World Malaria Day
|World Malaria Day|
|Observed by||All Member States of the World Health Organization|
|Next time||25 April 2018|
World Malaria Day (WMD) is an international observance commemorated every year on 25 April and recognizes global efforts to control malaria. Globally, 3.3 billion people in 106 countries are at risk of malaria. In 2012, malaria caused an estimated 627,000 deaths, mostly among African children. Asia, Latin America, and to a lesser extent the Middle East and parts of Europe are also affected.
World Malaria Day sprung out of the efforts taking place across the African continent to commemorate Africa Malaria Day. WMD is one of eight official global public health campaigns currently marked by the World Health Organization (WHO), along with World Health Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Immunization Week, World Tuberculosis Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Hepatitis Day and World AIDS Day.
According to the most recent World Malaria Report, the global tally of malaria reached 429,000 malaria deaths and 212 million new cases in 2015. The rate of new malaria cases fell by 21 per cent globally between 2010 and 2015, and malaria death rates fell by 29 per cent in the same period. In sub-Saharan Africa, case incidence and death rates fell by 21 per cent and 31 per cent, respectively.
World Malaria Day was established in May 2007 by the 60th session of the World Health Assembly, WHO's decision-making body. The day was established to provide "education and understanding of malaria" and spread information on "year-long intensified implementation of national malaria-control strategies, including community-based activities for malaria prevention and treatment in endemic areas."
Prior to the establishment of WMD, Africa Malaria Day was held on April 25. Africa Malaria Day began in 2001, one year after the historic Abuja Declaration was signed by 44 malaria-endemic countries at the African Summit on Malaria.
World Malaria Day allows for corporations (such as ExxonMobil), multinational organizations (such as Malaria No More) and grassroots organizations (such as Mosquitoes Suck Tour) globally to work together to bring awareness to malaria and advocate for policy changes.
Each World Malaria Day focuses on a specific theme. Current and past themes include the following:
- World Malaria Day 2017 - "Malaria prevention: let’s close the gap"
- World Malaria Day 2016 - "End Malaria For Good"
- World Malaria Day 2013-2014-2015 - "Invest in the future: defeat malaria"
- World Malaria Day 2012 - "Sustain Gains, Save Lives: Invest in Malaria"
- World Malaria Day 2011 - "Achieving Progress and Impact"
- World Malaria Day 2009-2010 - "Counting malaria out"
- World Malaria Day 2008 - "Malaria: a disease without borders"
Leading to World Malaria Day 2014, the European Vaccine Initiative announced sixteen new projects for the acceleration of malaria vaccine development. The projects were to be undertaken by an international consortium involving partners from the public and private sectors from Europe, USA and Africa.
For World Malaria Day 2017, efforts across India included a series of measures to control the spread of this vector-borne disease. The coastal city of Mangaluru identified open water resources to target for eliminating mosquitos that spread malaria.
Events marking World Malaria Day 2014 in Nigeria included a demonstration of anti-malarial bed nets, testing and distribution of anti-malarial drugs, seminars on progress in combating and controlling malaria, and the inclusion of African footballers in the campaign to combat malaria.
As of 2016, the Federal Ministry of Health has pledged to end Malaria. The U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria, James F. Entwistle, has pledged continued support and noted the possibility of ending Malaria in Nigeria.
April 25 was designated as Malaria Awareness Day in 2007 by President George W. Bush, who called on Americans to join in on the goal to eradicate malaria on the African continent. President Bush described it as a day when "we focus our attention on all who suffer from this terrible disease -- especially the millions on the continent of Africa. We remember the millions more who died from this entirely preventable and treatable disease." President Bush shared the White House's strategic plan against malaria, which included endeavors to distribute bed nets with the New York-based nonprofit group Malaria No More.
Other former U.S. Presidents are involved in anti-malaria efforts. Former President Bill Clinton's Clinton Foundation includes an anti-malaria component that, according to director Inder Singh has distributed anti-malaria drugs to millions in Africa and Asia.
Many prominent companies, organizations, and celebrities have declared initiatives to join the fight against malaria to mark this day. These include a $3 million "challenge grant" announced by ExxonMobil to match donations dollar by dollar to Malaria No More, as part of the "Idol Gives Back" episodes of American Idol, which was aired on Malaria Awareness Day. Major League Soccer Commissioner Don Garber also announced that the league would promote malaria awareness and bed net fundraising promotions in the month of April leading up to Malaria Awareness Day. Actress Ashley Judd, announced the April launch of a new initiative called “5 & Alive,” which will focus on the devastating effects of malaria on children under 5. The Boys & Girls Clubs of America announced their own national campaign called "Malaria Prevention: Deadly Disease. Simple Solution", which will partner with Malaria No More to approach all 4.7 Million Club members worldwide to ask for $10 bed net donations.
The movement is not without its critics, such as the African economist Dambisa Moyo who warns that the short term benefits of aid such as mosquito nets can have long term detrimental effects to the sustainability of African economies. When the markets are flooded with foreign nets then this puts African entrepreneurs out of business.
- World Health Organization,World Malaria Report 2010.
- World Health Organization, Malaria. WHO Fact sheet N°94, updated March 2014. Accessed 8 April 2014.
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- Jatinder, Kaur. "World Malaria Day Asks Malaria Prevention" (Online). ABC Live. ABC Live. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- WHA Resolution 60.18
- Africa Malaria Days 2001-2007
- African Summit on Roll Back Malaria, Abuja Declaration. Abuja, 25 April 2000.
- African Malaria Summit
- ExxonMobil, Commemorating World Malaria Day 2013.
- Malaria No More UK, World Malaria Day.
- Malaria Community, World Malaria Day.
- World Malaria Day 2016 web site
- World Malaria Day 2013-2015 web site
- World Malaria Day 2012 web site
- World Malaria Day 2011 web site
- World Malaria Day 2009-2010 web site
- World Malaria Day 2008 web site
- European Vaccine Initiative. World Malaria Day 2014: New vaccine candidates against malaria enter clinical development. 22 April 2014. Accessed 7 October 2014.
- Times of India, "World Malaria Day: Statistics indicate dip in Mangaluru cases," Apr 25, 2017 (accessed Apr 25, 2017).
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- BEP grad Inder Singh orchestrates affordable malaria drug development, Harvard-MIT Health Sciences.
- Malaria No More. Run up to April 25, the First Malaria Awareness Day in the US. 29 March 2007.
- World Malaria Day website
- Roll Back Malaria Partnership - World Malaria Day
- MALARIA.com - World Malaria Day
- WHO Global Malaria Programme
- The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
- Mosquitoes Suck Tour
- Malaria No More
- Malaria Awareness Day, 2007 Proclamation by U.S. President George W. Bush
- President's Malaria Initiative
- One Net One Family