World Fencing Championships

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World Fencing Championships
Status active
Genre Fencing World championship
Date(s) varying
Frequency annual
Country varying
Inaugurated 1921 (1921)
Most recent 2018
Next event 2019
Organised by FIE
Website www.fie.ch

The World Fencing Championships is an annual competition in fencing organized by the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime or FIE, (International Fencing Federation in English). The world championships are, after the Olympic Games, the most prominent international competition in the sport of fencing. Contestants may participate in foil, épée, and sabre events.

History[edit]

The FIE first organized an international fencing championship in Paris in 1921. The competition in its early years was named the European Championships (Championnats d'Europe) and the initial participants were members of the fencing federations of the FIE. In 1921, the only event was men's épée individual. In 1922 and 1923, men's sabre individual was also held. In 1925, only men's sabre individual was held. Since 1926, men's individual events have been held in all three weapons: épée, foil, and sabre. In 1929, women's foil was added to the program as well as a men's foil team event. Men's épée and sabre teams were added in 1930 and women's foil team in 1932. Women's épée individual and team events were added in 1988 and women's sabre individual and team in 1999.

After the 1936 Olympics, the government of Benito Mussolini in Italy offered national recognition and privileges to winners of Olympic or world titles but not European titles.[1] The Italian fencing federation requested that the FIE change the name of the European Championships to World Championships (Championnats du Monde). The FIE approved this request and gave retroactive World Championship status to the previous European Championships.

Since 1921, the FIE championships have occurred annually except for an interruption forced by World War II from 1939 to 1946 and in some of the years when the Summer Olympics are held. The fencing competitions at the Summer Olympics have served as the World Championships of the year for the relevant events. Since 1932, World Championships have been held during the Olympic years only for those events not being held during that year's Summer Olympics. For the years 1932, 1936, 1948, 1952, and 1956, World Championships were held only in Women's Foil Team since that event was not on the Olympic program during those years. After this event was added to the Olympic program beginning with the 1960 Olympics, the FIE stopped holding World Championships during the Olympic years until 1988 when women's épée individual and women's épée team events were added to the World Championship program but the IOC declined to add these events to the Olympic program. A World Championship in these two events was again held in 1992 for the same reason. Finally, in 1996 the IOC added these two events to the Olympic program and the FIE again stopped holding a World Championship in an Olympic year.

When the FIE added women's sabre to the World Championships in 1999, the IOC refused to add these two events to the 2000 Olympic program and so the FIE held a World Championships in only women's sabre in 2000. For the 2004 Olympics, the IOC allowed women's sabre to be contested at the Olympics but only under the condition that the number of fencing events being contested (individual and team) remain at ten. The FIE reluctantly agreed to this condition and has satisfied it by not contesting two of the team events at the Olympics but holding World Championships for them instead during those years. So World Championships have been held but Olympic events have not been held (2004–2016) for the following events:

  • 2004 – women's foil team, women's sabre team
  • 2008 – men's foil team, women's épée team
  • 2012 – men's épée team, women's sabre team
  • 2016 – men's sabre team, women's foil team

From 2020 Summer Olympics, all 12 fencing events are held, which means no World Championships are held on Olympic years.[2]

Naming[edit]

These World Fencing Championships are usually referred to as Senior World Fencing Championships because the FIE also runs three other World Championships. Beginning in 1950, the FIE also sanctioned an annual competitions which it originally called the Junior World Criterium (Criterium Mondial des Jeunes). Entries were originally restricted to those 21 years of age or lower but in 1960 the age limit was dropped to 20. In 1964, the name of the competition was officially changed to Junior World Championships and world championship status was retroactively granted to the participants of the previous competitions.

Beginning in 1987, the FIE began sanctioning an annual competition called the Cadet World Championships. Entries were restricted to those 17 years of age or lower. Originally the Junior and Cadet World Championships were held in different cities on different dates but beginning in 1993 they've been called the Junior/Cadet World Championships and have been held at the same venue with all of the cadet events held first followed by all of the junior events.

Beginning in 1997, the FIE began sanctioning an annual competition called the Veteran World Championships. Entries were restricted to those 40 years of age or older the first year and 50 years or older in subsequent years.

Hosts[edit]

Edition Host city Host country
1921 Paris  France
1922 Paris
Ostend
 France
 Belgium
1923 The Hague  Netherlands
1925 Ostend  Belgium
1926 Budapest
Ostend
 Hungary
 Belgium
1927 Vichy  France
1929 Naples  Italy
1930 Liège  Belgium
1931 Vienna  Austria
1932 Copenhagen  Denmark
1933 Budapest  Hungary
1934 Warsaw  Poland
1935 Lausanne   Switzerland
1936 San Remo  Italy
1937 Paris  France
1938 Piešťany  Czechoslovakia
1947 Lisbon  Portugal
1948 The Hague  Netherlands
1949 Cairo  Egypt
1950 Monte Carlo  Monaco
1951 Stockholm  Sweden
1952 Copenhagen  Denmark
1953 Brussels  Belgium
1954 Luxembourg  Luxembourg
1955 Rome  Italy
1956 London  United Kingdom
1957 Paris  France
1958 Philadelphia  United States
1959 Budapest  Hungary
1961 Turin  Italy
1962 Buenos Aires  Argentina
1963 Gdańsk  Poland
1965 Paris  France
1966 Moscow  Soviet Union
1967 Montreal  Canada
1969 Havana  Cuba
1970 Ankara  Turkey
1971 Vienna  Austria
1973 Gothenburg  Sweden
1974 Grenoble  France
1975 Budapest  Hungary
1977 Buenos Aires  Argentina
1978 Hamburg  West Germany
1979 Melbourne  Australia
1981 Clermont-Ferrand  France
1982 Rome  Italy
1983 Vienna  Austria
1985 Barcelona  Spain
1986 Sofia  Bulgaria
1987 Lausanne   Switzerland
1988 Orléans  France
1989 Denver  United States
1990 Lyon  France
1991 Budapest  Hungary
1992 Havana  Cuba
1993 Essen  Germany
1994 Athens  Greece
1995 The Hague  Netherlands
1997 Cape Town  South Africa
1998 La Chaux-de-Fonds   Switzerland
1999 Seoul  South Korea
2000 Budapest  Hungary
2001 Nîmes  France
2002 Lisbon  Portugal
2003 Havana  Cuba
2004 New York City  United States
2005 Leipzig  Germany
2006 Turin  Italy
2007 Saint Petersburg  Russia
2008 Beijing  China
2009 Antalya  Turkey
2010 Paris  France
2011 Catania  Italy
2012 Kiev  Ukraine
2013 Budapest  Hungary
2014 Kazan  Russia
2015 Moscow  Russia
2016 Rio de Janeiro  Brazil
2017 Leipzig  Germany
2018 Wuxi  China
2019 Budapest  Hungary

Hosting tally[edit]

Hosting nations 1937–2017
Times hosted Host country
9  France
7  Hungary,  Italy
3  Cuba,  United States,  Russia,  Germany
2  Argentina,  Austria,  Netherlands,  Portugal,  Sweden,   Switzerland,  Turkey
1  Australia,  Belgium,  Bulgaria,  Canada,  China,  Denmark,  Egypt,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Monaco,
 Poland,  Czechoslovakia,  South Korea,  South Africa,  Soviet Union,  Spain,  Ukraine,  United Kingdom,  West Germany,  Brazil

World champions[edit]

Épée[edit]

Year Men's individual Women's individual Men's team Women's team
1921 France Lucien Gaudin
1922 Norway Raoul Heide
1923 Netherlands Wouter Brouwer
1926 France Georges Tainturier
1927 France Georges Buchard
1929 France Philippe Cattiau
1930 France Philippe Cattiau  Belgium
1931 France Georges Buchard  Italy
1933 France Georges Buchard  Italy
1934 Hungary Pál Dunay  France
1935 Sweden Hans Drakenberg  France
1937 France Bernard Schmetz  Italy
1938 France Michel Pécheux  France
1939–1946 did not take place due to World War II
1947 France Edouard Artigas  France
1949 Italy Dario Mangiarotti  Italy
1950 Denmark Mogens Lüchow  Italy
1951 Italy Edoardo Mangiarotti  France
1953 Hungary József Sákovics  Italy
1954 Italy Edoardo Mangiarotti  Italy
1955 Italy Giorgio Anglesio  Italy
1957 France Armand Mouyal  Italy
1958 United Kingdom Bill Hoskyns  Italy
1959 Soviet Union Bruno Habārovs  Hungary
1961 France Jack Guittet  Soviet Union
1962 Hungary István Kausz  France
1963 Austria Roland Losert  Poland
1965 Hungary Zoltán Nemere  France
1966 Soviet Union Aleksey Nikanchikov  France
1967 Soviet Union Aleksey Nikanchikov  Soviet Union
1969 Poland Bohdan Andrzejewski  Soviet Union
1970 Soviet Union Aleksey Nikanchikov  Hungary
1971 Soviet Union Grigori Kriss  Hungary
1973 Sweden Rolf Edling  West Germany
1974 Sweden Rolf Edling  Sweden
1975 Germany Alexander Pusch  Sweden
1977 Sweden Johan Harmenberg  Sweden
1978 Germany Alexander Pusch  Hungary
1979 France Philippe Riboud  Soviet Union
1981 Hungary Zoltán Székely  Soviet Union
1982 Hungary Jenő Pap  France
1983 Germany Elmar Borrmann  France
1985 France Philippe Boisse  West Germany
1986 France Philippe Riboud  West Germany
1987 Germany Volker Fischer  Soviet Union
1988 France Brigitte Benon  West Germany
1989 Spain Manuel Pereira Switzerland Anja Straub  Italy  Hungary
1990 Germany Thomas Gerull Cuba Taymi Chappe  Italy  West Germany
1991 Soviet Union Andrey Shuvalov Hungary Mariann Horváth  Soviet Union  Hungary
1992 Hungary Mariann Horváth  Hungary
1993 Russia Pavel Kolobkov Estonia Oksana Jermakova  Italy  Hungary
1994 Russia Pavel Kolobkov Italy Laura Chiesa  France  Spain
1995 France Éric Srecki Poland Joanna Jakimiuk  Germany  Hungary
1997 France Éric Srecki Cuba Mirayda García  Cuba  Hungary
1998 France Hugues Obry France Laura Flessel-Colovic  Hungary  Italy
1999 Germany Arnd Schmitt France Laura Flessel-Colovic  France  Hungary
2001 Italy Paolo Milanoli Germany Claudia Bokel  Hungary  Russia
2002 Russia Pavel Kolobkov South Korea Hyun Hee  France  Hungary
2003 France Fabrice Jeannet Ukraine Natalia Konrad  Russia  Russia
2005 Russia Pavel Kolobkov Poland Danuta Dmowska  France  France
2006 China Lei Wang Hungary Tímea Nagy  France  China
2007 Hungary Krisztián Kulcsár Germany Britta Heidemann  France  France
2008 events not held  France
2009 Russia Anton Avdeev Russia Lyubov Shutova  France  Italy
2010 Estonia Nikolai Novosjolov France Maureen Nisima  France  Romania
2011 Italy Paolo Pizzo China Li Na  France  Romania
2012 events not held  United States event not held
2013 Estonia Nikolai Novosjolov Estonia Julia Beljajeva  Hungary  Russia
2014 France Ulrich Robeiri Italy Rossella Fiamingo  France  Russia
2015 Hungary Géza Imre Italy Rossella Fiamingo  Ukraine  China
2017 Italy Paolo Pizzo Russia Tatyana Gudkova  France  Estonia
2018 France Yannick Borel Italy Mara Navarria   Switzerland  United States

Foil[edit]

Year Men's individual Women's individual Men's team Women's team
1926 Italy Giorgio Chiavacci
1927 Italy Oreste Puliti
1929 Italy Oreste Puliti Germany Helene Mayer
1930 Italy Giulio Gaudini Belgium Jenny Addams  Italy
1931 France Lemoine Germany Helene Mayer  Italy
1932  Denmark
1933 Italy Gioachino Guaragna United Kingdom Gwendoline Neligan  Italy  Hungary
1934 Italy Giulio Gaudini Hungary Ilona Elek  Italy  Hungary
1935 France Andre Gardere Hungary Ilona Elek  Italy  Hungary
1936  Germany
1937 Italy Gustavo Marzi Nazi Germany Helene Mayer  Italy  Hungary
1938 Italy Gioachino Guaragna Czechoslovakia Marie Šedivá  Italy
1939–1946 did not take place due to World War II
1947 France Christian D'Oriola Austria Ellen Preis  France  Denmark
1948  Denmark
1949 France Christian D'Oriola Austria Ellen Preis  Italy
1950 Italy Renzo Nostini Austria Ellen Preis  Italy  France
1951 Italy Manlio Di Rosa Hungary Ilona Elek  France  France
1952  Hungary
1953 France Christian D'Oriola Italy Irene Camber  France  Hungary
1954 France Christian D'Oriola Denmark Karen Lachmann  Italy  Hungary
1955 Hungary József Gyuricza Hungary Lídia Sákovicsné Dömölky  Italy  Hungary
1956  Soviet Union
1957 Hungary Mihály Fülöp Soviet Union Alexandra Zabelina  Hungary  Italy
1958 Italy Giancarlo Bergamini Soviet Union Valentina Rastvorova
1959 United Kingdom Allan Jay Soviet Union Emma Yefimova
1961 Poland Ryszard Parulski Germany Adelheid Schmid  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1962 Soviet Union German Sveshnikov Romania Olga Szabo  Soviet Union  Hungary
1963 France Jean Claude Magnan Hungary Ildikó Rejtő  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1965 France Jean Claude Magnan Soviet Union Galina Gorokhova  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1966 Soviet Union German Sveshnikov Soviet Union Tatyana Petrenko-Samusenko  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1967 Poland Viktor Putyatin Soviet Union Alexandra Zabelina  Romania  Hungary
1969 West Germany Friedrich Wessel Soviet Union Elena Novikova-Belova  Soviet Union  Romania
1970 West Germany Friedrich Wessel Soviet Union Galina Gorokhova  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1971 Soviet Union Vasyl Stankovych France Marie-Chantal Depetris-Demaille  France  Soviet Union
1973 France Christian Noel Soviet Union Valentina Nikonova  Soviet Union  Hungary
1974 Soviet Union Alexander Romankov Hungary Ildikó Bóbis  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1975 France Christian Noel Romania Ecaterina Stahl  France  Soviet Union
1977 Soviet Union Alexander Romankov Soviet Union Valentina Sidorova  West Germany  Soviet Union
1978 France Didier Flament Soviet Union Valentina Sidorova  Poland  Soviet Union
1979 Soviet Union Alexander Romankov West Germany Cornelia Hanisch  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1981 Soviet Union Vladimir Smirnov Germany Cornelia Hanisch  Soviet Union  Soviet Union
1982 Soviet Union Alexander Romankov Soviet Union Nailya Gilyazova  Soviet Union  Italy
1983 Soviet Union Alexander Romankov Italy Dorina Vaccaroni  West Germany  Italy
1985 Italy Mauro Numa West Germany Cornelia Hanisch  Italy  West Germany
1986 Italy Andrea Borella West Germany Anja Fichtel  Italy  Soviet Union
1987 West Germany Mathias Gey Romania Elisabeta Tufan  West Germany  Hungary
1989 West Germany Alexander Koch Soviet Union Olga Velichko  Soviet Union  West Germany
1990 France Philippe Omnes West Germany Anja Fichtel  Italy  Italy
1991 Germany Ingo Weissenborn Italy Giovanna Trillini  Cuba  Italy
1993 Germany Alexander Koch Italy Francesca Bortolozzi  Germany  Germany
1994 Cuba Rolando Tucker Romania Réka Szabó-Lăzar  Italy  Romania
1995 Russia Dmitriy Shevchenko Romania Laura Badea  Cuba  Italy
1997 Ukraine Sergei Golubitsky Italy Giovanna Trillini  France  Italy
1998 Ukraine Sergei Golubitsky Germany Sabine Bau  Poland  Italy
1999 Ukraine Sergei Golubitsky Italy Valentina Vezzali  France  Germany
2001 Italy Salvatore Sanzo Italy Valentina Vezzali  France  Italy
2002 Italy Simone Vanni Russia Svetlana Boiko  Germany  Russia
2003 Germany Peter Joppich Italy Valentina Vezzali  Italy  Poland
2004 events not held  Italy
2005 Italy Salvatore Sanzo Italy Valentina Vezzali  France  South Korea
2006 Germany Peter Joppich Italy Margherita Granbassi  France  Russia
2007 Germany Peter Joppich Italy Valentina Vezzali  France  Poland
2008 events not held  Italy event not held
2009 Italy Andrea Baldini Russia Aida Shanaeva  Italy  Italy
2010 Germany Peter Joppich Italy Elisa Di Francisca  China  Italy
2011 Italy Andrea Cassarà Italy Valentina Vezzali  China  Russia
2013 United States Miles Chamley-Watson Italy Arianna Errigo  Italy  Italy
2014 Russia Aleksey Cheremisinov Italy Arianna Errigo  France  Italy
2015 Japan Yuki Ota Russia Inna Deriglazova  Italy  Italy
2016 events not held  Russia
2017 Russia Dmitry Zherebchenko Russia Inna Deriglazova  Italy  Italy
2018 Italy Alessio Foconi Italy Alice Volpi  Italy  United States

Sabre[edit]

Year Men's individual Women's individual Men's team Women's team
1922 Netherlands Adrianus de Jong
1923 Netherlands Adrianus de Jong
1926 Hungary Sándor Gombos
1925 Hungary János Garay
1927 Hungary Sándor Gombos
1929 Hungary Gyula Glykais
1930 Hungary György Piller  Hungary
1931 Hungary György Piller  Hungary
1933 Hungary Endre Kabos  Hungary
1934 Hungary Endre Kabos  Hungary
1935 Hungary Aladár Gerevich  Hungary
1937 Hungary Pál Kovács  Hungary
1938 Italy Aldo Montano  Italy
1939-1946 did not take place due to World War II
1947 Italy Aldo Montano  Italy
1949 Italy Gastone Darè  Italy
1950 France Jean Levavasseur  Italy
1951 Hungary Aladár Gerevich  Hungary
1953 Hungary Pál Kovács  Hungary
1954 Hungary Rudolf Kárpáti  Hungary
1955 Hungary Aladár Gerevich  Hungary
1957 Poland Jerzy Pawłowski  Hungary
1958 Soviet Union Yakov Rylsky  Hungary
1959 Hungary Rudolf Kárpáti  Poland
1961 Soviet Union Yakov Rylsky  Poland
1962 Hungary Zoltán Horváth  Poland
1963 Soviet Union Yakov Rylsky  Poland
1965 Poland Jerzy Pawłowski  Soviet Union
1966 Poland Jerzy Pawłowski  Hungary
1967 Soviet Union Mark Rakita  Soviet Union
1969 Soviet Union Viktor Sidjak  Soviet Union
1970 Hungary Tibor Pézsa  Soviet Union
1971 Italy Michele Maffei  Soviet Union
1973 Italy Mario Aldo Montano  Hungary
1974 Italy Mario Aldo Montano  Soviet Union
1975 Soviet Union Vladimir Nazlymov  Soviet Union
1977 Hungary Pál Gerevich  Soviet Union
1978 Soviet Union Viktor Krovopuskov  Hungary
1979 Soviet Union Vladimir Nazlymov  Soviet Union
1981 Poland Mariusz Wodke  Hungary
1982 Soviet Union Viktor Krovopuskov  Hungary
1983 Bulgaria Vasil Etropolski  Soviet Union
1985 Hungary György Nébald  Soviet Union
1986 Soviet Union Sergey Mindirgasov  Soviet Union
1987 France Jean-François Lamour  Soviet Union
1989 Soviet Union Grigory Kiriyenko  Soviet Union
1990 Hungary György Nébald  Soviet Union
1991 Soviet Union Grigory Kiriyenko  Hungary
1993 Russia Grigory Kiriyenko  Hungary
1994 Germany Felix Becker  Russia
1995 Russia Grigory Kiriyenko  Italy
1997 Russia Stanislav Pozdnyakov  France
1998 Italy Luigi Tarantino  Hungary
1999 France Damien Touya Azerbaijan Yelena Jemayeva  France  Italy
2000 event not held Azerbaijan Yelena Jemayeva event not held  United States
2001 Russia Stanislav Pozdnyakov France Anne-Lise Touya  Russia  Russia
2002 Russia Stanislav Pozdnyakov China Tan Xue  Russia  Russia
2003 Ukraine Volodymyr Lukashenko Romania Dorina Mihai  Russia  Italy
2004 events not held  Russia
2005 Romania Mihai Covaliu France Anne-Lise Touya  Russia  United States
2006 Russia Stanislav Pozdnyakov United States Rebecca Ward  France  France
2007 Russia Stanislav Pozdnyakov Russia Yelena Nechayeva  Hungary  France
2008 events not held
2009 Germany Nicolas Limbach United States Mariel Zagunis  Romania  Ukraine
2010 South Korea Won Woo-Young United States Mariel Zagunis  Russia  Russia
2011 Italy Aldo Montano Russia Sofiya Velikaya  Russia  Russia
2012 events not held  Russia
2013 Russia Veniamin Reshetnikov Ukraine Olha Kharlan  Russia  Ukraine
2014 Russia Nikolay Kovalev Ukraine Olha Kharlan  Germany  United States
2015 Russia Aleksey Yakimenko Russia Sofiya Velikaya  Italy  Russia
2016 events not held  Russia event not held
2017 Hungary András Szatmári Ukraine Olha Kharlan  South Korea  Italy
2018 South Korea Kim Jung-hwan Russia Sofia Pozdniakova  South Korea  France

Medal table[edit]

This table has been last updated after 2018 World Fencing Championships. This only counts the World Championships since 1937 and do not include the results of the fencing competitions at the Summer Olympics.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Italy 118 102 124 344
2  Hungary 90 84 94 268
3  Soviet Union 90 57 50 197
4  France 89 97 95 270
5  Russia 53 26 37 116
6  Germany
 West Germany
 East Germany
Total 
22
25
1
48
29
26
1
56
39
14
3
56
90
65
5
160
7  Poland 17 29 39 85
8  Romania 13 25 28 66
9  Ukraine 11 11 15 37
10  United States 9 12 10 31
11  China 7 18 17 32
12  Sweden 7 13 17 36
13  South Korea 6 11 19 36
14  Cuba 6 5 9 20
15  Estonia 5 6 6 17
16  Denmark 4 3 3 10
17  Austria 4 0 5 9
18  Great Britain 3 4 4 11
19   Switzerland 2 8 10 20
20  Azerbaijan 2 1 4 7
21  Bulgaria 1 3 4 8
22  Czechoslovakia 1 3 1 5
23  Spain 1 2 6 9
24  Japan 1 1 4 6
25  Belgium 0 2 5 7
26  Venezuela 0 2 0 2
27  Canada 0 1 2 3
28  Portugal 0 1 0 1
29  Egypt 0 0 7 7
30  Netherlands 0 0 3 3
31  Tunisia 0 1 3 4
32  Belarus 0 0 2 2
33  Colombia 0 0 1 1
 Finland 0 0 1 1
 Norway 0 0 1 1
Total 524 523 637 1680

Multiple medalists[edit]

The list refers to individual and team events and include men and women (in pink color), sorted by number of individual titles.[3][4]

# Fencer Individual Team Total
Gold medal world centered-2.svg Silver medal world centered-2.svg Bronze medal world centered-2.svg Gold medal world centered-2.svg Silver medal world centered-2.svg Bronze medal world centered-2.svg Gold medal world centered-2.svg Silver medal world centered-2.svg Bronze medal world centered-2.svg
1 Italy Valentina Vezzali 6 2 4 10 4 0 16 6 4
2 Russia Stanislav Pozdnyakov 5 3 0 5 2 2 10 5 2
3 Soviet Union Alexandr Romankov 5 1 0 5 1 3 10 2 3
4 Russia Pavel Kolobkov 4 1 2 2 1 2 6 2 4
5 France Christian d'Oriola 4 1 0 4 2 0 8 3 0
6 Poland Jerzy Pawłowski 3 4 1 4 2 1 7 6 5

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cohen. By the Sword. pp. 375, footnote. 
  2. ^ Fencing To Have Full Medal Count in Tokyo 2020 Olympics fencing.net
  3. ^ "Les escrimeurs multimédaillés aux Championnats du Monde" (in French). sportquick.com. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "Intervista a Valentina Vezzali - "Mi sono risollevata da sola" (in Italian). cataniaescrime2011.com. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]