7,948,000 650 12,228
Harbin  China Harbinblue.jpg 6,115,000 City (sub-provincial) 10,635,971 53,068 200
[18]
N/A N/A N/A 4,583,000 671 6,830
Dubai  United Arab Emirates Dubai Skylines at night (Pexels 3787839).jpg N/A City N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 6,595,000 1,507 4,376
Houston  United States Aerial views of the Houston, Texas, 28005u.jpg 6,115,000 City 2,325,502 1,553 1,497
[30]
6,997,384 21,395 327
[92]
6,529,000 4,931 1,324
Dallas  United States Downtown Dallas Skyline.jpg 6,099,000 City 1,345,047 882 1,525
[30]
7,470,158 22,463 333
[93]
6,960,000 5,278 1,319
[r]
Toronto  Canada Sunset Toronto Skyline Panorama Crop from Snake Island.jpg 6,082,000 City 2,731,571 630 4,336
[94][95]
5,928,040 5,906 1,004
[96]
6,985,000 2,300 3,037
Dar es Salaam  Tanzania Dar es Salaam at a bird's view.jpg 6,048,000 4,364,541 1,393 3,133 N/A N/A N/A 7,461,000 961 7,764
San Francisco  United States San Francisco from the Marin Headlands in March 2019.jpg N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 6,481,000 2,872 2,257
Miami  United States Downtown Miami Panorama from the Rusty Pelican photo D Ramey Logan.jpg 6,036,000 470,914 93 5,069
[30]
6,158,824 15,890 388 6,212,000 3,313 1,875
Belo Horizonte  Brazil Belo Horizonte (2).jpg 5,972,000 2,502,557 331 7,563 5,156,217 9,459 545 5,159,000 1,288 4,005
Singapore  Singapore Singapore Marina Bay Dusk 2018-02-27.jpg 5,792,000 Country 5,638,700 726 7,770 N/A N/A N/A 5,271,000 1,287 4,096
Philadelphia  United States Philadelphia skyline from South Street Bridge January 2020.jpeg 5,695,000 Consolidated city-county 1,526,006 370 4,129 6,096,120 N/A N/A 5,697,000 5,429 1,049
Addis Ababa  Ethiopia Addis abeba meskele square.jpg N/A Consolidated city-county N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 5,503,000 622 8,847
Atlanta  United States Midtown HDR Atlanta.jpg 5,572,000 420,003 354 1,186 5,949,951 21,690 274 5,434,000 7,400 734
Fukuoka  Japan 20100718 Fukuoka 2870.jpg 5,551,000 Designated city 1,588,924 343 4,627 N/A N/A N/A 2,280,000 505 4,515
Khartoum  Sudan Siadah Sanhory mosque in Manshiya.JPG 5,534,000 N/A 639,598 22,142 29 5,274,321 N/A N/A 6,017,000 1,031 5,836
Barcelona  Spain Central business district of Barcelona (2).JPG 5,494,000 Municipality 1,620,343 101 15,980
[97]
5,474,482
[98]
N/A N/A 4,735,000 1,072 4,417
Johannesburg  South Africa The Wits University East Campus (archived).jpg 5,486,000 Metropolitan municipality N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 14,167,000 4,040 3,507[99]
Saint Petersburg  Russia Spb 06-2017 img01 Spit of Vasilievsky Island.jpg 5,383,000 Federal city N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 5,207,000 1,373 3,792
Qingdao  China Qingdao 05.JPG 5,381,000 City (sub-provincial) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 6,232,000 1,655 3,766
Dalian  China DalianSkyline.JPG 5,300,000 City (sub-provincial) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 3,994,000 987 4,047
Washington, D.C.  United States Washington, D.C. - 2007 aerial view.jpg 5,207,000 Federal district 702,455 177 3,969
[30]
6,263,245 17,009 368
[100]
7,583,000 5,501 1,378
[s]
Yangon  Myanmar Yangon downtown at night.jpg 5,157,000 City N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 6,497,000 603 10,774
Alexandria  Egypt Alexandria - Egypt.jpg 5,086,000 Urban governorate N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 4,857,000 293 16,577
Jinan  China Jinanfromqianfoshan.jpg 5,052,000 City (sub-provincial) 8,700,000 10,244 849 N/A N/A N/A 4,381,000 798 5,490
Guadalajara  Mexico Panorámica Guadalajara Zapopan Puerta de Hierro 6.jpg 5,023,000 Municipality 1,385,621 151 9,176
[21]
5,286,642 3,560 1,485 5,437,000 313 17,371
[22]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For urban/metropolitan areas that have more than one core city, the figure for their city proper should use either the most populous one (e.g. Dallas for Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex) or the best-known one (e.g. Manila for Metro Manila, instead of Quezon City).
  2. ^ UN figures for each cities are varied between city proper, metropolitan area, and urban agglomeration.[13]
  3. ^ Figures taken from official census when possible
  4. ^ Figures taken from official census when possible
  5. ^ Includes large areas Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba and Saitama prefectures and smaller areas of Gunma, Tochigi and Ibaraki prefectures.
  6. ^ Includes Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Bahadurgarh urban areas and New Delhi.
  7. ^ Includes Taicang
  8. ^ Includes Francisco Morato
  9. ^ Includes Kalyan and urban areas of Panvel, Bhiwandi and Vasai-Virar.
  10. ^ Includes major cities of Kobe and Kyoto, collectively also known as Keihanshin area.
  11. ^ Includes Bridgeport, New Haven, Trenton, Danbury, Waterbury and Twin Rivers urban areas.
  12. ^ The continuous urbanization of Manila extends outward its Metro Manila into other neighbouring provinces such as Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Pampanga and Batangas provinces.
  13. ^ Although commonly referred to as a city, Lagos is a metropolitan area consisting of 16 local government areas.
  14. ^ Includes the city of Foshan.
  15. ^ Includes Tangerang, South Tangerang, Bogor, Bekasi and Karawang.
  16. ^ Includes the city of Incheon.
  17. ^ Includes the city of Fushun.
  18. ^ Includes the city of Fort Worth, collectively known as Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.
  19. ^ Includes the city of Baltimore.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "SOWC-2012-DEFINITIONS". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  2. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database". United Nations. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  3. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". United Nations. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  4. ^ Demographic Yearbook 2005, Volume 57. United Nations. 2008. p. 241. ISBN 978-92-1-051099-8. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016.
  5. ^ a b World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. United Nations. 2004. ISBN 92-1-151396-0. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  6. ^ Alexander, Ruth (29 January 2012). "The world's biggest cities: How do you measure them?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  7. ^ Alexander, Ruth (29 January 2012). "Which is the world's biggest city?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  8. ^ Callahan, William A. (12 April 2015). China Dreams: 20 Visions of the Future. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190235239. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Nussle, Jim (20 November 2008). "Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. pp. 1–2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Home". mmda.gov.ph. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  11. ^ Widyanto, Untung (6 December 2018). "3 Masalah Utama BKSP Jabodetabekjur yang Dipimpin Anies Baswedan". Tempo. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
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