World Index of Moral Freedom

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The World Index of Moral Freedom[1] is an international index ranking one hundred and sixty countries on their performance on five categories of indicators: religious freedom (taking into account both the freedom to practice any religion or none, and the situation of religious control on the state); bioethical freedom (including the legal status of abortion, euthanasia and other practices pertaining to bioethics, like surrogacy or stem cell research); drugs freedom (including the legal status of cannabis and the country's general policy on hard drugs); sexual freedom (including the legal status of pornography and sex services among consenting adults, and the country's age of sexual consent), and family and gender freedom (including women's freedom of movement, the legal status of cohabitation of unmarried couples, same sex marriage and the situation of transgender people). The index is sponsored and published by the Foundation for the Advancement of Liberty, a libertarian think tank based in Madrid, Spain. The WIMF's first edition was published on April 2, 2016, co-authored by Foundation researchers Andreas Kohl and Juan Pina.

Purpose[edit]

The World Index of Moral Freedom aims at completing the views presented by other international freedom indices measuring general freedom or aspects thereof (press freedom, economic freedom, etcetera). To do so, the Index aims at responding a simple question: how free from state-imposed moral constraints are human beings depending on their countries of residence? The research conducted tries to determine the degree of individual freedom to take decisions pertaining to the great moral debates of our time. The first edition of the WIMF includes a short note on the comparison between its country ranking and those of the other freedom indices.

Categories studied and classification of countries[edit]

Each category of indicators is worth twenty points (20% of the total score) and aims at responding the following questions:

  • Category A. Religious indicators. How free is the practice of any religion or none, and how religious-controlled is the state.
  • Category B. Bioethical indicators. How free is individual decision making on matters posing bioethical questions.
  • Category C. Drugs indicators. How free is the production, trade and consumption of substances deemed harmful.
  • Category D. Sexuality indicators. How free are sexual intercourse, pornography and sex services among consenting adults.
  • Category E. Gender & family indicators. How free are women, LGBT individuals and unmarried couples living together.

Each category is made up of various indicators (normally one or two leading indicators adjusted by one or two lesser wheighted ones), the weight of which is set in view of their inferred relevance towards the category’s overall score. Countries have been classified towards each category according to the information available in the sources reviewed. All category results and the general index itself are presented in a 0-100 point scale. Countries are classified according to the following intervals:

  • 90-100 points – Highest moral freedom
  • 80-90 points – Very high moral freedom
  • 60-80 points – High moral freedom
  • 50-60 points – Acceptable moral freedom
  • 40-50 points – Insufficient moral freedom
  • 20-40 points – Low moral freedom
  • 10-20 points – Very low moral freedom
  • 0-10 points – Lowest moral freedom

Findings of the WIMF's first edition[edit]

State of moral freedom around the world[edit]

Only one country, the Netherlands, is classified as having the “highest” level of moral freedom by scoring slightly over the 90 points required for that label. Just four countries make it into the upper twenty points, and only ten pass the 75 point threshold. Out of the 160 countries considered, only 64 “pass the exam” and score 50 points or more. And around 30% of all countries fall in the “low”, “very low” or “lowest” moral freedom areas of the index. Technology and the cultural globalization that it produces are deemed by the authors to be the most powerful driving forces towards acceptance of individual moral freedom.

Netherlands[edit]

With a three-point (three per cent) advantage over their closest competitor and eight points over the third, the Netherlands top the 2016 country ranking. The Dutch score is twenty-one points higher than the average of all countries enjoying “high” or “very high” moral freedom. For many decades, whenever moral freedom was discussed, the Netherlands had the least interventionist policies. The first country to fight human trafficking by legalising sex services performed by consenting adults, or to normalize the use of cannabis, or to acknowledge same sex marriage already in 2001, performs remarkably high in most indicators considered towards the index.

Latin countries[edit]

A trend may be inferred towards international unification of the legal and political approach to moral issues. And that trend favours the Western world’s predominant choice for low moral interference by the state. This is particularly noticeable when looking at the index performance of many Southern European and Latin American countries, which seem to reveal a fast cultural evolution from traditional, conservative values into a laissez-faire approach to morality. Four of the top ten countries are Latin American or Iberian, while six other Latin countries in Southern Europe and the Americas make it to the “high moral freedom” region of the index. The particular performance of countries like Portugal or Uruguay is much higher than their recent history would indicate. These and other Latin countries seem to have discarded their traditional background of religiously influenced governance.

Islamic countries and other religious-influenced states[edit]

The fifteen lowest scoring countries at the World Index of Moral Freedom are Islamic and located in the Persian Gulf, North-Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. This is also true for the region’s economically free enclaves in the area. Saudi Arabia comes last (160th) in the ranking and doesn’t even score ten points out of the one hundred potentially available. Only four predominantly Islamic countries obtain more than fifty points: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey and Kazakhstan. A few non Islamic countries also show low levels of moral freedom which the authors consider likely to be due to a strong political leverage held by another religion. These include Belarus (Orthodox), Israel (Jewish), Nepal (Hinduist), the Philippines (Catholic), Thailand (Buddhist), Tonga (Methodist), or Tuvalu (Calvinist).

Russia[edit]

In Russia, moral conservatism, derived from either the Orthodox faith or traditional culture, seems to have replaced marxism as the basis for an ongoing, though softer, social engineering by the state. Russia’s score is just in the middle of the classification, a position shared by some of her cultural and political allies, like Serbia or Moldova, while politically unfree Belarus falls further below. In all of these countries, the freedom of LGBT individuals is a matter of particular concern.

Communist countries[edit]

The remaining communist regimes coerce their citizens into abiding by a moral code based on allegedly scientific views. Freedom of conscience and the practice of any religion are repressed. In the case of the People’s Republic of China, decades of limited economic liberalization have not resulted in an equally noticeable moral openness. Two other communist regimes, North Korea and Vietnam, fall further down into the low moral freedom area, while moral freedom is deemed insufficient in Laos and just slightly over the fifty point threshold in socialist Venezuela or in outright communist Cuba.

Other findings[edit]

For different reasons, often including abnormally low scores in a particular set of indicators, a few Western countries which perform reasonably high in other freedom indices rank rather low at the WIMF. Hungary and Norway fail to make it into the “high moral freedom” area, although just for under half a point. The British and Irish performance is particularly low within the moral freedom area. Iceland, Japan, Poland and Romania barely manage to pass the fifty point mark, while Singapore, Israel or South Korea fall in the “insufficient moral freedom” part of the index. While most countries topping the WIMF in its first edition belong to the developed world, some countries with a lesser degree of development have also made their way into the higher classification areas. Cambodia, scoring just over seventy points, obtains the fifteenth place in the global classification and is the first developing country in the index. It is also worth noting that the four European micro-states considered −the principalities of Andorra and Monaco and the republics of San Marino and Malta− score surprisingly low in comparison with their bigger neighbours. In spite of their high living standards and economic freedom, these countries fail to perform similarly when it comes to moral freedom. A similar situation is observed in Caribbean and South Pacific island micro-states, which score poorly in most categories and rank in the lower areas of the WIMF classification. This similarity between very small countries in different regions, in spite of the cultural influence of their neighbours and allies, may lead to the conclusion that moral freedom is affected, among other relevant factors, by country size.

WIMF 2016 ranking[edit]

RANK COUNTRY WIMF 2016 ZONE RELIGIOUS BIOETHICAL DRUGS SEXUAL FAMILY/GENDER
1 Netherlands 91,70 Highest Moral Freedom 100,00 80,00 98,50 90,00 90,00
2 Uruguay 88,75 Very High Moral Freedom 92,50 81,25 85,00 95,00 90,00
3 Portugal 83,80 Very High Moral Freedom 100,00 62,50 73,50 93,00 90,00
4 Czech Republic 80,50 Very High Moral Freedom 100,00 72,50 72,00 88,00 70,00
5 Belgium 79,35 High Moral Freedom 88,75 85,00 50,00 83,00 90,00
6 Spain 78,60 High Moral Freedom 81,25 67,50 71,25 83,00 90,00
7 United States 78,20 High Moral Freedom 96,25 92,50 38,75 73,50 90,00
8 Germany 78,03 High Moral Freedom 90,63 67,50 62,00 100,00 70,00
9 Canada 76,58 High Moral Freedom 90,63 72,50 53,75 76,00 90,00
10 Mexico 75,53 High Moral Freedom 90,63 77,50 38,50 95,00 76,00
11 Colombia 74,98 High Moral Freedom 78,13 52,50 80,25 93,00 71,00
12 Luxembourg 72,60 High Moral Freedom 100,00 75,00 15,00 83,00 90,00
13 Switzerland 72,38 High Moral Freedom 90,63 75,00 36,25 90,00 70,00
14 Austria 71,13 High Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 32,50 100,00 70,00
15 Cambodia 70,50 High Moral Freedom 77,50 62,50 85,00 60,00 67,50
16 Slovenia 70,00 High Moral Freedom 100,00 62,50 57,50 60,00 70,00
17 France 69,93 High Moral Freedom 90,63 67,50 13,50 88,00 90,00
18 Estonia 69,40 High Moral Freedom 100,00 62,50 31,00 86,00 67,50
19 Brazil 69,30 High Moral Freedom 100,00 31,25 34,75 93,00 87,50
20 Sweden 66,95 High Moral Freedom 81,25 82,50 21,00 60,00 90,00
21 Denmark 66,33 High Moral Freedom 68,13 72,50 22,50 81,00 87,50
22 Bolivia 65,30 High Moral Freedom 96,25 31,25 51,50 100,00 47,50
23 New Zealand 65,25 High Moral Freedom 92,50 41,25 15,00 87,50 90,00
24 Ecuador 64,75 High Moral Freedom 85,00 31,25 40,00 100,00 67,50
25 Argentina 64,45 High Moral Freedom 85,00 31,25 32,50 86,00 87,50
26 Italy 64,25 High Moral Freedom 91,25 62,50 34,00 86,00 47,50
27 Slovakia 62,33 High Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 13,50 95,00 50,00
28 South Africa 61,70 High Moral Freedom 98,50 72,50 7,50 40,00 90,00
29 Greece 61,38 High Moral Freedom 49,38 62,50 32,50 95,00 67,50
30 Australia 61,35 High Moral Freedom 100,00 41,25 32,50 63,00 70,00
31 Finland 60,58 High Moral Freedom 68,13 46,25 22,50 76,00 90,00
32 Montenegro 60,03 High Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 13,50 86,00 47,50
33 Hungary 59,88 Acceptable Moral Freedom 56,88 67,50 15,00 100,00 60,00
34 Latvia 59,63 Acceptable Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 7,50 90,00 47,50
35 Norway 59,63 Acceptable Moral Freedom 68,13 62,50 22,50 55,00 90,00
36 Chile 59,40 Acceptable Moral Freedom 77,50 0,00 66,00 86,00 67,50
37 Croatia 59,13 Acceptable Moral Freedom 83,13 62,50 32,50 60,00 57,50
38 Peru 59,08 Acceptable Moral Freedom 68,13 31,25 38,50 100,00 57,50
39 United Kingdom 58,05 Acceptable Moral Freedom 77,50 50,00 18,75 56,00 88,00
40 Ireland 57,33 Acceptable Moral Freedom 85,00 20,63 22,50 71,00 87,50
41 India 57,03 Acceptable Moral Freedom 76,63 77,50 53,75 46,00 31,25
42 Bosnia and Herzegovina 55,63 Acceptable Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 22,50 65,00 37,50
43 Macedonia 54,13 Acceptable Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 15,00 65,00 37,50
44 Paraguay 54,13 Acceptable Moral Freedom 77,50 15,63 40,00 100,00 37,50
45 Jamaica 53,88 Acceptable Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 67,50 55,00 25,00
46 Cyprus 53,73 Acceptable Moral Freedom 83,88 31,25 15,00 71,00 67,50
47 Albania 53,50 Acceptable Moral Freedom 100,00 62,50 15,00 65,00 25,00
48 Bulgaria 53,33 Acceptable Moral Freedom 68,13 62,50 32,50 66,00 37,50
49 Serbia 53,13 Acceptable Moral Freedom 75,63 62,50 15,00 65,00 47,50
50 Costa Rica 53,08 Acceptable Moral Freedom 60,63 31,25 25,00 81,00 67,50
51 Iceland 52,95 Acceptable Moral Freedom 83,50 31,25 40,00 20,00 90,00
52 Moldova 52,88 Acceptable Moral Freedom 66,88 62,50 32,50 55,00 47,50
53 Russia 52,88 Acceptable Moral Freedom 51,88 62,50 67,50 35,00 47,50
54 Lithuania 52,63 Acceptable Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 7,50 55,00 47,50
55 Romania 52,00 Acceptable Moral Freedom 62,50 62,50 15,00 60,00 60,00
56 Guyana 51,83 Acceptable Moral Freedom 90,63 62,50 13,50 55,00 37,50
57 Panama 51,75 Acceptable Moral Freedom 92,50 31,25 7,50 80,00 47,50
58 Kazakhstan 51,08 Acceptable Moral Freedom 66,88 67,50 7,50 76,00 37,50
59 Cuba 50,88 Acceptable Moral Freedom 50,88 72,50 7,50 76,00 47,50
60 Japan 50,85 Acceptable Moral Freedom 95,25 52,50 24,00 35,00 47,50
61 Turkey 50,78 Acceptable Moral Freedom 45,88 72,50 15,00 73,00 47,50
62 Venezuela 50,75 Acceptable Moral Freedom 83,13 15,63 15,00 90,00 50,00
63 Mozambique 50,08 Acceptable Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 22,50 81,00 25,00
64 Poland 50,08 Acceptable Moral Freedom 68,13 31,25 15,00 81,00 55,00
65 Armenia 49,58 Insufficient Moral Freedom 51,88 67,50 15,00 76,00 37,50
66 Nepal 49,58 Insufficient Moral Freedom 89,13 62,50 22,50 55,00 18,75
67 Guinea 49,38 Insufficient Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 22,50 65,00 37,50
68 Ghana 49,00 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 31,25 22,50 60,00 31,25
69 Malawi 48,83 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 22,50 81,00 25,00
70 St. Vincent and the Grenad. 48,75 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 31,25 15,00 60,00 37,50
71 San Marino 48,43 Insufficient Moral Freedom 85,00 15,63 15,00 79,00 47,50
72 Tajikistan 48,38 Insufficient Moral Freedom 71,88 62,50 15,00 55,00 37,50
73 Seychelles 48,25 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 31,25 7,50 65,00 37,50
74 Mongolia 48,08 Insufficient Moral Freedom 71,88 62,50 13,50 55,00 37,50
75 Senegal 47,63 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 15,00 95,00 12,50
76 Ukraine 47,58 Insufficient Moral Freedom 55,38 66,25 60,00 15,00 41,25
77 Monaco 47,08 Insufficient Moral Freedom 53,13 31,25 22,50 81,00 47,50
78 Madagascar 46,70 Insufficient Moral Freedom 71,88 15,63 22,50 86,00 37,50
79 Georgia 46,63 Insufficient Moral Freedom 68,13 67,50 7,50 55,00 35,00
80 Kyrgyzstan 46,38 Insufficient Moral Freedom 53,38 62,50 15,00 76,00 25,00
81 Ivory Coast 46,33 Insufficient Moral Freedom 92,50 15,63 22,50 76,00 25,00
82 Israel 46,28 Insufficient Moral Freedom 47,88 41,25 15,00 76,00 51,25
83 Cameroon 46,25 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 31,25 15,00 60,00 25,00
84 Saint Lucia 46,25 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 31,25 7,50 55,00 37,50
85 Andorra 46,13 Insufficient Moral Freedom 77,50 15,63 22,50 55,00 60,00
86 Solomon Islands 46,13 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 22,50 55,00 37,50
87 Belarus 46,08 Insufficient Moral Freedom 57,88 62,50 7,50 55,00 47,50
88 Singapore 46,08 Insufficient Moral Freedom 66,88 72,50 7,50 36,00 47,50
89 Bahamas, The 45,88 Insufficient Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 15,00 55,00 37,50
90 Liberia 45,88 Insufficient Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 15,00 55,00 37,50
91 Gambia, The 45,80 Insufficient Moral Freedom 86,50 31,25 15,00 65,00 31,25
92 Mauritius 45,75 Insufficient Moral Freedom 90,63 15,63 15,00 60,00 47,50
93 Trinidad and Tobago 45,75 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 31,25 15,00 45,00 37,50
94 Guinea-Bissau 45,63 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 15,00 60,00 37,50
95 Suriname 45,38 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 15,00 55,00 41,25
96 Malta 45,20 Insufficient Moral Freedom 70,00 0,00 32,50 66,00 57,50
97 South Korea 44,88 Insufficient Moral Freedom 85,63 41,25 22,50 25,00 50,00
98 Laos 44,63 Insufficient Moral Freedom 71,88 31,25 22,50 60,00 37,50
99 Haiti 44,13 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 22,50 45,00 37,50
100 Zimbabwe 44,08 Insufficient Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 13,50 60,00 25,00
101 Uzbekistan 43,93 Insufficient Moral Freedom 49,63 62,50 15,00 55,00 37,50
102 Equatorial Guinea 43,88 Insufficient Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 15,00 45,00 37,50
103 Papua New Guinea 43,63 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 22,50 55,00 25,00
104 Guatemala 43,45 Insufficient Moral Freedom 75,63 15,63 22,50 66,00 37,50
105 Dominica 43,13 Insufficient Moral Freedom 100,00 15,63 7,50 55,00 37,50
106 Azerbaijan 42,68 Insufficient Moral Freedom 53,38 62,50 7,50 55,00 35,00
107 Tunisia 42,58 Insufficient Moral Freedom 27,38 62,50 15,00 83,00 25,00
108 Honduras 42,45 Insufficient Moral Freedom 75,63 15,63 15,00 81,00 25,00
109 Swaziland 41,88 Insufficient Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 15,00 60,00 12,50
110 Uganda 41,88 Insufficient Moral Freedom 75,63 31,25 22,50 55,00 25,00
111 Mali 41,55 Insufficient Moral Freedom 95,50 31,25 22,50 46,00 12,50
112 Tonga 40,75 Insufficient Moral Freedom 66,63 15,63 15,00 69,00 37,50
113 Tuvalu 40,05 Insufficient Moral Freedom 68,13 15,63 15,00 64,00 37,50
114 China 40,00 Insufficient Moral Freedom 40,00 72,50 15,00 25,00 47,50
115 Botswana 39,88 Low Moral Freedom 90,63 31,25 32,50 20,00 25,00
116 Philippines 39,63 Low Moral Freedom 92,50 15,63 15,00 25,00 50,00
117 Dominican Republic 38,90 Low Moral Freedom 77,50 0,00 13,50 66,00 37,50
118 El Salvador 37,70 Low Moral Freedom 77,50 0,00 7,50 66,00 37,50
119 Central African Republic 37,60 Low Moral Freedom 61,38 15,63 22,50 76,00 12,50
120 Kenya 37,33 Low Moral Freedom 89,13 31,25 15,00 20,00 31,25
121 Turkmenistan 36,88 Low Moral Freedom 15,88 62,50 13,50 55,00 37,50
122 Rwanda 36,58 Low Moral Freedom 70,38 31,25 7,50 55,00 18,75
123 Angola 36,50 Low Moral Freedom 71,88 15,63 15,00 55,00 25,00
124 Nicaragua 36,33 Low Moral Freedom 75,63 0,00 15,00 66,00 25,00
125 Jordan 35,88 Low Moral Freedom 34,38 31,25 57,50 25,00 31,25
126 Ethiopia 34,63 Low Moral Freedom 72,13 31,25 15,00 36,00 18,75
127 North Korea 34,50 Low Moral Freedom 37,50 62,50 15,00 20,00 37,50
128 Lebanon 33,90 Low Moral Freedom 80,13 15,63 15,00 40,00 18,75
129 Vietnam 33,88 Low Moral Freedom 51,88 62,50 15,00 5,00 35,00
130 Thailand 30,75 Low Moral Freedom 61,63 25,63 1,50 20,00 45,00
131 Djibouti 29,50 Low Moral Freedom 34,38 15,63 11,25 55,00 31,25
132 Bangladesh 28,90 Low Moral Freedom 33,88 15,63 22,50 60,00 12,50
133 Mauritania 28,73 Low Moral Freedom 20,50 15,63 22,50 60,00 25,00
134 Comoros 28,13 Low Moral Freedom 26,88 31,25 11,25 40,00 31,25
135 Nigeria 28,03 Low Moral Freedom 61,38 31,25 22,50 15,00 10,00
136 Myanmar 27,63 Low Moral Freedom 17,50 15,63 15,00 65,00 25,00
137 Morocco 27,08 Low Moral Freedom 42,88 31,25 15,00 15,00 31,25
138 Eritrea 26,80 Low Moral Freedom 41,50 31,25 15,00 15,00 31,25
139 Maldives 25,75 Low Moral Freedom 25,00 31,25 7,50 40,00 25,00
140 Malaysia 25,08 Low Moral Freedom 40,38 31,25 15,00 15,00 23,75
141 Syria 23,30 Low Moral Freedom 30,88 15,63 18,75 20,00 31,25
142 Somalia 22,25 Low Moral Freedom 34,38 15,63 15,00 15,00 31,25
143 Libya 22,00 Low Moral Freedom 25,00 31,25 22,50 0,00 31,25
144 Sri Lanka 21,90 Low Moral Freedom 38,88 15,63 15,00 15,00 25,00
145 Bahrain 21,63 Low Moral Freedom 16,88 67,50 11,25 0,00 12,50
146 Indonesia 21,43 Low Moral Freedom 20,88 31,25 22,50 0,00 32,50
147 Sudan 21,43 Low Moral Freedom 13,38 31,25 22,50 15,00 25,00
148 Algeria 20,63 Low Moral Freedom 30,63 31,25 15,00 20,00 6,25
149 Oman 20,63 Low Moral Freedom 43,13 31,25 22,50 0,00 6,25
150 Brunei 18,75 Very Low Moral Freedom 26,88 15,63 11,25 15,00 25,00
151 Pakistan 18,05 Very Low Moral Freedom 14,00 31,25 22,50 0,00 22,50
152 Afghanistan 16,88 Very Low Moral Freedom 25,00 15,63 18,75 0,00 25,00
153 Egypt 16,88 Very Low Moral Freedom 25,00 15,63 22,50 15,00 6,25
154 Iran 16,63 Very Low Moral Freedom 0,00 35,63 25,00 0,00 22,50
155 Kuwait 15,93 Very Low Moral Freedom 33,38 31,25 15,00 0,00 0,00
156 Qatar 15,63 Very Low Moral Freedom 31,88 31,25 15,00 0,00 0,00
157 United Arab Emirates 15,38 Very Low Moral Freedom 25,88 31,25 13,50 0,00 6,25
158 Iraq 13,00 Very Low Moral Freedom 34,38 15,63 15,00 0,00 0,00
159 Yemen 11,23 Very Low Moral Freedom 18,00 15,63 22,50 0,00 0,00
160 Saudi Arabia 7,75 Lowest Moral Freedom 0,00 31,25 7,50 0,00 0,00

Reception[edit]

In Portugal and, to a lesser extent, in Spain, many mainstream media and a number of other online media reported on the World Index of Moral Freedom 2016. All in all, just over ninety media carried the story.[2] Generally speaking, reception was positive in Portugal and both positive and negative in Spain. The following are some of the main media carrying the story:

  • Expresso (Portugal, mainstream news magazine), "Portugal é o terceiro país com mais liberdade moral do mundo" (Portugal is the third country in the world with the highest moral freedom). Positive reception.[3] A similar news story, as disseminated by news agencies, was also carried by TVI24 television outlet and regional newspapers like Diário de Notícias de Madeira, Açoriano Oriental, Algarve Notícias and others. Some media in other Portuguese speaking countries also reproduced the story, like Bissau Resiste (Guinea Bissau) or Awure news portal (Brazil). The story was published in Tetum language by East Timor news blog Timor Agora.[4]
  • Cuatro (Spain, mainstream TV outlet), "España, sexto país del mundo en libertad moral" (Spain, sixth country in the world in terms of moral freedom). Positive reception.[5] A similar story, as disseminated by news agencies, was also reproduced by mainstream newspapers La Vanguardia (Barcelona), El Español (Madrid), El Día (Tenerife) or El Economista (Madrid), to mention but a few. The same story was also carried by major TV outlet Telecinco.
  • Actuall (Spain, large catholic online newspaper), "Drogas, prostitución, pornografía… España, a la cabeza mundial en ‘corrupción’ moral" (Drugs, prostitution, pornography... Spain is a world leader in moral corruption). Negative reception.[6]
  • Diario de Sevilla (Spain, regional newspaper), "Paradójica España" (Paradoxal Spain). Negative mention.[7]
  • Radio Inter (Spain, nationwide radio station), news report on the World Index of Moral Freedom, broadcast on April 21, 2016.[8]
  • Stiri.com.ro (Romania, news portal), "Indexul Mondial al Libertatii Morale a fost publicat" (World Index of Moral Freedom published).[9]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

External links[edit]

World Index of Moral Freedom (WIMF) 2016, published by the Foundation for the Advancement of Liberty, Madrid, Spain, on April 2, 2016.